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• 1.Recall the basic concepts, principles, and
keypoints about historical, legal, ethical and
philosophical foundations of education.
• 2.Identify Western and Eastern philosophies that
influence the Philippine education.
• 3.Balance rights and authority; responsibility and
• 4.Apply ethical principles involving teaching as a
profession and teacher’s relationships with
various groups of people.
Content Coverage

• Content Coverage
• 1.Historical Foundation of Education
• 2.Legal Foundation of Education
• 3.Philosophical Foundation of Education
• 4.Ethical Foundation of Education

• Enculturation - The process of passing

characteristics and cultural practices upon
• Acculturation - The process of learning other
culture through experience and interaction
• Indoctrination - The process of imposing,
dictating practices to the young
• Conformity - Fitting the individual to his
physical and social environment through passing
practices proven effective by previous

• Imitation - A more organized aspect of early education where

boys and girls in the clan under the direction of the elders went
through different stages of preparation to achieve full tribal
• Conscious imitation- awareness of what was being taught
• Unconscious imitation-occurs when children learn certain skills
through duplication of adult activities with little awareness
• Practical Education - A simple form of learning skills
such as domestic, vocational, and physical
• Theoretical Education - Learning higher forms of learning which
covered religion, values, and social knowledge
• Education for Survival - Satisfying the basic needs of man
Ancient Period

• Primitive Education
• Its aim was to satisfy survival needs
• Conforms to tribal practices
• Absence of reading and writing
• Informal education
• Training was done thru indoctrination,
enculturation and observation
• Family was the source of education
• Domestic and vocational skills were
taught by parents
Ancient Period

• Chinese Education
• Chinese education aimed at selecting
and training people for public service, thus
it put emphasis on the molding of a
person’s character and the inculcation of
ethical and moral values.
• To promote its focus on ethical
teachings, Chinese education centered on
mastery of the Chinese language and on
classical literature, particularly the works
of Confucius.
Ancient Period

• Hindu Education
• The educational system of the Hindus was in
accordance with the specific class in the caste system to
which an individual belonged.
• Those who belonged to the higher class received
formal schooling.
• The purpose of education was to prepare young men
for their religious and social duties later in life, the
women and members of the lower classes were given
only informal instructions at home under the tutelage and
supervision of their parents or older relatives.
• Started religious education and influenced the
concepts of morality and values
Ancient Period

• Jewish Education
• Jewish education was religious in nature.
• Home was the lone agency for learning
• Its goal was to prepare men to know God and
to live peacefully among their fellows.
• Children received instructions from their
parents in their homes.
• Instruction was individualized.
• Memorization was done to lessen the chance
of the student forgetting the lesson.
• Churches were opened for classes.
• Made a religion a separate subject.
Ancient Period

• Egyptian Education
• Egyptian education was highly practical and
empirical. Egyptians studied only subjects that
could be applied to daily lives.
• They provided the modern world with the basic
foundations of education, art, music, literature,
mathematics, engineering, architecture,
astronomy, geography, geology and medicine.
• Curriculum offered 3 Rs.
• The art of embalment of the dead was inspired
by their mummification.
• Heiroglyphics, system of writing, was
Ancient Period
• Greek Education
• Spartan Education
• Spartans did not give so much importance to the family
for they believed that maintaining a home would divide
the individual’s attention, thus hindering him from giving
his full attention, commitment, dedication, and service to
the country. Punishment was severe for those who failed
to show these moral traits.
• Practical training through physical exercises.
• Athenian Education
• The ultimate goal was the Latin expression: “mens
sana in corpore sano” – sound mind in a sound body
• Athens implemented a democratic and free society.
• Social, civic, moral and religious training were
Ancient Period
• Roman Education
• Roman education was characterized as being largely
moral while discipline was rigorous and severe.
Emphasis was on the development of a good citizen so
studies centered on politics, the law, and oratory.
• At first, education was carried out largely in the home
and schooling was purely through apprenticeship and
hands-on training. The father taught his sons the duties,
rights, and obligations of man, while the mother trained
her daughters to carry out their household chores and
religious duties.
• Principle of individual differences was applied.
Medieval Period

• Early Christian Education

• Aim was spiritual/moral regeneration of
the individual
• Heavy discussion of church doctrine
• Used methods such as conversation,
meditation, and parable methods
• Sectarian schools were guided by the
theories of early Christian education
Medieval Period

• Monastic Education
• Aimed for the salvation of the individual soul
• Intellectual training was offered.
• Religious activities were introduced.
• Education was a religious discipline.
• Education was based on monastic vows of poverty,
chastity and obedience.
• Inclusion of manual training in the curriculum
• Colleges and universities including catechetical
schools and seminaries were opened.
• Became the basis of religious theological teachings
Medieval Period

• Scholastic Education
• Aimed at supporting the doctrines of the
church through rational argument
• Education was intellectual discipline.
• Gave rise to logical reasoning through verbal
and written activities
• Inclusion of humanities, philosophy and
theology in the curriculum
• Methods used were lecture, logical analysis,
and debate.
• Major proponent was St. Thomas Aquinas
Medieval Period

• Chivalric Education
• Aimed at inculcating gallantry; protect the weak, the
women and the children
• Education was a social discipline.
• Vows: protect the women and the poor; defend the
church and the state; attack the wicked; and, shed blood
for the sake of his country and his compatriots.
• Religious lessons and activities dominated school
• Made social etiquette the most important aspect in the
• Military and physical trainings were introduced.
• Became the basis of Christian living, values education,
good manners and right conduct lessons
Medieval Period

