• • • • • •


• An abacus, also called a counting frame, is a

calculating tool used primarily by Asians for performing arithmetic processes. • The user of an abacus is called an abacist. • The time-line below traces the developing abacus from its beginnings circa 500 B.C., to the present.

As arithmetic (counting using written numbers) gained popularity in the latter part of the Middle Ages, the use of the abacus began to diminish in Europe. • The abacus as we know it today, appeared (was chronicled) circa 1200 A.D. in China; in Chinese, it is called suan-pan

• Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language. • Pascal is based on the ALGOL programming language and named in honor of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal . • The first Pascal compiler was designed in Zurich for the CDC 6000 series mainframe computer family.


The first Pascal compiler written in North America was constructed at the University of Illinois under Donald B. Gillies for the PDP-11. Pascal, in its original form, is a purely procedural language and includes the traditional array of Algol-like control structures with reserved words such as if, then, else, while, for, and so on.

• Char les Ba bba ge, (26 December 1791 London, England – 18 October 1871 Marylebone, London, England) • Soon after the attempt at making the difference engine crumbled,Babbage started designing a different, more complex machine called the Analytical Engine.

In 1824, Babbage won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society "for his invention of an engine for calculating mathematical and astronomical tables. Babbage also achieved notable results in cryptography. Babbage twice stood for Parliament as a candidate for the borough of Finsbury. In 1832 he came in third among five candidates, but in 1834 he finished last

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (also Leibnitz or von Leibniz (July 1 (June 21 Old Style) 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath who wrote primarily in Latin and French.  He occupies an equally grand place in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathematics.


He also wrote on politics, law, ethics, theology, history, and philology, even occasional verse. Leibniz's best known contribution to metaphysics is his theory of monads, as exposited in Monadologie.

• The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called the Mark I by Harvard University, was the first large-scale automatic digital computer in the USA. • The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (Harvard Mark I) was the first operating machine that could execute long computations


Von Neumann's abstract treatment permitted him also to confront the foundational issue of determinism vs. non-determinism. His first significant contribution was the minimax theorem of 1928. This theorem establishes that in certain zero sum games involving perfect

► Von

Neumann's second important contribution in this area was the solution, in 1937, of a problem first described by Léon Walras in 1874. ► Von Neumann's principal contribution to the atomic bomb itself was in the concept and design of the explosive lenses.

Neumann's hydrogen bomb work was also played out in the realm of computing.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful