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ADAMA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVESRITY

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF VEHICLE AND MECHANICAL SYSTEM

FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS

YEAR: 4TH

ACADEMIC YEAR 2018/2019

BY SIRAJ K.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO FARM MACHINERY


1. Farm Mechanization
Mechanization of agriculture was an important factor in
reducing labor demands for farming and making it
available to develop other industries.
Mechanized agriculture is, however, energy and capital
intensive.
Energy costs and the availability of capital to buy
machines determine the level of mechanization in a
society.
Thus, production agriculture is facing many challenges.
Farm mechanization is an important element of
modernization of agriculture.
Farm Productivity is positively correlated with
the availability of farm power coupled with
efficient farm implements and their judicious
utilization.
Agricultural mechanization not only enables
efficient utilization of various inputs such as
seeds, fertilizers, plant protection chemicals
and water for irrigation but also it helps in
poverty alleviation by making farming an
attractive enterprise.
There is no doubt that agricultural mechanization
for the multitude of smallholder farmers in sub-
Saharan Africa (SSA) has been a neglected issue for
too long.
The application of farm power to appropriate tools,
implements and machines – “farm mechanization” –
is an essential agricultural input with the potential
to transform rural families’ livelihoods by facilitating
increased output of higher value products while
eliminating the drudgery associated with human
muscle-powered agricultural production.
Such an improved situation for smallholder
farmers can enable access to input supply chains
and integration in modern food systems and thus
provide for more income, renewed business
opportunities and further value addition.
 Moreover agricultural mechanization in its
broadest sense can contribute significantly to the
development of food systems, as it has the
potential to render post-harvest, processing and
marketing activities and functions more efficient,
effective and environmentally friendly.
FAO (2014b) summarizes the main
reasons for changing the power source
for crop production from muscles (human
or animal) to tractors:
i. Potential to expand the area under cultivation.
ii. Ability to perform operations at the right time
to maximize production potential.
iii. Multi-functionality – tractors can be used, not
only for crop production,
iv. Compensation for seasonal labour shortages
v. Reduction of the drudgery associated with the
use of human muscle power for tasks,
Farm Power is an essential input in agriculture
for timely field operations for increasing
production and productivity of land.
Farm power is used for operating different types
of machinery like tillage, planting, plant
protection, harvesting and threshing machinery
and other stationary jobs like operating
irrigation equipment, threshers/ shellers /
cleaners/ graders, etc.
2. Sources of Farm Power
A. Mobile Power
1. Human (men, women, children), 2. Draught animals
(bullocks, buffaloes, camels, horses and ponies, mules and
donkeys), 3. Tractors, 4. Power tillers, 5. Self propelled
machines (combines, dozers, reapers, sprayers etc.)
B. Stationary Power
1. Diesel/oil engines (for pump sets, threshers, sprayers
and other stationary operations)
2. Electric motors (for pump sets, threshers, sprayers and
other stationary operations)
Sources of farm power
There are different sources of farm power
available which are classified as
(i) Human power
(ii) Animal power
(iii) Mechanical power (Tractors + Power tillers +
Oil engines)
(iv) Electrical power
(v) Renewable energy (Biogas + Solar energy +
Wind energy)
HUMAN POWER
Human power is the main source for
operating small implements and tools at
the farm.
Stationary work like chaff cutting, lifting,
water, threshing, winnowing etc. are also
done by manual labour.
An average man can develop maximum
power of about 0.1 hp for doing farm
ANIMAL POWER
The most important source of power on the
farm all over the world is animal.
Power developed by an average pair of bullocks
about 1 hp for usual farm work.
Bullocks are employed for all types farm work
in all seasons.
Besides bullocks, other animals like camels,
buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules and
elephants are also used at some places.
ANIMAL POWER
The average force a draft animal can exert is
nearly one-tenth of its body weight
It is estimated that nearly 80 per cent of the
total draft power used in agriculture throughout
the world is still provided by animals, although
the number of agricultural tractors has become
double after every ten years since 1930.
The thermal efficiency of diesel engine varies
from 32 to 38 per cent whereas that of petrol
engine varies from 25 to 32 per cent.
In modern days, almost all the tractors and
power tillers are operated by diesel engines.
Diesel engines are used for operating irrigation
pumps, flour mills, oil ghanis, cotton gins, chaff
cutter, sugarcane crusher, threshers,
winnowers etc
MECHANICAL POWER
Broadly speaking, mechanical power includes
stationary oil engines, tractors , power tillers
and self propelled combines.
Internal combustion engine is a good device for
converting liquid fuel into useful
work(mechanical work).
These engines are two types
(1) Spark ignition engines (Petrol or Kerosene
engine)
(2) Compression ignition engines (Diesel engines)
ELECTRICAL POWER
Electrical power is used mostly in the form of
electrical motors on the farms.
Motor is a very useful machine for farmers.
It is clean, quest and smooth running.
Its maintenance and operation needs less attention
and care.
The operating cost remains almost constant
throughout its life.
Electrical power is used for water pumping, diary
industry, cold storage, farm product processing, fruit
industry and many similar things
RENEWABLE ENERGY
It is the energy mainly obtained from renewable
sources of energy like sun, wind, biomass etc.
Biogas energy, wind energy and solar energy are
used in agriculture and domestic purposes with
suitable devices.
Renewable energy can be used for lighting,
cooking, water heating, space heating, water
distillation, food processing, water pumping, and
electric generation.
This type of energy is inexhaustible in nature.
WIND POWER
The availability of wind power for farm work is
quite limited.
Where the wind velocity is more than 32 km/hr,
wind mills can be used for lifting water.
Even today the wind power has not been fully
harnessed.
3. Mechanical Power Transmission Devices
1 V-BELT DRIVES
V-belts are employed extensively in agricultural
machinery applications in which it is not necessary to
maintain exact speed ratios.
V-belts tend to cushion shock loads, do not require
lubrication, and are less likely to become misaligned
than are other types of drives.
They can be operated at speeds as high as 33 m/s,
although speeds in agricultural machinery applications
seldom exceed 15 m/s. V-belts are not suitable for high
torque at low speeds.
2. CHAIN DRIVES
 Perhaps the first use of a chain drive was made in a
reaper by Cyrus McCormick in 1837.
 Today chain drives play an important part in many
agricultural machines such as hay balers, corn pickers,
combines, cotton pickers, and beet harvesters.
 As opposed to V-belt drives, chain drives are used
where it is important to maintain an exact speed ratio.
 Another benefit is that chain drives are capable of
transmitting a large amount of power at slower speeds.
 However, chain drives require better shaft alignment
and more maintenance than V-belt drives.
3.POWER-TAKE-OFF DRIVES
A power-take-off (PTO) drive provides a means for
transmitting rotary power to machines that are coupled
to a tractor.
 The most common location for the PTO shaft is at the
rear of the tractor, but some tractors have auxiliary
PTO shafts at other locations.
 The direction of rotation, rotational speed, approximate
location, and exact dimensions of the PTO shaft were
standardized by the ASAE in 1926 so that equipment of
different manufacturers could be interchanged.
With growth in tractorsize, it became necessary to
develop faster and larger PTO shafts to transmit
the increased available power.
They are the 35 mm (diameter) shafts with
standard rotation speeds of 540 rev/min and 1000
rev/min.
The shaft with a standard speed of 540 rev/min is
used on tractors with up to 65 kW PTO power.
The 35 mm shaft with a standard speed of 1000
rev/min is used on tractors with 45 to 120 kW of
PTO power.