• Guild Education
• Aimed at preparing the children for commerce and industry.
• Education for the middle class.
• Education was made practical.
• Vocational and technical education was the foci of the curriculum.
• Reading, writing and arithmetic were heavy.
• Made use of a lot of memorization, catechetical method,
observation, and apprenticeship
• Merchant guilds were composed of businessmen.
• Crafts guilds were composed of skilled workers.
• Stages:
• Apprentice- a trainee assigned to a master
• Journeyman- a trainee who travels from place to place and is paid
for his labor.
• Master Craftsman- a full-pledged member of a guild.
Medieval Period

• Saracenic Education
• Aim was the application of the scientific facts
and development of individual initiatives and
social welfare
• Included Koran in the daily lessons
• Made use of scientific methods of teaching
• Produced doctors of medicine, chemists,
engineers, teachers, etc.
• More schools of sciences were opened.
• Medieval Conception of Education
1. Educational During the Pre-Spanish
• Aim: Educational for survival, conformity, and enculturation
• Features:
• Educational was informal, incidental, unstructured
• Formal instruction began in home through apprenticeship
• Human learning resulting from individual experiences
• Had a system of counting, weighing, measuring and coinage
• Devised a calendar through their knowledge of astronomy
• Practical education included domestic chores and skills in hunting, fishing, farming,
• Theoretical education included moral, spiritual, laws, code, worship ,etc.
• Every home was a school
• Teachers were parents and tribal heads

• Implications:

• Methods used then are still being practiced to date; tell me and show me,
observation, imitation, trial and error, repetition
• Skills taught to the children are still part of the present curriculum; home chores and
fishing, agriculture, etc.
2. Education during the Spanish Period
• Aim: Promote Christianity
• Features:
• Education left to religious orders
• Formal education done in parochial schools
• Beaterios, colegios and seminaries were used for secondary education
• Corporal punishment was applied
• Course of study included reading and writing alphabet
• Vernacular used as medium of instruction
• Spanish was taught only to selected pupils
• First Education Act of 1863 promulgated with the following provisions:(a) complete system of
education; (b) free public school education; (c) reorganization of curriculum; and, (d) government
supervision and control of schools
• Subjects include reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, history, Christian doctrine, Spanish and
vocal music
• Agriculture was taught to boys
• Needle work was taught to girls
• Attendance was compulsary.

• Implications:

• The provisions of the Education Act of 1863 became the basis of our present educational
• The subjects offered are mostly the same with those in our present curriculum
• Opened the first and one of the best universities in the Philippines (UST)
• Started exclusive schools for boys/and for girls which are still observed today.
3. Education During the American Period
• Aim: Promote democratic ideas and way of life
• Features:
• Total changed in the educational concepts introduced by the Spaniards
• Education was free and universal
• First public schools were established by the US Army
• Instruction was done in Spanish by Filipino teachers, and English done by American
soldiers (Thomasites)
• Education was controlled by the state, not by religious orders
• Citizenship training for adults enforced
• Democratic ways of teaching used
• Supervision of schools more of guidance and consultation
• Passage of Education Act 1901 was opened first normal school
• Approval of Act nos. 3162 and 3196 which made possible for the conduct of Monroe
Survey Educational provisions of 1935

• Implications:
• The present educational set up was patterned after the American system of
• Education Act 1901 laid the foundation or our present public education
• The provisions of Act no. 2959 established criteria for selecting and adopting
textbooks for the public schools are still being observed
• The recommendation by James Monroe in his Monroe Doctrine resulted to
educational reforms particularly on methods and techniques of teaching and learning.
• Tremendous increase in enrollment
4.Education during the Commonwealth
Period (1935-1942)
• Aim: Reorientation of educational policies as well as provisions of 1935
• Features:
• Reduction of educational plans and policies of the 1935 Constitution
• Carried out the mandates of the constitution
• Revision of the elementary and secondary schools curricula
• Emphasized character education and citizenship training
• Vocational subjects were offered in the general secondary course
• Passage of Education Act 1940 (Commonwealth Act no 586)
• The Vice President of the country served currently as the Secretary of the
Department of the Education

• Implications:
• Some revisions occurred in the field of education are still being observed
• Citizenship training and character education (Values Education) are still
offered in the present curriculum
• Education Act of 1940 provided for the complete revisions of the
elementary schools system.
• Methods utilizes then such as debate/social gaming/socialized recitation are
still being used
5.Education During the Japanese Period
• Aim: Eradicate the idea of reliance from western nations
• Features:
• Clarified the positions of the Philippines as a manner of East Asia co-prosperity
sphere (a Japanese versions of America’s Monroe Doctrine)
• Eradicated the reliance upon western countries
• Gave up over the emphasis on materialism
• Terminated the use of English
• Inculcated the spirit of love for labor
• Training on vocational, technical, and agriculture done formally in schools
• Curricular content centered on values
• Used nippongo/nihongo as medium instruction
• Taught physical education and the singing of the Japanese songs
• Informed the people that the soverenity of the United States over the Philippines
was over and that martial law was to reign
• Made the Philippines a member of the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere

• Implications:
• Inclusion of physical education in the curriculum
• Inclusion of vocal music is also being done now
• Opening of schools for vocational and technical courses\
• Agricultural schools were also opened
6.Education During the Republic
• Aim: Full realization of the democratic idea’s and way of life
• Features:
• Department of Education was named as one of the executive department
directly under the Office of the President
• Department was headed by a secretary assisted by the under
• Revised administrative code vested in the department the supervisions of
the following:
• Bureau of the Public Schools, Bureau of the Private Schools, Bureau of
National Language
• Philippine Historical Committee
• Creations of Republic Act 1123 provided to :
• Board of National education as the highest policy making body of the
• RA no 869 known as Elementary Act of 1953; that every parents to enroll
a child of age to finish elementary education
• Revisions of the Elementary education curriculum of 1957 to emphasize
skills development and proper attitude for work
• Reduction of class enrolment to 40 class
• Use of vernacular as medium of instruction in Grades I and II in all schools
• Use of English as medium of instruction from Grade III to VI
6.Education During the Republic
• Revisions of the secondary curriculum which consisted of:
• General education for 1st and 2nd year
• Differentiated curriculum for 3rd and 4th year
• Provision of a guidance program in every secondary school
• Provision of adult education
• Formation of the Presidential Commission to survey Philippine Education (PCSPE)
to determine how to structure the Philippine Educational System to meet the
demands of society

