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SHANMUGANATHAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND


COMMUNICATION

EC6802 – WIRELESS NETWORKS


UNIT V – 4G NETWORKS

8th SEM ECE

SP.SENTHIL KUMAR AP/ ECE


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OUTLINE
5.1 Introduction
5.2 4G vision
5.3 4G features and challenges
5.4 Applications of 4G
5.5 4G Technologies
5.5.1 Multicarrier Modulation
5.5.2 Smart antenna techniques
5.5.3 OFDM-MIMO systems
5.5.4 Adaptive Modulation and coding with time
slot scheduler
5.5.5 Cognitive Radio
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5.1

Introduction

• Seamless integration of existing wireless


technologies
• Internet in the pocket
• Interoperable with 2G and 3G systems
• SMS - few bytes
• MMS - few kilobytes
• Video content – Several 100kbps

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5.1

Introduction

DAB = Digital Analog Broadcast PAN = Personal Access Network


MAN = Metropolitan Area Network LAN = Local Area Network
UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunications System WAN = Wide Area Network
WLAN = Wireless Local Area Network DVB = Digital Video Broadcast

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5.2
4G Vision

• MAGIC — Mobile multimedia, Anytime anywhere,


Global mobility support, Integrated wireless solution, and
Customized personal service
• To provide a wide variety of new services
• High-quality voice
• High-definition video
• High-data-rate
• 4G systems will have
• Broader bandwidth
• Higher data rate
• Smoother and quicker handoff
• Integrate the 4G capabilities with all the existing mobile
technologies

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5.3

4G Features and Challenges

• High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any


technology
• Support for multimedia services at low
transmission cost
• Personalization
• Integrated services

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5.3
4G Features and Challenges
4G visions.

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5.3

4G Features and Challenges


4G features.

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5.4
Applications of 4G

• Virtual presence — 4G will provide user


services at all times, even if the user is off-site.
• VP1
• Engineered for life

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5.4

Applications of 4G
• Virtual navigation — 4G will provide users
with virtual navigation through which a user can
access a database of streets, buildings, etc., of a
large city. This requires high speed transmission.
• Education — 4G will provide a good
opportunity to people anywhere in the world to
continue their education on-line in a cost-
effective manner.

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5.4

Applications of 4G

• Tele-medicine — 4G will support the remote


health monitoring of patients via video
conference assistance for a doctor at anytime and
anywhere.

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5.4

Applications of 4G

• Tele-geo-processing applications — 4G will


combine geographical information systems (GIS)
and global positioning systems (GPS) in which a user
will get location querying.

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5.5

4G Technologies

• Multicarrier Modulation
• Smart Antenna Techniques
• OFDM-MIMO Systems
• Adaptive Modulation and Coding with Time- Slot
Scheduler
• Cognitive Radio

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5.5.1
4G Technologies - Multicarrier
Modulation
• Derivative of frequency-division multiplexing
• Used in DSL modems and digital audio/video
broadcast(DAB/DVB)
• Baseband process that uses parallel equal bandwidth sub
channels to transmit information
• Implemented with Fast Fourier Transform
• MCM’s advantages
 Better performance in the ISI environment
 Avoidance of single-frequency interferers

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5.5.1
4G Technologies - Multicarrier
Modulation
• Difference, D, of the peak-to-average ratio between MCM
and a single carrier system is a function of the number of
subcarriers, N, as:
D(dB) = 10 log N
• Linearization techniques can be used, but they increase
the cost of the system.

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5.5.1
4G Technologies - Multicarrier
Modulation
• Loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as:

• Lb  original length of block


• Lc  channel’s response

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5.5.1
4G Technologies - Multicarrier
Modulation
Two different types of MCM
 Multicarrier Code Division Multiple Access
 Assigns several codes
 Uses QPSK
 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing with TDMA
 Time slots
 High level QAM
 OFDM – Subcarrier is a pulse
 Pulse formation and modulation IFFT
 Decoding FFT

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5.5.1
4G Technologies - Multicarrier
Modulation

A broadband channel divided into many parallel narrowband channels.

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5.5.2
4G Technologies - Smart Antenna
Techniques

Smart antenna techniques


• Multiple - input multiple - output (MIMO) systems
 increased data throughput
• Multiple antennas at both the transmitter and
receiver
• 1 Mbps for 2.5G wireless TDMA EDGE as high as
20 Mbps for 4G systems

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5.5.2
4G Technologies - Smart Antenna
Techniques
• The number of transmitting antennas is M, and the
number of receiving antennas is N, where N ≥ M.
Single-Input, Single-Output (SISO)
Single-Input, Multiple-Output (SIMO)
Multiple-Input, Single-Output (MISO)
Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO)

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5.5.2
4G Technologies - Smart Antenna
Techniques
Single-input, single-output
• Shannon limit on channel capacity C is
C ≈ blog2(1 + SNR0)
Channel bandwidth is B,
Transmitter power is pt,
Signal at the receiver has an average signal-to-noise
ratio SNR0

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5.5.2
4G Technologies - Smart Antenna
Techniques
Single-input, multiple-output
 N increase in signal power
2

 N-fold increase in noise power

 Capacity for this channel is approximately


equal to

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5.5.2
4G Technologies - Smart Antenna
Techniques
Multiple-input, single-output

Multiple-input, multiple-output
• Combination of MISO and SIMO channels

• For M transmitting antennas

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5.5.2
4G Technologies - Smart Antenna
Techniques

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5.5.2
4G Technologies - Smart Antenna
Techniques
Comparison of channel capacity for different channel types.

Channel type Capacity (Mbps) Normalized capacity


with respect to SISO

SISO 3.45B 1.0


SIMO 5.66B 1.64
MISO 5.35B 1.55
MIMO (Same input) 7.64B 2.21
MIMO (Different input) 15B 4.35

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5.5.3
4G Technologies - OFDM-MIMO
Systems
• OFDM and MIMO techniques can be combined to
achieve
 High spectral efficiency
 Increased throughput
• Transmits independent OFDM modulated data from
multiple antennas simultaneously
• At the receiver
 After OFDM demodulation, MIMO decodes each
subchannel to extract data from all transmit antennas
on all the subchannels

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5.5.4

4G Technologies - Adaptive Modulation


and Coding with Time-Slot Scheduler

• TCP/IP - highly reliable transmission medium in


wired networks
• Misinterpreted as congestion by TCP inefficient
utilization of the available radio link capacity
• Automatic repeat request(ARQ) with adaptive
modulation and coding system
• Time-slot scheduler that uses channel predictions

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5.5.4

4G Technologies - Adaptive Modulation


and Coding with Time-Slot Scheduler
• Time-slot scheduler
 Shares the spectrum efficiently
 Satisfies the QoS requirements
• Channel quality predicted for a short duration
Satisfy bit error rate (BER) requirement & high
throughput

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5.5.5

4G Technologies - Cognitive Radio

• Spectrum can be efficiently shared


• Extension of SDR
• IEEE committee on communications and
information policy (CCIP) recommended CR to
conserve valuable spectrum utilization
• Smarts utilisation of software – to determine when
frequencies are free to use
• Research  spectrum sensing cognitive radio

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5.5.5

4G Technologies - Cognitive Radio

Issues
• Design of high quality sensing devices
• Algorithms for exchanging spectrum sensing data
between nodes

Implement CR features  relatively conventional


radio transmitter/receiver architectures and techniques

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