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DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN OPEN CHANNEL

AND PIPE FLOW

1. An open channel is the passage in which 1. The pipe flow is the passage in which

liquid flows with its upper surface exposed

liquid flows but its upper surface not

to atmosphere.

exposed to atmosphere.

2. Flow due t o gravity.

2. Flow occur due to different in pressure.

3. The maximum velocity occurs at a little

distance below the water surface 3. The maximum velocity occur at the center

4. Cross section of open channel can be

of the pipe.

rectangular,trapezoidal,circular,triangular . 4. Cross section of pipe generally round.

5. Water flows without completely filling the

pipe. 5. The pipe is completely filled with the fluid

being transported.

6. Surface roughness varies with depth of

flow. 6. Varies with type of pipe material.

7. Piezometric head (z+y), where y is the 7. Piezometric head (z+p/y) where p is the

depth of channel. pressure in pipe.

OPEN CHANNEL PIPE

FLOW

TYPES OF FLOW IN CHANNELS

ow in channels is classified into the following types, depending upon the change

of flow with respect to space and time.

iform flow and non-uniform flow

minar flow and turbulent flow

bcritical flow, critical flow and supercritical flow.

Steady Flow:

and the flow rate at any cross-section) do not change with respect to

time, the flow in a channel is said to be steady.

where y,V and Q are the depth of flow, velocity and rate of flow

respectively.

Unsteady Flow:

and the flow rate at any cross-section) change with respect to time,

the flow in a channel is said to be unsteady.

where y,V and Q are the depth of flow, velocity and rate of flow

respectively

Uniform Flow:

section and velocity remains constant over a given length of the

channel.

Uniform flows are possible only in prismatic channels only. A uniform

flow may be either steady or unsteady, depending upon whether or

not the discharge varies with time, unsteady uniform flow is rare in

practice.

Non-Uniform Flow:

channel depth varies continuously from one section to another.

Varied flow may be further classified as:

(i) Rapidly varied flow (R.V.F): In this type of flow depth of flow

changes abruptly over a comparatively small length of channel.

depth of flow take place gradually in a long length of the channel.

Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow:

turbulent depending upon the value of Reynolds number, defined as:

Re =

Where, V= Average velocity of flow in the

channel, and

R= Hydraulic radius (defined as the ration of area of flow to

wetted perimeter)

When

Re <500 (Laminar Flow)

Re >2000 (Turbulent Flow)

500< Re 2000 (Transitional Flow)

Subcritical flow, Critical Flow and supercritical Flow:

channel flow, therefore Froude number, Fr = (where V and D are

the mean velocity of flow and hydraulic depth of the channel

respectively) is an important parameter for analyzing open

channel flows. Depending upon Froud number the channel flow

may be characterised as:

subcritical (or tranquil or streaming)

ii. When Fr =1: The flow is said to be in critical state.

iii. When Fr >1: The flow is said to be supercritical (or

rapid or shooting or torrential)

Lacey’s Regime Theory:

o Lacey defined the regime channel as a stable channel transporting a

regime silt charge.

o “Dimensions, width, depth and slope of regime channel to carry a

given discharge loaded with given silt charge are all fixed by nature”.

o According to Lacey there may be three Regime conditions:

1. True Regime

2. Initial Regime

3. Final Regime

REGIMES FLOW:

A range of stream flows having similar bed forms,

flow resistance and means of transporting

sediment.

width, depth and bed slope have undergone by

silting and scouring and are so adjusted that they

have attained equilibrium.

1. TRUE REGIME:

Discharge is constant

Flow is uniform

Silt charge is constant; i.e. the amount of silt is constant .

Silt grade is constant; i.e. type and size of silt is always the same.

Channel is flowing through a material which can scored as easily as

it can be deposited such soil is known as incoherent alluvium.

2. INITIAL REGIME:

Bed slope of channel is varies.

Cross-section or wetted perimeter is remain unaffected.

3. FINAL REGIME:

All variables such as perimeter,depth,slope,etc. are equally free to

vary and achieve permanent stability.

KINDS OF OPEN CHANNEL:

1. Open flow tunnel: It is a channel designed as relatively long time,

and we use it in case of an obstacle prevents the transfer of water

from one place to another on the ground such as mountains and hills

etc.

2. DROP: They vary similar the chute in format and is the closest to him

.

3. CULVERT: Channel are covered, flow through the channel is often

almost 75-95% of the area of the channels in the same drainage

through dams or highways or railways.

4. CHUTE: It is a channel having steep slopes carries the water passing

over the crest of spillway to the river downstream.

5. FLUME: Is a channel often based on the Earth’s surface and this type

of channels used in agriculture and irrigation field of large sources of

water for distribution.

