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DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN OPEN CHANNEL
AND PIPE FLOW

## OPEN CHANNEL PIPE FLOW

1. An open channel is the passage in which 1. The pipe flow is the passage in which
liquid flows with its upper surface exposed
liquid flows but its upper surface not
to atmosphere.
exposed to atmosphere.
2. Flow due t o gravity.
2. Flow occur due to different in pressure.
3. The maximum velocity occurs at a little
distance below the water surface 3. The maximum velocity occur at the center
4. Cross section of open channel can be
of the pipe.
rectangular,trapezoidal,circular,triangular . 4. Cross section of pipe generally round.
5. Water flows without completely filling the
pipe. 5. The pipe is completely filled with the fluid
being transported.
6. Surface roughness varies with depth of
flow. 6. Varies with type of pipe material.
7. Piezometric head (z+y), where y is the 7. Piezometric head (z+p/y) where p is the
depth of channel. pressure in pipe.
OPEN CHANNEL PIPE
FLOW
TYPES OF FLOW IN CHANNELS
ow in channels is classified into the following types, depending upon the change
of flow with respect to space and time.

iform flow and non-uniform flow
minar flow and turbulent flow
bcritical flow, critical flow and supercritical flow.

## When the flow characteristics (such as depth of flow, flow velocity

and the flow rate at any cross-section) do not change with respect to
time, the flow in a channel is said to be steady.
where y,V and Q are the depth of flow, velocity and rate of flow
respectively.

## When the flow characteristics (such as depth of flow, flow velocity

and the flow rate at any cross-section) change with respect to time,
the flow in a channel is said to be unsteady.
where y,V and Q are the depth of flow, velocity and rate of flow
respectively
Uniform Flow:

## Flow in a channel is said to be uniform if the depth, slope, cross-

section and velocity remains constant over a given length of the
channel.
Uniform flows are possible only in prismatic channels only. A uniform
not the discharge varies with time, unsteady uniform flow is rare in
practice.

Non-Uniform Flow:

## Flow in a channel is said to be non-uniform (or varied) when the

channel depth varies continuously from one section to another.
Varied flow may be further classified as:

(i) Rapidly varied flow (R.V.F): In this type of flow depth of flow
changes abruptly over a comparatively small length of channel.

## (ii) Gradually Varied Flow (G.V.F): In this case the change in

depth of flow take place gradually in a long length of the channel.
Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow:

## The flow in the open channel may be characterized as laminar or

turbulent depending upon the value of Reynolds number, defined as:

Re =
Where, V= Average velocity of flow in the
channel, and
R= Hydraulic radius (defined as the ration of area of flow to
wetted perimeter)

When
Re <500 (Laminar Flow)
Re >2000 (Turbulent Flow)
500< Re 2000 (Transitional Flow)
Subcritical flow, Critical Flow and supercritical Flow:

## Since gravitational force is a predominant force in the case of

channel flow, therefore Froude number, Fr = (where V and D are
the mean velocity of flow and hydraulic depth of the channel
respectively) is an important parameter for analyzing open
channel flows. Depending upon Froud number the channel flow
may be characterised as:

## i. When Fr <1 (or V<√gD): The flow is described as

subcritical (or tranquil or streaming)
ii. When Fr =1: The flow is said to be in critical state.
iii. When Fr >1: The flow is said to be supercritical (or
rapid or shooting or torrential)
Lacey’s Regime Theory:

## o Lacey put forward the concept of regime channel.

o Lacey defined the regime channel as a stable channel transporting a
regime silt charge.
o “Dimensions, width, depth and slope of regime channel to carry a
given discharge loaded with given silt charge are all fixed by nature”.
o According to Lacey there may be three Regime conditions:

1. True Regime
2. Initial Regime
3. Final Regime
REGIMES FLOW:
A range of stream flows having similar bed forms,
flow resistance and means of transporting
sediment.

## REGIMES CHANNEL: A stable channel whose

width, depth and bed slope have undergone by
silting and scouring and are so adjusted that they
have attained equilibrium.
1. TRUE REGIME:

 Discharge is constant
 Flow is uniform
 Silt charge is constant; i.e. the amount of silt is constant .
 Silt grade is constant; i.e. type and size of silt is always the same.
 Channel is flowing through a material which can scored as easily as
it can be deposited such soil is known as incoherent alluvium.

2. INITIAL REGIME:
 Bed slope of channel is varies.
 Cross-section or wetted perimeter is remain unaffected.

3. FINAL REGIME:
 All variables such as perimeter,depth,slope,etc. are equally free to
vary and achieve permanent stability.
KINDS OF OPEN CHANNEL:
1. Open flow tunnel: It is a channel designed as relatively long time,
and we use it in case of an obstacle prevents the transfer of water
from one place to another on the ground such as mountains and hills
etc.

