You are on page 1of 10

Combined cycles in

power generation
• Luis Enrique Hernández Campillo
• Pedro Rodríguez de Leija
• Guillermo Daniel Muñoz Martínez
• Nayma Rodríguez del Valle
• Rodrigo García Molina
• Alan Zavala Mozqueda
• Adrián Alcorta Rodríguez
What are combined cycles?

 These are power


generation stations in
which the thermal energy
of natural gas is
transformed into
electricity through two
consecutive cycles: one
corresponding to a
conventional gas turbine
and the other to a steam
turbine.
 This type of power plants is characterized by the use made
of the heat generated in the combustion of the gas turbine,
which is taken to a heat recovery element and used to
move one or several steam turbines. These two turbines, gas
and steam, are coupled to a common alternator that
converts the mechanical energy generated by the turbines
into electrical energy. Environmental benefits of the
combined cycle.
Environmental benefits of the
combined cycle.

 1.- The performance in combined cycle power plants is much


higher (58% compared to 36% for a conventional power plant). That
is, with a lower consumption of primary energy, a greater
production of electrical energy is achieved. This means both
environmental and economic advantages.
 2.- The performance in combined cycle power plants is much
higher (58% compared to 36% for a conventional power plant). That
is, with a lower consumption of primary energy, a greater
production of electrical energy is achieved. This means both
environmental and economic advantages.
 3.- A combined cycle power plant requires only one third of the
cooling water required in conventional thermal power plants for
steam condensation.
 4.- The transport and supply of primary energy (natural gas) is done
through a buried gas pipeline, so that the impact derived from the
circulation of trucks or trains supplying coal or fuel oil is avoided.
 5.- Combined cycle power plants can be built near the places where
electricity will be consumed. In this way the power lines are shortened,
which reduces the inevitable electricity losses and reduces the visual
impact.
Configurations of combined cycles
 In the configuration of a combined gas-steam cycle, it is
relatively frequent for several gas turbines to feed the
steam produced by their heat recovery boilers to a
single steam turbine.
Multi-axis configuration 1x1
Pros: Cons:
• Possibility of operation with only • It requires two alternators and two
the gas turbine, diverting the transformers with the consequent
gases to the atmosphere if increase in investment.
necessary. • Greater need for space.
• Greater availability of the gas • Largest crane bridge.
turbine, being able to operate it
in case of steam turbine failure.
• It admits the condenser with axial
and inferior dispositions.
• By having two alternators it can
supply electric power with two
voltages.
• Easy maintenance of generators
and turbines.
Single-axle 1x1 configuration with
clutch
• Pros: • Cons:
• Requires an alternator less • Less flexibility of operation
than the multi-axis than multi-axis configuration,
configuration. since in general this
• The generator, when located configuration does not usually
between the gas turbine and have by-pass chimney.
the steam turbine, provides a • Evacuation of energy through
better balance to the whole. a single generator and
• Lower investment cost than therefore, lower reliability of
multi-axis configuration. the whole. In the multi-axis
• Lower civil works cost. This is configuration each alternator
due to the lower necessary through its transformer can
height of the pedestal of the feed transport systems with
turbogenerator, since the different voltages.
capacitor can be arranged • Greater difficulty in the
axially. revision of the generator,
having to move it laterally to
be able to extract its rotor.
Single-axle 1x1 configuration without
clutch
The advantages and disadvantages with respect to the multi-axis
configuration are similar to those described in the mono-axle
configuration with clutch with the following differentiating elements:

 The fact of having the generator at one end facilitates its revision
and inspection.
 Since the capacitor can not be located axially, this configuration
requires a higher height pedestal and greater investment in civil
works than in the single-axle configuration with clutch.
 In contrast to the rest of the configurations, the static starter of the
gas turbine is of greater power, since it has to drag the steam
turbine at the beginning of the running.
2x1 configuration
Pros: Cons:
• Lower investment cost than two • La avería de la turbina de vapor
mono-axes of the same power deja fuera de servicio todo el
(approximately 10%). ciclo combinado si no se dispone
• Greater flexibility of operation, de by-pass de gases en las
by enabling operation with a gas turbinas de gas.
turbine and a steam turbine and
quickly start the second gas
turbine.
• Better performance at partial
loads, and especially at 50%
load, since the power can be
reduced in only one of the gas
turbines.
• Easy access for maintenance of
generators.