• Implications:
• Most of the provisions of the laws created in this period are good until now.
• Most of the practices then are still being applied until now.
• Creation of the Board Textbooks
• Return to one class one teacher ratio in the primary; three teachers to two
classes/five teachers to three classes in the intermediate
• Compulsory elementary education
• Entrance age at 7 years old
• Creation of the Board of National Education (BNE)
• Daily flag ceremony in all schools including the singing of the National Anthem
• Teaching of Jose Rizal’s life, work and writing in all levels
• Nationalization of elementary education and abolition of tuition fees
• Enactment of (RA 4670) Magna Carta for Public Schools Teachers
• Created special Education Fund and Local Schools Board (LSB)
• Rise of Barrio High Schools
7.Education During the New Society (1972-
• Aim: Education changed for national development ( education Act 1982)

• Achieved and maintain development and accelerating rate of economic

development and social progress
• Assure maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and
enjoyment of the benefits of such growth
• Achieved and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve,
develop, and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in a
changing world

• Features:
• Curricular changes in elementary education
• Education Act 1982, a measure to maintain quality education
• Voluntary accreditation recognition of education institutions possessing
certain standards of quality of excellence
• Emphasized basic education (3RS)
• Values integration in all subjects areas
• Introduced mastery in Secondary Education
• Curricular changes in Secondary Education
• Longer time allotment
• Introduced YDT and CAT
• Offering of elective courses
7.Education During the New Society (1972-
• Gave way to varied educational programs:
• Instructional Management by parents, community, ad teacher (IMPACT)
• In School, Off School Approach (ISOSA)
• Continuous Progression Scheme (CPS)
• Program for Decentralized Education development (PRODED)
• National College Entrance Examination (NCEE)
• National elementary Assessment Test for Grade VI (NEAT)
• National Secondary Assessment Test which replaced NCEE (NSAT)
• Decentralization of the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports
• Decision-making is shared by the 13 DECS regional offices
• Adaptation of the acronym, PLEDGES as National direction/goals-which stands for:
– Peace and Order
– Liberty
– Economic development
– Development of moral values
– Government reorganization
– Employment and man power development
– Social services
• Breau of Private Schools, and Bureau of Vocational Schools. The functions of these Bureaus
were assumed by 3 newly created bureaus namely:
• Bureau of Elementary Education
• Bureau of Secondary Education
• Bureau of Higher Education
• Implications;
• Massive reforms made in education are still being observed
• The creations of the Bureau of Elementary Education, secondary education and Higher Education
facilities the formulation and evaluation of program for each bureau.
8.Education During the Aquino
• Aim: Improve the delivery of educational services to the people
• Features:
• Changes in the government instituted
• Reviewed the progress and problems in educational system
• Revisions of the curriculum
• Emphasis given to values education, non formal, continuing and adult
• More improved technical and vocational programs
• Ratification of the 1987 constitution on February 2, 1987 which focused on
eradication of illiteracy
• Reorganization in the Ministry of education Culture, and Sports (MECS)
• MECS renamed as Department of Education , Culture, and Sports on
January 30, 1987

• Implications:
• Retention of the name DECS
• Education given the lion share of budget
• Values education offered as a subject in the secondary schools
• Full implementation of 1987 Constitution
9.Education During the Ramos
• Aim: Recognized education system refocused DECS mandate to improve
the quality of basic education
• Provided several educational legislation in response to the result of study
conducted by the Congressional Commission on education (EDCOM)
• Republic Act 7722 of 1994 creating the commission on Higher Education
• Republic Act 7796 of 1994 creating the Technical Education and Skills
development Authority (TESDA)
• TESDA made to administer post secondary and middle-level manpower
• TESDA took over the function of the former Bureau of Vocational and
Technical Education and Non Formal Education

• Implications:

• CHED supervises higher education

• TESDA supervises vocational and technical education
10.Education during the Estrada
• Aim: Provided educational reforms
• Features:
• Issuance of Executive Order No. 46 which established the Presidential
Commission on education Reform (PCER)
• Forwarded recommendation such as:
• Adequate teaching materials, textbooks, and science technology
• Credit and incentives schemes for private schools
• National government revenue generation scheme for education
• Linkage with industry
• Competence-based education
• Alternative action scheme for underserved areas
• Curriculum reform
• Reform used shutdown even before they were implemented, as the
Estrada administration was cut short

• Implications: Some of the recommendations of the PCER are still being

• Aim: Transformed DECS to Department of Education (DepEd) by Republic
Act 9155
• Redefined the role of field offices (Regional, divisions, district offices and
• RA 9155 provided the overall framework for school heads
• Implementation of the new Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) both in the
elementary and secondary levels
• Issued and mandated all graduating elementary pupils by March 2004 to
take the High Schools Readiness Test (HSRT) before admission to high
• HSRT covers competencies in English, Science, and Mathematics
• A voluntary one year Bridge Program for students who g=failed in the
• reengineered organizational structure
• Department organized 2 major structure components- Central and Field
• Four undersecretaries and four assistant secretaries
11.Education during the Arroyo
• Implications:

