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Instructor: Seth Oppong
At the end of this module, you should be able to understand the following:
± Individual in the organisation ± Personality: The big Five Factors ± Oppong s criticisms and revision of The Big Five Factors ± Self-esteem ± Attitudes ± Self-awareness and disclosure ± Johari Window for Self-awareness and disclosure
Farnham and Horton (1996) define an organisation as
social constructs created by groups in society to achieve specific purposes by means of planned and coordinated activities. These activities involves using human resources to act in association with other inanimate resources in order to achieve the aims of the organisation
Pugh (1990) defines an organisation as a system
of inter-dependent human beings.
Role of Individual in Organisation
If an organisation is made up individuals who work together, then understanding of the individuals at work and how well each can interact with one another is crucial to developing an effective workforce. Understanding others should begin with understanding ourselves.
Self-concept is the way you see or picture yourself. Self-concept is the way you conceive yourself and this conception of yourself is the foundation of your self-esteem. Self-concept has a lot to do with knowing one s strengths and weaknesses.
Types of Self-concept
± Is the way you would like to be or plan to become
± Is the self you assume others see when they look at you
± Is the way you honestly feel about yourself.
± Is the way you really are when nobody is around to approve or disapprove.
What is the ideal situation?
That is when Ideal self = Looking-glass self = Self-image = Real self
Pleasing yourself and pleasing others
Having a healthy self-concept means not allowing yourself to be a slave to other people s opinions. On the other hand, it is a bit uncomfortable being around people who do not need anyone to like them or accept them. Balancing the need to being yourself and pleasing others is instrumental to developing a healthy self-concept.
Lamberton and Minor-Evans (2002) defines self-esteem as the regard in which an individual holds himself or herself. Coppersmith (1967) also defines it as the extent to which an individual believes himself or herself to be capable, sufficient, and worthy. Do you wonder why some people brag about themselves?
± Most people who always have a need to tell about their accomplishments are actually compensating in some way for low self-esteem.
Why know your self-esteem?
Liking and accepting yourself is one of the most important skills you can learn in life. All relationships you have or will have with others will be affected by the way you see yourself, accept or reject yourself, and assume others feel about you. What is known is that people with low selfesteem tend to have more emotional problems than others It is also known that low self-esteem is fairly widespread.
Why develop high self-esteem?
1. People with high self-esteem are more likely to succeed at their personal goals and career goals 2. Positive self-esteem is often the key factor that separates success from failure. If you believe you are good enough to succeed, your chances of success are much higher than they would without such a belief. 3. Work performance of individuals with low self-esteem suffers. That is, such people tend to experience anxiety, depression, aggressiveness, feelings of resentment and alienation, unhappiness, and insomnia.
Why develop high self-esteem? Cont d.
4. People with low self-esteem also feel awkward in social settings, including the workplace. 5. Low self-esteem is associated with low job satisfaction, and even a higher likelihood of unemployment. This is because such people usually work with little enthusiasm or commitment.
How does self-esteem develop?
It starts to develop in early childhood. As a result, self-esteem starts to develop at home with parents playing an important role in its formation. For younger children, parents play a vital role in its formation while for older children and adolescents, their teachers, friends, coaches, and others build or destroy their self-esteem.
How does self-esteem develop?
Unconditional positive regard High Self-esteem
Unconditional positive regard- is the acceptance of individuals as worthy regardless of what their behaviour at the moment may be.
Conditional positive regard
Conditional positive regard- is the acceptance of individuals as worthy only when they behave in a certain way.
The ability to see yourself realistically, without a great deal of difference between what you are and what you assume others see you. In other words, better self-awareness means developing a better looking-glass self (the self you assume others see when they look at you)
The JOHARI window
Information known to you Information known to others Open/Public Information Unknown to you Blind spot
Information unknown to others
Nnoboa Session:Becoming aware of yourself
Write down 3 things about yourself that you believe
± (A) you and people who know you are aware of ± (B) only you know about yourself
Find a partner to do the following:
± your partner should tick those things you said about yourself at A and B that he or she agrees with as description of you. ± your partner should write down three things he or she knows about you that you are not aware of
Involves letting another person know your real thoughts, desires, and feelings. ± It means expanding the open pane by reducing the hidden, blind spot, and the unknown. Disclosure leads to openness and honesty both of which are needed in the workplace for open communication.
