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Training helps to
Existing bridge the gap
• Skills TNA is a tool to • Skills
• Knowledge identify the gap • Knowledge
• Attitudes • Attitudes
Needs Assessment Definition
A needs assessment is the process of
identifying performance requirements
and the "gap" between what
performance is required and what
presently exists.
Scope of TNA
1. The content of learning, content development
2. The need of learning, outcome oriented study
3. The depth of learning, expertise level need
4. Existing scenarios affecting training program,
Industry/Government rules
5. Who Receives Training, target identification
6. Type of Training; on/off the job, in/shallow depth
7. Frequency of Training, routine, exceptional, one
Scope of TNA
8. The priority of learning, learner/
9. Buy V/s Build Training Decision, In-house or
hired trainers
10.Training V/s Other HR Options such as
Selection or Job Redesign
11.How training should be evaluated, training
Types of TNA
 Organizational Analysis. An analysis of the business needs or other reasons the
training is desired. An analysis of the organization's strategies, goals, and
objectives. What is the organization overall trying to accomplish? The important
questions being answered by this analysis are who decided that training should be
conducted, why a training program is seen as the recommended solution to a
business problem, what the history of the organization has been with regard to
employee training and other management interventions.
 Person Analysis. Analysis dealing with potential participants and instructors
involved in the process. The important questions being answered by this analysis are
who will receive the training and their level of existing knowledge on the subject,
what is their learning style, and who will conduct the training. Do the employees
have required skills? Are there changes to policies, procedures, software, or
equipment that require or necessitate training?
 Work analysis / Task Analysis. Analysis of the tasks being performed. This is an
analysis of the job and the requirements for performing the work. Also known as a
task analysis or job analysis, this analysis seeks to specify the main duties and skill
level required. This helps ensure that the training which is developed will include
relevant links to the content of the job.
Types of TNA
 Performance Analysis. Are the employees performing up to the established
standard? If performance is below expectations, can training help to improve this
performance? Is there a Performance Gap?
 Content Analysis. Analysis of documents, laws, procedures used on the job. This
analysis answers questions about what knowledge or information is used on this job.
This information comes from manuals, documents, or regulations. It is important
that the content of the training does not conflict or contradict job requirements. An
experienced worker can assist (as a subject matter expert) in determining the
appropriate content.
 Training Suitability Analysis. Analysis of whether training is the desired solution.
Training is one of several solutions to employment problems. However, it may not
always be the best solution. It is important to determine if training will be effective
in its usage.
 Cost-Benefit Analysis. Analysis of the return on investment (ROI) of training.
Effective training results in a return of value to the organization that is greater than
the initial investment to produce or administer the training.
TNA Model Input
Organizational analysis
Objectives, Resources Process

(AOP)< (EOP)
Operational analysis Identify Performance
Expected Performance (EP) Discrepancy (PD)
Causes of PD
Person analysis
Actual Performance (AP)

Training needs Nontraining needs

Framework for TNA
 Input
 Organizational Analysis
 Operational Analysis
 Person Analysis
 Process
Determining the nature of PD and its causes.
 Output
 Provides us training / training needs.
Organizational Analysis
Provide information about:
 Mission & strategies of an organization
 Resources & their allocation, given the objectives
 Capital Resources
 Human Resources
 Organizational environment: Internal factors that
may be causing problems
 Impact of the preceding factors on developing,
providing & transferring the KSAa to the job if
training is the chosen solution to the PD; where to
collect data – to identify the causes of PD
Operational Analysis
Determines exactly what is required of
employees in order for them to be effective:
KSAs required to meet expectations.
Characteristics of task environment (work flow,
ergonomics, etc) to be able to meet expectations.
Incumbents & supervisors are questioned.
Person Analysis
Methodology to identify those incumbents
who don’t meet the performance requirements
(PD = EP – AP)
In the proactive analysis, EP is what is needed
in the future and AP is the current
performance level.
Where to collect data from?
 Performance Appraisal
 Supervisor Ratings
 Self Ratings
 360 Degree Performance Review
 Proficiency Tests
 Cognitive Tests:
 Measure levels of knowledge
 Paper & pencil Test in groups.
 Behavioral Tests:
 Determine needs related to skills required on the job.
 Incorporate work samples.
 Assessment Centers.
Approaches to TNA
 Proactive TNA
Proactive TNA is strategic and carefully planned without a definite
problem as the focus. It is used to deliver new techniques or processes to
employees, as well as strengthen existing expectations. This method
anticipates future trends and prepares people for the fore seen challenges.

 Focuses on future HR requirements.

 Prepare for future promotions/transfers.
 Prepare for changes in the current job.
 e.g., Succession Planning
Approaches to TNA
 Reactive TNA happens when a specific problem is pinpointed. For
instance, if a worker's performance problem is evident, reactive TNA
is used to correct that specific issue. Reactive TNA (Repair Act)

 Begins with existing PD.

 Focus mainly on one department.
 Those who show PD are the key trainees.
 Focuses on a particular part of the job
in conducting
training need analysis

Teamwork is all about performing a task in a team,

where in all the members contribute to achieve a
specified goal.
Essentials for teamwork in
conducting TNA
 A permanent team/task force for TNA is essential
 Team should include representatives from each department for
effective TNA
 Choose those who know and care about the situation
 Identify a contact person or “champion” who is committed to
training and whom you can call upon for support and resources
 Whole organization’s feed back is expected
 Top level management should support and sensitise TNA
 Involvement of employee and trade union is vital.
Thank You !!!!!