6. Canal: These types of channels are great slopes and relatively the

slopes on the side of land on which are used to transport the

distribution of water for the purpose of agriculture, irrigation etc.

GEOMETRIC ELEMNTS OF CHANNEL SECTION:

A channel section is defined as the cross-section taking perpendicular to

the main flow direction. The geometric elements of open channel are

defined as follows:

Depth Flow (y): Vertical distance from the channel bottom to the free

surface.

Depth of Flow section (d): Flow depth measured perpendicular to the

cannel bottom.

The relationship between d and y is dcos.

Top Width (T): Width of channel section at free surface.

Wetted perimeter (P): Length of interface between the water the

channel boundary.

Flow Area (A): Cross-section area of flow.

Hydraulic Depth (D): Flow area divided by Top width, D=A/T.

Hydraulic Radius (R): Flow area divided by wetted perimeter R=A/P.

Bottom Slope (S): Longitudinal Slope of channel.

KINDS OF OPEN CHANNEL:

1. Natural Channels: Natural open channels include are channels that

exits naturally on the earth. They are generally very irregular in shape.

Examples: River, Tidal estuaries etc.

Which are developed by men. They are usually designed

With regulars shapes.

Examples: Canal, spillway, flumes,chute,culverts

Etc.

Artificial channel

Natural channel

3. Prismatic Channels: A channels with unvarying cross-section and

constant bottom slope is called prismatic channel. All artificial channels

are usually prismatic. The rectangular,triangular,trapazedoial, circular are

the most commonly used shapes of prismatic.

is known as rigid boundary channel.

Examples: Lined canals, sewers etc.

sedimentary particles moving under the action of flowing water.

10. some natural or artificial channels have far less than 1 in 10.

1 in 10. some artificial channel like drop and chute have far more than 1

in 10.

Mobile boundary channel

Rigid boundary channel

The principle is named by Daniel Bernoulli.

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION: Bernoulli's equation states that for an

incompressible and in viscid fluid, the total energy of fluid is constant.

or

Sum of all forms of energy in a fluid flowing along a enclosed path is the

same at any two point in that path.

elevation in moving fluid (liquid, gas) the compressibility and viscosity

(internal friction) are negligible and flow is steady or laminar. Bernoulli's

theorem is the principle of conservation for ideal fluid in steady or

streamline flow.

Restrictions:

Incompressible

Non-viscous fluid (no friction)

Constant velocity

Flowing a streamline motion (no turbulence).

TYPES OF ENERGY OR HEAD OF LIQUID IN MOTION:

The following are the three types of energy or head of flowing liquid.

suitable datum line. It is denoted by “Z”.

2. Kinetic Energy or Velocity (Kinetic Head): It is due to the velocity of

flowing liquid. Its value is given by v2/2g, where v is the velocity of

flow and g is acceleration due to gravity.

3. Pressure Energy or Pressure Head: It is due to the pressure of liquid.

Its value is given by p/w , where p is the pressure and w is the weight

density.

Note: The total energy or total head of a liquid particle in motion is given

as follows:

Total head (H): Potential head + kinetic head + pressure head.

ASSUNPTIONS:

o Flow is steady

o Density is constant

o Friction losses are negligible.

IMPORTANT POINTS OF MOST ECONOMICAL

SECTION

A channel section is said to be most economical when

the cost of construction of the channel is minimum.

1. Rectangular Channel section:

b= width of channel

d= depth of channel

Area of flow (A)=b*y

Wetted perimeter (P)=b+2y

Hydraulic Radius (R)=Y/2

The rectangular channel section will be most economical when:

(i) The depth of flow is equal to the half of base width (y=b/2)

(ii) Hydraulic radius is equal to the half of the depth flow

2.Trapezoidal channel section:

b= base width of the channel

y= depth of flow

0=Angle made by the sides slope with horizontal.

Area (A)= (b+ny)y

Wetted perimeter (P)= b+2yredicaln2+1

1.Half of top width=One of sloping sides)

2. Hydraulic radius is equal to half of the flow depth Hydraulic radius

(R)= y/2

3. The best side slope of 60, the length of side is equal to base of

width of trapezoidal section.

3.Triangular channel section:

Area of flow (y)= y2tan0

Wetted perimeter (P)=2ysec0

Triangular channel section will be most economical when each of its

sloping sides is an angle of 45 with vertical.

Hydraulic radius (R)= y/2REd2

• Y=depth of flow , y=o.81d

(The maximum velocity occur when depth of flow is 0.81 times the

diameter of the circular channel)

• Depth of flow for maximum discharge, y=0.95d

• R= radius of the channel, R=0.305d

(Maximum mean velocity in a channel of circular section hydraulic

radius equal 0.305 times the channel diameter).

• Hydraulic radius for maximum discharge , R=0.29d

• 20=angle made by water surface AB at the center in radius.

R

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