• CHED is the governing body of both public and private higher education
• Mandated to promote quality education
• Took steps to ensure that education is accessible to all
• Ensured and protected academic freedom for continuing intellectual growth
• Advancement of learning an research effective leadership
• Development of responsible and effective leadership
• Education of high level professionals
• Enrichment of historical and culture heritage
• Future directions for the Philippine ‘’Education For All’’ (EFA)
• Mandated by Presidential proclamation 480 whose vision is anchored on
humanitarianism and equalitarianism.
• The components of EFA:
• Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD)
• Universal Quality of Primary Education (UQPE)
• Eradication Quality of Illiteracy (EOI)
• Continuing Education (CE)
1987 Constitution of the Philippines
• Article XIV: Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
• Sec. 1: Provides that the state shall protect and promote the rights of
all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps
to make such education accessible to all.
• Sec. 2: Stipulates:
• Maintenance of free public elementary education system;
• Provision of RA 6655 (Free Public Secondary Education)
• Adoption of govt scholarship programs:
• SNPLP – Study Now Pay later Plan
• PESFA- Private Education Student Financial Assistance Program
• Establishment of non-formal education and indigenous learning systems;
• Non-formal Education covers agriculture, fishery, commercial as well as
home making and home industries.
• Indigenous learning includes methods used by cultural communities to
preserve traditions
• Provision of Special Education (SPEd) and Adult Education;
• Special Education is a program designed to meet the educational needs of
learners who deviate from the normal classroom setting.
• Adult Education provides training in civics, vocational efficiency and other
skills to adult citizens, disabled persons and out-of-school youth.
1987 Constitution of the Philippines
• Mandated that religion shall be taught on optional bases in public
• Inclusion of the study of the Constitution in the curriculum;
• Control of all public schools by the state through DepEd
• Number of foreign students in any school shall not exceed 33% of
the total population;
• Tax exemption of all assets of non-stock, non-profit educational
• Academic freedom (includes admission of students, teachers,
subjects of study, and research) shall be enjoyed;
• Right of every citizen to select a profession/course of study, etc.
• Enhance the right of teachers to academic advancement;
• The highest budgetary allocation is assigned to education
B.Education Act of 1982 or Batas Pambansa
Blg. 232
• Provides:
• Establishment and maintenance of integrated system
of education;
• Apply to and govern both formal and non-formal
systems of public and private schools in all levels;

• Provisions are:
• Maintain an accelerating rate of economic
development and social progress;
• Achieve maximum participation of all Filipinos in
attaining and enjoying the benefits of such growth;
• Strengthen national unity and consciousness and
preserve, develop, and promote desirable cultural, moral
and spiritual values
• R.A. No. 7784 - Provides the establishment of
Center of Excellence in Teacher Education and
the Creation of the Teachers Education Council
• Approved on August 4, 1944
• For a teacher education institution to become a
center of Excellence must possess:
• Highly qualified and experienced faculty;
• Well-selected students;
• Adequate library, research and study facilities;
• Competent and administrative staff
• R.A. No. 8545 - Provides Government
Assistance to Private Education (GAsPE).
• Approved on February 28, 1998
• R.A. No. 8491- Flag and Heraldic Codes of the

• Enacted on February 12, 1998

• Provides that reverences and respect shall be accorded the flag, the anthem, and
other symbol which embody the national ideals and traditions.
• The National Flag shall be hoisted day and night throughout the year in front of
the following at:
• Malacanang Palace
• Congress of the Philippines building
• Supreme Court building
• Rizal Monument in Luneta, Manila
• Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite
• Barasoain Shrine in Malolos, bulacan
• Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers
• Libingan ng mga Bayani
• All International Ports of Entry
• R.A. No. 8491- Flag and Heraldic Codes of the

• Section 24: Prohibits and penalizes the following acts of the national flag:
• Deface, trample or any cast attempt upon the flag or over its surface;
• To raise the flag as drapery or table cloth, as a covering for ceilings, walls,
statues, etc. and trademarks for commercial or industrial buildings
• To display the flag under any painting or picture, and in cockpits, night and day
clubs, casinos,
• To wear the flag as part of costume or uniform
• To add any word, figure, mark, picture, design, etc.
• 1.R.A. No. 6728- Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private
• 2.R.A. No. 7722- Creating Commission on Higher Education (CHEd)
• 3.R.A. No. 7784- Act Strengthening Teacher Education in the Philippines establishing
Centers of Excellence
• 4.R.A. No. 7796- Act creating TESDA
• 5.R.A. No. 7836- Philippine Professionalization Act of 1994
• 6.R.A. No. 4670- Magna Carta for Public School Teachers
• 7.R.A. No. 8187- Paternity Leave Act of 1996
• 8.R.A. No. 7192- An Act promoting the Integration of Women as Full Equal Partners
of Men in Development and Nation Building for other Purposes
• 9.R.A. No. 578- Confers the status of persons in authority upon teachers, principals
and professors
• 10.R.A. No. 6655- Nationalization of the Public Secondary School: free from payment
of tuition fees
• 11.R.A. No. 4090- State scholarships in Science, Arts and Letters for Poor but
Deserving Students
• 12.R.A. No. 5447- Creation of Special Education Fund Act
• 13.R.A. No. 6139- Regulated the Sectarian schools/private schools in charging higher
tuition fees
• 14.R.A. No. 5698- Creation of Legal Education Board to improve the quality of law
• R.A. No. 7743- Establishment of city and municipal libraries
• 16.R.A. No. 7880- An Act providing for the fair and equitable allocation of
DECS’ budget for Capital Outlay
• 17.R.A. No. 8292- Higher Education Modernization Act of 1997
• 18.R.A. No. 8190- Granting priority to residents of the barangay,
municipality or city where the school is located, in the assignment of
classroom public school teachers as long as they possess all the minimum
• 19.R.A. No. 8445- Expanded Government Assistance to Students and
Teachers in Private Education Act
• 20.R.A. No. 8525- Establishing ‘Adopt-A-School Program’
• 21.R.A. No. 7877- Anti Sexual Harassment Act
• 22.R.A. No. 2706- Private School Law
• 23.R. A. No. 7079- Campus Journalism Act of 1991
• 24.R.A. No. 7356- Creating the NCCA
• 25.R.A. No. 7610- Anti Child Abuse Law
• 26.R.A. No. 7731- Implementation of NCEE
• 27.R.A. No. 9155- Renaming DECS as DepEd
• 28.R.A. No. 9710- Magna Carrta for Women
• 29.Educational Assistance Act of 1976- Study Now Pay Later Plan
• PD #176- Ownership, Control and Administration od Educational Institutions
G.DepEd Memos & Orders
• 1.DECS Order #25 s. 1974- Bilingual Education Policy
• 2.DECS Order # 52 s. 1987-mandates the use of the regional language as
an auxiliary medium of instruction
• 3.DepEd Memo #471- Observance of the 108th Anniversary of Rizal’s
• 4.DepEd #25 s. 2002- Implementation of BEC in all public schools during
• 5.DepEd Order #4 s 2004- Additional Guidelines on the New Performance-
Based Grading System
• 6.DepEd Order # 9 s. 2004- Guidelines in the Selection of Honor
Pupils/Students in Public Schools
• 7.DECS Order # 80 s. 1993- Revised Grading Policies and Procedures for
Elementary and Secondary Schools
• 8.DepEd Order #5 s. 2004- Eligibility of Remedial Instruction Classes for
Grant of Vacation Service Credits
• 9.DepEd Order #10 s. 2004- Implementation of the Enhanced Eight-Week
Early Childhood Experiences (ECE) for Grade 1
• 10.DECS Order #27 s. 1995- Modifying the policy prohibiting the Collection
of Contributions from Public School Students
• DECS Order #1 s. 1993/R.A. No. 7791- Increase in number of class days
from 185 to 200
• R.A. 10533 – K to 12
• R.A. 10157 – Kindergarten Act
• R.A. 10627 – Anti Bullying Act of 2013
• R.A. 10912 – CPD Law
• R.A. 10931 – Universal Access to Free
Tertiary Education
• The Policy Guidelines on Classroom
Assessment for the K to 12 Basic
Education Program issued through DepEd
Order (DO) No. 8, s. 2015
Philosophy comes from Greek words: philo which means love
and sophia meaning wisdom
• OPhilosophy is a systematic and logical examination of life to frame
a system of general ideas of which the sum total of human
experience may be evaluated.
• OAccording to William James, philosophy is an attempt to think
• OAccording to John Dewey, it is a general theory of education.
• OAn intellectual base that supports educational practices
• OProvides a basis of what the teacher is doing
• OApplication of theories to classroom situations
• OA basis of curriculum existence
• OGuiding spirit or principle which serves as the very foundation of
educational system
Two General Classifications of Philosophy

• Western Philosophy
• Classical/Traditional or Conventional views
which influence modern education
• Originated from France, Italy, American , Greece
and Germany
• Idealism
• Reality is spirit.
• Universe is made up of infinite mind/spirit.
• Knowing takes place in the mind.
• Man can know intuitively through reasons.
• Proponents are Plato and Erasmus
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy

– Idealism in Education
– oIdealists claim that education must provide for the
development mind of every pupil, and in order to realize this,
the school must concentrate on intellectual, moral, judgment,
and aesthetic development of students.
– oThis they contend should only be made possible through a
subject matter-centered curriculum.
– oAim: develop the mind and the self
– oCurriculum: Lessons necessary for mental and moral
– oTeaching: Teachers are role models of
intellectual/moral/aesthetic and vocational excellence;
students are passive.
– oMethods: provision for thinking/reasoning; moral evaluation
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy

The world is real and material.
Knowledge is derived from sense experience.
Advocates that education should be concerned with
realities of life and prepare a person for his/her duties
in life.
Anything consistent with nature is valuable.
Standards of value are determined by reason.
Proponents: Aristotle, John Milton, Comenius, Francis
Bacon, etc.
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy
Realism in Education

oRealists advocate that education should be concerned with the realities of life
and should prepare a person for his/her duties in life.
oHumanistic Realism aims to secure a knowledge of human society and its
institutions, of nature and of man’s reactions to nature. Major Proponent:
John Milton
oSocial Realism gives importance of traveling to allow one to interact with
people from all walks of life; places emphasis on the study of foreign
languages. Major Proponent: Michel de Montaigne
oAim: prepare students to survive in the world
oCurriculum: Math and Science
oTeaching: lessons related to true-to-life experiences; students learn factual
info; schools perceive change as natural evaluation toward perfection of
oMethods: scientific processes, experimentation, probing, comparison,
interpretation, mastery of content and actual use in real life
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy
The meaning lies in its practical consequence.
Learner must be made the center of educative process.
Education is life; growth, a social process; and the construction of human experience.
Man can know nothing beyond his experience.
Experience determines knowledge.
Pragmatism/Experimentalism in Education
oPragmatists stress that education is in vain if it does not perform the social functions
assigned to it.
oThey claim that the society cannot fulfill the educational task without an institution
designed for this purpose.
oThey concerned the total development of the child through experiencing or learning by
oAim: Develop thinking individuals to be able to adjust to an ever-changing world.
oCurriculum: Individual’s social function
oTeaching: Learning by doing, individual/group experiential learning
oProponents: John Dewey, Charles Pierce, William James
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy

• Perennialism
• Derived from the world perennial which means everlasting
• Ideas lasted over centuries and are still relevant today, should be the foci of
• Asserts the reality is a world of reasons
• Some truths are revealed through study and sometimes through divine acts.
• Goodness is to be found in oneself.
• This lies in the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas, Robert
• Perennialism in Education
• Perennialists believe that when students are immersed in the study of profound and
everlasting /enduring (perennial) ideas, they will appreciate learning for its own sake
and become true intellectuals
• Aim: Develop students , intellectual powers first, and moral qualities, second
• Curriculum: theological principles and ideas; subject-centered
• Teaching: learning concepts and meaningful application; reasoning for analytical,
deep thinking, flexibility and imaginative development
• Method: Socratic
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy
• Essentialism
• Refers to traditional or back-to-the basics approach of education
• The basic idea is that there are certain essentials that all men ought to know.
• Believed that knowledge can be obtained anywhere.
• Owes its underpinnings to both realism and idealism.
• Essentialism in Education
• oEssentialists strive to instill in the students the essentials of academic knowledge
and character development.
• oThey urge that the most basic skills and knowledge be taught to all students.
• oThey stress that classrooms should be oriented around the teacher, who serves as
an intellectual and moral role model for the students.
• oAim: instill the essentials of academic knowledge and character development
• oCurriculum: the 3Rs, Essential subjects such English, History, Math and Foreign
languages, literature
• oTeaching: Students are required to master information and basic techniques
gradually moving from simple to complex.
• oMethods: writing, measurement, computing, return to 3Rs
• Proponent: William Bagley
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy
• Progressivism
• Claims that child’s growth and development as an individual depends on his
experiences and self activity.
• Educational concern must be the learner’s interests, desires, and freedom as an
• Believes that improvement in individual are possible; that human beings are
capable of improving sand perfecting their environment.
• Recognizes the principle of individual differences.
• Includes practical subjects such as industrial arts and economics.
• Progressivism in Education
• oProgressivists claim that the child’s growth and development depend on his
experiences and self-activity.
• oThey emphasize that educational concern must be on the learner’s interests,
desires, and freedom as an individual.
• oThey recognize the principle of individual differences.
• oAim: Provide the individual with necessary skills to be able to interact with his ever
changing environment
• oCurriculum: Activity and experience centered
• oTeaching: Teachers act as guide, facilitator, group leader and consultant
• oMethods: group activities, brainstorming, field trip, reading, learning by doing
• oProponent: John Dewey
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy

• Existentialism
• Emphasizes freedom of man to make choices
• Accepts that individuals are responsible for determining for themselves what is true
or false; beautiful or ugly
• Enables man to make choices for himself
• Believes that man is the moulder of his own destiny
• Man is nothing else but what he makes for himself.
• Existentialism in Education
• oExistentialists teacher’s role is to help students define their own essence by
exposing them to various paths they may take in life and creating an environment in
which they may freely choose their own preferred way.
• oIn the existentialist classroom, subject matter takes second place to helping the
students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept
complete responsibility for their thoughts, feelings, and actions.
• oAim: develop individuals who make choices out of available alternatives
• oCurriculum: subject matter is only second to humanities
• oTeaching: teacher-student interaction; provides students with vicarious experiences
that will help develop creativity and self-expression
• oMethods: experiential learning/field trip/ individualized instruction
• Proponent: Jean Paul Sartre
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
• Western Philosophy

• Social Reconstructionism
• Believes that man can make control, change and
reform his society through democratic practices for
public interest
• The other name is problem solving theme.
• Aim: Improve and reconstruct society
• Curriculum: social sciences/national and global issues
• Teaching: students are involved in the societal
problems; teachers-students discuss societal issues; the
teacher as a facilitator
• Methods: group activities; research; reporting; field trip
• Proponent: John Dewey
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies
Indian Philosophies
Emphasizes a commitment to an ideal way of life called Dharma,
characterized by honesty, courage, service, faith, self-control, purity
and non-violence.
Believes that one should be able to control and regulate his desires,
not to devote life to sensual pleasure or worldly success.
Believes that religion should be practical. God is to be realized by
living in the world.
Accepts principles of reincarnation and transmigration of souls and of
Knowledge is acquired through meditation which brings intuitive, non-
rational, and direct cognition of natural things.
Sees God as guiding the world in accordnance with the law of karma.
Salvation is achieved through faith, knowledge, chastity and not
attached by worldly vices.
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies

Indian Philosophies
Is a way of life by which one can free himself from ignorance and
suffering and establish peace and happiness of mind.
Believes that personal gratification is the root of sufferings in the
The teachings of Buddha centered on 4 noble truths: truth existence
of suffering, truth of the cause of suffering which is ignorance; truth
cessation of suffering; truth the path to cessation of suffering
All in life is suffering, pain and misery.
This suffering has cause: selfish craving and personal desire.
This suffering can cease.
The way to overcome this misery is through Eight-fold Path:
Right understanding, right speech, right conduct, right vocation, right
concentration, right effort, right mindfulness, right thought
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies

Chinese Philosophies
Teaches moral life through devotion to family, loyalty to elders, love of
learning, brotherhood, civil service, and universal love and justice
Five constant virtues: benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom,
and sincerity.
Believes that education should build moral character rather than
merely teaching skills or information.
Believes that every individual should strive for development of self
until excellence is achieved.
Believes that all men are basically good and equal because they are
endowed with universal “nature” according to the principles that
underlie it.
Men should be the master of their own destinies; hence, they respect
spirits but keep them at a distance.
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies
Chinese Philosophies
Holds that all things originate from Tao (nature).
Implies metaphysics of impermanence and change and
the person who attains a clear vision of the eternal tao
acquire happiness and peace.
Advocates simplicity, frugality, and the joys of being close
to nature and being in harmony with the whole universe.
Believes that simplicity is the key to knowledge as
patience is to understanding.; that tranquility is the
assurance of the good life.
Wu Wei: Do nothing that is unnatural or not spontaneous;
not strive for anything . Let things come naturally.
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies

Chinese Philosophies

Believes that when one is in harmony with the cosmos (universe), he
loses interest in stressing his own achievements
Advocates teaching that does not make use of rational analysis;
believes that the doing of the teacher is in itself teaching.
Believes that a pupil cannot learn unless he first has made all his
mistakes for until then he cannot even begin to understand his
 Focuses on dependence on oneself , intuition, and silent meditation.
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies

Chinese Philosophies
The intention was to distinguish the older religion
-”The way of the Kami” from the Buddhism.
“Kami” has no exact translation for it applies to
animals, plants, seas, mountains, all natural
phenomena, and even to the ancestors.
Combined the veneration of nature with rites of
an ancient agricultural fertility cult.
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies
Muslim Philosophy
Emphasized a total commitment to faith, obedience, and trust to one and only
Teaches than man is not absolute; he therefore must always seek Allah’s
guidance and accept willingly whatever comes from his hands.
Koran, its sacred book is the word of God
Each person will be tried on the last judgment when Allah will judge souls.
Believes that there are immaterial Beings who carry God’s will and prompt
man to do good, punish the wicked, and bring revelations to men of
Believes that there is life after death.
Believes in paradise, an oasis of flowing waters, pleasant drinks, food and
sensual delights.
Others who have not followed the will of Allah, will suffer in fire and heat.
Five pillars: belief in one God, prayer, fasting, almsgiving, pilgrimage
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies

Teaches one to live in the spirit of mercy, love, charity,
tolerance, and self-sacrifice, because these are the ways
by which to honor and respect God.
Believes that:
Sorrow and distress chasten, serve to purify the dross, to
fit the people for the mission of bringing about the
fatherhood of good and brotherhood of man.
Clean spirit is above knowledge.
 The chosen people of God should have a sense of
nobleness oblige, of heavy responsibility.
Two General Classifications of Philosophy
The Eastern Philosophies

Christian Philosophy
Believes in the:
God is the creator of all things.
Jesus is the Messiah, Christ, son of God.
The Holy Trinity includes the Father, Son , and the Holy
The human being is a sinner who requires redemption.
The soul is immortal.
The Old Testament and the New Testament are the
guides to ideal Christian Life.
Baptism is necessary for salvation.
There is life after death.

• 1.Humanism - It is a philosophy which holds the idea

that education aims to liberate man from the oppressive
and demanding medieval institutions like the church and
the state so as to enable him to fully develop his

• Humanists:
• Vittorino Da Feltre- Italian humanist whose purpose was
to educate young boys by the use of games and other
physical and educational activities.
• Desiderius Erasmus- an educator who advanced the
idea of using games to educate children and prohibited
the use of harsh and physical punishment.

• 3.Disciplinism- believes that education is based on

discipline. It advanced the idea based on Aristotle’s
faculty psychology that the human mind is composed of
several faculties such as memory, reason, will,
judgment, etc.

• Disciplinist: John Locke

• 4.Naturalism - an educational philosophy which

adheres to the belief that education should be in
accordance with the nature of a child. All educational
practices should be focused towards the natural
development of all the innate talents and abilities of a

• Naturalist: Jean Jacques Rousseau

Philosophical Implications to Education
• 1.Schools should teach students how to respond to the moral
problems of the society emphasizing an authentic concern for
the human person.
• 2.Education should provide opportunities for maximum
development and inculcation of ethical, cultural and moral
• 3.Schools need to provide learning activities to develop in the
students a strong sense of right and wrong.
• 4.School and community need to work together to develop in
the students practical consciousness about happening in the
society and to help them form constructive responses through
collaborative efforts.
• 5.Education in a democratic society must endeavor to
heighten interest and participate in civic oriented activities to
help create a more equitable and just society.
• Education should have enough provisions other than
curricular offerings for strengthening one’s sense of Filipinism
and nationhood.
Educational Philosophers:

• Socrates (469-399 BC)

• A Greek philosopher who influenced Plato
• Studied literature, music, and gymnastics
• Believed that moral concepts such as justice, love, virtue and self-
knowledge were the foundations of teaching
• Advised his students that vices are a result of ignorance while
virtue is knowledge, and those who know the right will act rightly.
• Plato (428-347 BC)
• The first one to use philosophy as love of wisdom
• Believed that the primary aim of a philosopher is to know the
perfect forms or ideas in order to teach that knowledge to the learner
• Was convinced that knowledge is attainable; that it is fixed,
immutable, unchanging, and permanent
Educational Philosophers:

• Aristotle (384-322 BC)

• His contribution to philosophy of education was the principle of
• Believed that everything that exists or events that occur has
reasons to be.
• Insisted that something can be better understood when its causes
can be stated in specific rather than in general terms.
• St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
• Known as the Angelic doctor and the Prince of Scholastics
• An Italian philosopher and theologian, and a member of Order of
the Preachers (OP) of St. Dominic
• Believed that the primary agent of education was the learner and
his model was a person capable of self-education; that he should be
able to conduct his own process of research and discovery.
• Believed that truth can only be known through divine revelation
Educational Philosophers:

• Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

• Swiss educator who believed that the learner should develop
according to his natural characteristics.
• He believes that learning should be free from all artificialities of his
• Asserts that morals can be learned through natural punishment.
• Writer of “Emile” where he illustrated how a boy learned naturally
without formal schooling.
• His principle is that the child should be allowed to grow naturally.
• Maria Montessori (1870-1952)
• First female doctor of Italy
• Developed a teaching program that enabled children with mental
and physical disabilities to read and write.
• Established the first Casa de Bambini (children’s house) in Rome
in 1907.
• Believed that learning is spontaneous and need very little prodding
from the teacher.
Educational Philosophers:

• Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827)

• A Swiss educator whose aim of education was for social
regeneration of humanity
• Argued that learning proceeds from the concrete to abstract; from
known to unknown
• Believes that home and school make learning easier
• Conceptualizes that teachers must respect the individuality of
every pupil and must base discipline upon love.

• Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (1782-1852)

• A German educator known as the Father of Kindergarten
• Regarded the value of concrete objects in learning
• Utilization of games, crafts and stories
• Introduced play as an essential part of the school work
• Rejected rigid discipline
Educational Philosophers:

• Johann Fredrich Herbart (1776-1841)

• A German philosopher who believed that virtues were founded on knowledge.
• Believed that learning is founded on moral character; that intellect and morality
are two connected entities
• Stressed that mind develops both through its own experiences and social
• Believed that history and literature should be emphasized in the curriculum
• Introduced Herbartian method of Teaching which consists of 5 stages:
preparation, presentation, association, generalization, application

• John Dewey (1859-1952)

• An American educator
• A believer of democratic learning style
• Advanced learning by doing
• Emphasized the individual as a contributor to his society
• Proponent of sociological movements
• Introduced Pragmatism and Reconstructionism philosophies
Educational Philosophers:

• John Locke (1632-1704)

• An English educator-philosopher
• Prominent adherent of formal discipline
• Stressed that at birth a child’s mind can be compared to a tabula rasa.
• Believed that the formation of desirable habits should the chief aim of education
• Believed that education should be composed of three separate but equally
important components: physical educ (Vigor of the body), moral educ (Virtue of
the souls), and intellectual educ (Knowledge)

• John Amos Comenius (1592-1670)

• A bishop and educator
• First educator who advocated the use of visual aids in classroom teaching
• Use of uniform textbooks for learners on same level
• His teachings were based on: “know all things, do all things, and say all things”
• Organized a school for boys and girls regardless of socio-economic status
• Argued separate room for each class
• Believed that if possible, no homework
• A proponent of learning by doing
Educational Philosophers:
• Michael de Montaigne (1533-1592)
• A lawyer and public official known as a social realist
• Believed that education should prepare the individual for practical affairs of real
• Articulated that the aim of education is not to produce scholars and
professionals but to prepare a young boy to live the life of a gentleman in the
affairs of the world

• Francis Bacon(1561-1626)
• An English statesman, philosopher and educator who believed that the best
agencies of education were schools
• He introduced the steps of Inductive Methods:
• Preparation
• Presentation
• Comparison and abstraction
• Generalization
• Application
Educational Philosophers:

• Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611)

• Maintained that education should be in accordance with nature
• Advocated that all teaching processes should be adapted to the pupils’ needs,
nature and abilities
• Use of mother tongue or vernacular

• Wolfgang Ratke(1571-1635)
• A German teacher
• A believer of realism
• Advocated the use of vernacular as the medium of instruction during the early
• Believed that learning by rote is ineffective
• Maintained that learning starts from the senses and then made meaningful
through exploration
Educational Philosophers:

• Pedro Poveda(1874-1936)
• Encouraged women to be active in education and research.
• Advocated teacher formation through:
• Study (Teacher is a perpetual student)
• Practice (what is studied into practice)
• Write (an activity more reflective than oral expression)
• Lecture (engage in dialogue)

• Paolo Freire(1921-1997)
• Author of ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’
• Advocated liberating education
• Compared contemporary education to banking
• Advocated three levels of instruction:
• Basic instruction
• General Equivalency Instruction
• Middle-level Poly technical Education
Educational Philosophers:
• Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
• Defines education as complete living
• He held the cultivation of the powers of observation, object teaching, learning
through self-instruction and learning in a pleasurable manner
• On moral training, he advocated that the child should learn naturally from the
consequences of his acts, opposing artificial punishment
• Author of the philosophy, “survival of the fittest” first to advocate evolutionism
ahead of Darwin
• Francis Parker (1820-1903)
• Father of progressive education(progressivism)
• Proposed all forms of expression such as gesture, voice, speech, music,
construction, modeling, drawing, painting, and writing.
• Francois Fenelon (1651-1715)
• Pioneered education for women
• Practical ideas on teaching:
• oImitation and modeling
• oPatience and compassion
• oArt of Reading
• oStudy of Religion
• Ethics is a philosophical and practical science that deals with
study of the morality of a human act or human conduct.
• Morality is that quality of human acts by which some of them are
called good or right while others evil or wrong. The quality is
determined by the by the kind of human act that is performed.

• Relations of Ethics and Morality

• OBoth ethics and morality deal with human act/conduct.

• OEthics studies about morality.
• OMorality gives ethics a perspective of what to study about-that is
whether the act is good or bad.
• OMorality provides ethics with a quality that determines and
distinguishes right conduct from wrong conduct.
• Distinctions between Ethics and Morality
• OEthics pertains to the acquisition of knowledge of what to study about;
morality is the application of this knowledge in the performance of human
• OEthics indicates the theory; morality indicates the practice.

• Division of Ethics
• General ethics discusses the nature of human acts and their relation to
morality; includes the ultimate end of a man/ human acts/ morality human
acts/ law and conscience/ virtue in general

• Special ethics deal with the applications of the general principles of

morality to the particular actions of man as an individual and as a member
of society includes rights and duties to God/ oneself/ others (individual
ethics); right to life, property and marriages (social ethics); state and political
authority (political ethics) and professional ethics
Concepts of Morality

• Utilitarianism is a doctrine that derives the moral

quality of an act from its usefulness and its desired
results. What is useful is good, what is useless or futile is
• Hedonism is a doctrine that asserts that pleasure is
the only basis from which the moral quality of an act can
be derived. What is pleasurable and comfortable is good.
• Altruism is a doctrine that sounds reasonable
compared to the previous ones. It is contrary to egoism.
It draws the goodness of an act not out of selfishness but
out of others’ interests and advantage.
Concepts of Morality

• Subjectivism is a doctrine which determines the

moral quality of an act in view of the subject, the self, or
the person performing it.
• Relativism is a doctrine in which the moral judgment
of an act is anchored on its relation to circumstances and
the like.
• Egoism is a doctrine that holds that the morality of an
act is determined by what serves the interests of the self.
What is good or evil is conditioned by what one thinks,
feels, or wishes.