2. DROP: They vary similar the chute in format and is the closest to him
.
3. CULVERT: Channel are covered, flow through the channel is often
almost 75-95% of the area of the channels in the same drainage
through dams or highways or railways.
4. CHUTE: It is a channel having steep slopes carries the water passing
over the crest of spillway to the river downstream.
5. FLUME: Is a channel often based on the Earth’s surface and this type
of channels used in agriculture and irrigation field of large sources of
water for distribution.
6. Canal: These types of channels are great slopes and relatively the
slopes on the side of land on which are used to transport the
distribution of water for the purpose of agriculture, irrigation etc.
 GEOMETRIC ELEMNTS OF CHANNEL SECTION:
A channel section is defined as the cross-section taking perpendicular to
the main flow direction. The geometric elements of open channel are
defined as follows:

 Depth Flow (y): Vertical distance from the channel bottom to the free
surface.
 Depth of Flow section (d): Flow depth measured perpendicular to the
cannel bottom.
The relationship between d and y is dcos.
 Top Width (T): Width of channel section at free surface.
 Wetted perimeter (P): Length of interface between the water the
channel boundary.
 Flow Area (A): Cross-section area of flow.
 Hydraulic Depth (D): Flow area divided by Top width, D=A/T.
 Hydraulic Radius (R): Flow area divided by wetted perimeter R=A/P.
 Bottom Slope (S): Longitudinal Slope of channel.
KINDS OF OPEN CHANNEL:
1. Natural Channels: Natural open channels include are channels that
exits naturally on the earth. They are generally very irregular in shape.
Examples: River, Tidal estuaries etc.

## 2. Artificial Channels: Artificial Channels are the channels

Which are developed by men. They are usually designed
With regulars shapes.
Examples: Canal, spillway, flumes,chute,culverts
Etc.

Artificial channel
Natural channel
3. Prismatic Channels: A channels with unvarying cross-section and
constant bottom slope is called prismatic channel. All artificial channels
are usually prismatic. The rectangular,triangular,trapazedoial, circular are
the most commonly used shapes of prismatic.

## 4. Rigid Boundary Channels: A channel with immovable bed and sides

is known as rigid boundary channel.
Examples: Lined canals, sewers etc.

## 5. Mobile Boundary Channels: If a channel composed of loose

sedimentary particles moving under the action of flowing water.

## 6. Small Slope Channels: An open channel having a slope less then 1 in

10. some natural or artificial channels have far less than 1 in 10.

## 7. Large slope Channels: An open channel having a slope greater then

1 in 10. some artificial channel like drop and chute have far more than 1
in 10.
Mobile boundary channel
Rigid boundary channel
The principle is named by Daniel Bernoulli.
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION: Bernoulli's equation states that for an
incompressible and in viscid fluid, the total energy of fluid is constant.
or
Sum of all forms of energy in a fluid flowing along a enclosed path is the
same at any two point in that path.

## Theorem: In fluid dynamics relation among the pressure, velocity and

elevation in moving fluid (liquid, gas) the compressibility and viscosity
(internal friction) are negligible and flow is steady or laminar. Bernoulli's
theorem is the principle of conservation for ideal fluid in steady or
streamline flow.

Restrictions:
 Incompressible
 Non-viscous fluid (no friction)
 Constant velocity
 Flowing a streamline motion (no turbulence).
TYPES OF ENERGY OR HEAD OF LIQUID IN MOTION:
The following are the three types of energy or head of flowing liquid.

## 1. Potential Energy or Potential Head: It is due to the position above

suitable datum line. It is denoted by “Z”.
2. Kinetic Energy or Velocity (Kinetic Head): It is due to the velocity of
flowing liquid. Its value is given by v2/2g, where v is the velocity of
flow and g is acceleration due to gravity.
3. Pressure Energy or Pressure Head: It is due to the pressure of liquid.
Its value is given by p/w , where p is the pressure and w is the weight
density.

Note: The total energy or total head of a liquid particle in motion is given
as follows:

## Total energy (E): Potential energy + kinetic energy + pressure energy

ASSUNPTIONS:
o Density is constant
o Friction losses are negligible.
IMPORTANT POINTS OF MOST ECONOMICAL
SECTION
A channel section is said to be most economical when
the cost of construction of the channel is minimum.
1. Rectangular Channel section:
 b= width of channel
 d= depth of channel
 Area of flow (A)=b*y
 Wetted perimeter (P)=b+2y
The rectangular channel section will be most economical when:

(i) The depth of flow is equal to the half of base width (y=b/2)
(ii) Hydraulic radius is equal to the half of the depth flow
2.Trapezoidal channel section:
 b= base width of the channel
 y= depth of flow
 0=Angle made by the sides slope with horizontal.
 Area (A)= (b+ny)y
 Wetted perimeter (P)= b+2yredicaln2+1

## Hence conditions for most economical trapezoidal section are:

1.Half of top width=One of sloping sides)
2. Hydraulic radius is equal to half of the flow depth Hydraulic radius
(R)= y/2
3. The best side slope of 60, the length of side is equal to base of
width of trapezoidal section.
3.Triangular channel section:
 Area of flow (y)= y2tan0
 Wetted perimeter (P)=2ysec0
 Triangular channel section will be most economical when each of its
sloping sides is an angle of 45 with vertical.

## 4.Circular channel section:

• Y=depth of flow , y=o.81d
(The maximum velocity occur when depth of flow is 0.81 times the
diameter of the circular channel)
• Depth of flow for maximum discharge, y=0.95d
• R= radius of the channel, R=0.305d
(Maximum mean velocity in a channel of circular section hydraulic
radius equal 0.305 times the channel diameter).
• Hydraulic radius for maximum discharge , R=0.29d
• 20=angle made by water surface AB at the center in radius.
R