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Stress Components

 Stress is the internal force exerted by one part of an elastic body upon the adjoining part.

 Stress has a dimension of Newton/m2

 Generally, they are 6 independent components of

stress at each point.

uniaxial stress

Normal stress or uniaxial stress, σ - stress is evenly distributed over the entire cross-section.
Normal stress includes tensile and compressive stress

Fatigue is the weakening of a

material caused by repeatedly
applied loads. It is the progressive
and localised structural damage
that occurs when a material is
subjected to cyclic loading.

Fracture is the separation of a body into two or more pieces in response to an imposed stress
• Steps in Fracture:

Crack formation
Crack propagation
Fracture Modes

ductile brittle

most metals (not too cold) ceramics, ice, cold metals

Ductile Fracture

• Necking

• Formation of microvoids

• Coalescence of microvoids to form a crack

• Crack propagation by shear deformation

• Fracture

The effort of fatigue under multiaxial stress prevention/reduction can be

summarized as:

• Use stronger, more capable materials

• Avoid, soften when inevitable, stress concentrations

• Provide protection against corrosion.

• Keep residual stress at surface, if any, in compression

• Monitor extreme or frequent changes in temperature…