Why are people encouraged to hold information about themselves?
To feel all-powerful To control the feelings of others To feel superior to those around them To believe that they are perfect To have everyone s approval To feel safe from people who might challenge them To deny that they have problems To avoid the feelings of inadequacy
Consequences of Failure to selfdisclose
Loss of relationships Waste of time and energy
± It wastes a lot of time trying to create and maintain a false image.
Loss of sense of identity
± Failure to self-disclose may hinder one s self-acceptance and assertiveness because much of self-knowledge comes through close and genuine contacts with others.
Slowdown of personal growth
± Failure to self-disclose also means loss of opportunity to have advise to deal with personal problems.
When is self-disclosure appropriate?
When it is a function of an ongoing relationship When it occurs reciprocally When it is timed to fit what is happening When it moves by relatively small increments When account is taken of the effect disclosure has on the other persons When it is speeded up in a crisis
It is the position that results from the beliefs and feelings people have about themselves and others Attitude has three components:
± Thoughts ± Feelings/emotions ± Actions
Attitudes are usually linked to self-esteem
± People with low self-esteem will often show attitudes that are not based on the way things really are, rather on their own feelings of inadequacy.
What makes a good attitude?
Healthy self-esteem Optimism
± being hopeful
Knowing how to interact with others Developing sense of personal control
± The power over one s destiny.
Attitude and Work performance
Both employees and managers hold attitudes at work. Usually, employees attitude is directed at their job of which the management is part. Managers also direct their attitude towards the employees.
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X Assumptions
People do not like work and try to avoid it. People do not like work, so managers have to control, direct, coerce, and threaten employees to get them to work toward organizational goals. People prefer to be directed, to avoid responsibility, and to want security; they have little ambition.
Theory Y Assumptions
People do not dislike work; work is a natural part of their lives. People are internally motivated to reach objectives to which they are committed. People are committed to goals to the degree that they receive rewards when they reach their objectives. People both seek and accept responsibility under favorable conditions. People can be innovative in solving problems. People are bright, but under most organizational conditions their potentials are underutilized.
How does management s attitude affect employee performance?
According to Livingston (1979), if managers have positive attitude and expect employees to be highly productive, they will be highly productive. He introduced the concept of Pygmalion effect
± This states that supervisors attitudes and expectations of employees and how they treat them largely determine their performance. However, Pygmalion effect is used to refer to the communication of positive and high expectations that lead to high performance. ± Golem effect is used to refer to the situation where managers communicate negative and low expectations of employees.
What about your own expectations about yourself?
± The tendency for high self-expectations to result in high performance. ± Experience with success helps to build that selfexpectations. ± Self-fulfilling prophecy explains this phenomenon.
It states that an individual will perform as well or as poorly as he or she expects himself or herself to perform. This expectation usually comes from what others think and say about them!
May be defined as the relatively stable set of traits that aids in explaining and predicting individual behaviour. Other definitions of personality:
± The consistent, enduring, and unique characteristics of a person ± Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Understanding personality has relevance for the following work practices:
± Recruitment and selection ± Personal development ± Teamworking
Theories of personality
Psychoanalytic theory proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence our personality Trait theory characteristics that account for consistent behaviour patterns can be identified and studied Humanistic theory focuses on our inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment Social-cognitive perspective emphasizes how we shape and are shaped by our environment (both physical and social)
Relative Importance of Environment and Traits in influencing behaviour
In a review of the person-situation debate, Stewart and Barrick (2004) concluded that traits are most likely to predict, explain and influence behaviour in weak job environments that are characterized by complexity, less structure and allow for autonomy. In other words, traits influence behaviour in a less structured and more complex environment while the influence of traits is almost nil in less complex and more structured environments.
Five Factor Model
Factor Conscientiousness Emotional Stability/neuroticism Openness to experience Extraversion Agreeableness Trait Orderly, organized, dependable, meticulous, thorough, industrious, etc. Passionless, autonomous, not anxious, not nervous, unemotional, etc. Contemplative, intellectual, meditative, insightful, artistic, smart, etc. Sociable, gregarious, expressive, communicative, energetic, carefree, etc. Accommodating, helpful, cooperative, pleasant, polite, trustful, etc.
The Five factor and Performance
Two meta-analyses (Hurtz & Donvan, 2000; Salgado, 2003)have concluded that personality is associated with job performance, with conscientiousness being the best predictor. The conclusion that conscientiousness is related with high work performance has also been confirmed in a more recent study by Higgins et al (2007).
How culturally universal are these five factors of personality?
Is this five-factor framework applicable to all cultures including Ghana s and Africa s? Rossier et al (2005) concluded from a study of 470 Burkinabes that
this study suggests that even if the FFM is universally applicable, it more adequately maps personality in some cultural contexts (Western cultures) than others (non-Western cultures) and raises the possibility that there may be regional differences in structure.
Their study indicated that probably only conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness are universal traits that cut across different cultures
Personality Factors and their associated traits in Burkina Faso (Rossier et al 2005)
Factor Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to experience Love versus Hate Submission versus Dominance Trait Orderly, organized, dependable, meticulous, thorough, industrious, etc. Passionless, autonomous, not anxious, not nervous, unemotional, etc. Contemplative, intellectual, meditative, insightful, artistic, smart, etc. Warmth, gregariousness, positive emotions, trust, altruism, tender-mindedness, etc. Frank (S), compliant (S), modest (S), assertive (D), active (D), Excitement-seeking (D), etc.
Oppong s (Course instructor) Reconstruction from Burkinabe Study by Rossier et al (2005)
Factor Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to experience Humanitarianism/sociability Unassuming (Not showing off) Self-assurance Trait Orderly, organized, dependable, meticulous, thorough, industrious, etc. Passionless, autonomous, not anxious, not nervous, unemotional, etc. Contemplative, intellectual, meditative, insightful, artistic, smart, etc. Warmth, gregariousness, positive emotions, trust, altruism, tender-mindedness, etc. Truthful, compliant, modest, etc. Assertive, Active, Excitement-seeking, etc.
Personality Types: MBTI
Based on the well-known research of Carl Jung, Katharine C. Briggs, and Isabel Briggs Myers Theory of Personality Types contends that: An individual is either primarily Extraverted or Introverted An individual is either primarily Sensing or iNtuitive An individual is either primarily Thinking or Feeling An individual is either primarily Judging or Perceiving The possible combinations of the basic preferences form 16 different Personality Types. Learning about other people's Personality Types help us understand the most effective way to communicate with them, and how they function best.
Briggs-Myers Type Indicator
ISTJ Introverted Sensing with auxiliary extraverted Thinking ISTP Introverted Thinking with auxiliary extraverted Sensing ESTP Extraverted Sensing with auxiliary introverted Thinking ISFJ INTJ INFJ Introverted Sensing with Introverted iNtuition with Introverted iNtuition with auxiliary extraverted auxiliary extraverted auxiliary extraverted Feeling Feeling Thinking ISFP Introverted Feeling with auxiliary extraverted Sensing INFP Introverted Feeling with auxiliary extraverted iNtuition INTP Introverted Thinking with auxiliary extraverted iNtuition
ESFP ENTP ENFP Extraverted Sensing with Extraverted iNtuition with Extraverted iNtuition with auxiliary introverted auxiliary introverted auxiliary introverted Feeling Feeling Thinking ENFJ Extraverted Feeling with auxiliary introverted iNtuition ENTJ Extraverted Thinking with auxiliary introverted iNtuition
ESFJ ESTJ Extraverted Feeling with Extraverted Thinking with auxiliary introverted auxiliary introverted Sensing Sensing