- Analysis EMI of a PFC on the Band Pass 150kHz30MHz
- 10jan2sp
- Nkumba Senior s5 Phy
- Manual de Servicio K LED43FHDRST2
- RE Various v1
- DC Electric Circuits 16 Inductors
- Motor Parameters
- How to Select Transient Voltage Supressors
- High Freq Noise &I solation
- PAPER (4)
- 25510-A New Calculation for Designing Multi Layer Planar Spiral Inductors PDF
- AN-2
- Sample Syllabus
- PAPER (10)
- Wipro InfoTech Placement Papers
- Transformer
- GR Exp 1970_03
- Intro Physics 2.a4
- Data Sheet
- Electronic Components

You are on page 1of 46

AC BRIDGES

Introduction

• AC bridges are used to measure inductance

and capacitance.

• All the AC bridges are based on the

Wheatstone bridge.

• In the AC bridge the bridge circuit consists of

four impedances and an ac voltage source.

• The impedances can either be pure

resistance or complex impedance.

• Other than measurement of unknown

impedance, AC bridge are commonly used for

shifting phase.

General AC Bridge Circuit.

Operation of AC Bridge:

When the specific circuit

conditions apply, the detector

current becomes zero, which is

known as null or balance

condition.

Since zero current, it means that

there is no voltage difference

across the detector, Figure 7.2.

Voltage at point b and c are equal.

I1 Z1 I 2 Z 2

The same thing at point d.

I1 Z 3 I 2 Z 4

• From two above equation

yield general bridge Figure 2: Equivalent of

Balance (nulled) AC Bridge.

equation;

Operation of AC Bridge:

Z1 Z 4 Z 2 Z 3 Z1 1 Z 4 4 Z 2 2 Z 3 3

Z1 Z 4 Z 2 Z 3

The second condition for balance requires that the

sums of the phase angles of opposite arms be

equal,

1+ 4 = 2 + 3

Simple AC Bridge Circuit

Sources and Detectors for A.C bridges

Sources:

• Power line ( low frequency)

• Electronic Oscillators ( High Frequency)

Detectors:

• Head phones (250 Hz to 3 or 4 kHz)

• Vibration galvanometers (5 Hz to 1000 Hz,

preferred below 200 Hz)

• Tunable amplifier detectors (10 Hz to 100 kHz.)

MEASUREMENT OF INDUCTANCE

• Maxwell’s Bridge:

– Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge

– Maxwell’s inductance Capacitance Bridge

• Hay’s Bridge

• Anderson’s Bridge

• Owen’s Bridge

Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge

Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge

(Derivation)

Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge

(Final Equation)

Maxwell’s Inductance Bridge

(Phasor Diagram under Balancing Condition )

Maxwell’s inductance capacitance bridge

by comparison with a standard variable

capacitance.

• The connection is shown in figure.

• One of the ratio arms has a resistance

and capacitance in parallel.

Maxwell’s inductance capacitance bridge

( Derivation)

Let, L1 – unknown inductance of resistance R1.

R1 – Variable inductance of fixed resistance r1.

R2, R3, R4 – variable resistance connected in

series with inductor L2.

C4 – known non-inductance resistance

Maxwell’s inductance capacitance bridge

( Derivation)

Maxwell’s inductance capacitance bridge

(Phasor Diagram under Balancing Condition )

Advantages & Disadvantages of the

Maxwell’s Bridges

Advantages:

• The balance equation of the circuit is free from frequency.

• Both the balance equations are independent of each other.

• The Maxwell’s inductor capacitance bridge is used for the

measurement of the high range inductance.

Disadvantages:

• The Maxwell inductor capacitance bridge requires a variable

capacitor which is very expensive. Thus, sometimes the

standard variable capacitor is used in the bridges.

• The bridge is only used for the measurement of medium

quality coils. 1<Q<10

Hay’s Bridge

• It is used for determining the self-

inductance of the circuit.

• The bridge is

the advanced form of Maxwell’s bridge.

• The Maxwell’s bridge is only appropriate

for measuring the medium quality factor.

• Hence, for measuring the high-quality

factor the Hays bridge is used in the circuit.

• The unknown inductor L1 is placed in the

arm ab along with the resistance R1.

• The C4 and R4 are adjusted for making the

bridge in the balanced condition.

Hay’s Bridge (Derivation)

• Let,

L1 – unknown inductance having a resistance R1

R2, R3, R4 – known non-inductive resistance.

C4 – standard capacitor.

At balance condition,

obtain

Hay’s Bridge (Derivation)

frequency term. Thus for finding the value of unknown inductance the

frequency of the supply must be known.

Hay’s Bridge (Derivation)

Phasor Diagram of Hay’s Bridge

Advantages & Disadvantages of the Hay’s

Bridge

Advantages:

• This bridge give a simple expression for the unknown

inductances and are suitable for the coil having the quality

factor greater than the 10 .

• It gives a simple equation for quality factor.

• The Hay’s bridge uses small value resistance for determining

the Q factor.

Disadvantages:

• it is not suitable for the measurement of the coil having the

quality factor less than 10.

Anderson’s Bridge

• It is the advanced

form of Maxwell’s inductance

capacitance bridge.

• In this bridge, the unknown

inductance is compared with

the standard fixed capacitance

which is connected between the

two arms of the bridge.

Anderson’s Bridge (Derivation)

Let,

L1 – unknown inductance having a resistance R1.

r 1 and r – Standard variable resistances

R2, R3, R4 – known non-inductive resistance

C – standard capacitor

At balance Condition,

Now,

Anderson’s Bridge (Derivation)

The other balance condition equation is

expressed as

equation we get,

and

Anderson’s Bridge (Derivation)

on equating the equation, we get

Phasor Diagram of Anderson’s Bridge

Advantages & Disadvantages of the

Anderson’s Bridge

Advantages:

• The balance point is easily obtained on the Anderson bridge as

compared to Maxwell’s inductance capacitance bridge.

• The bridge uses fixed capacitor because of which accurate reading is

obtained.

• The bridge measures the accurate capacitances in terms of

inductances.

Disadvantages:

• The circuit has more arms which make it more complex as compared

to Maxwell’s bridge. The equation of the bridge is also more complex.

• The bridge has an additional junction which arises the difficulty in

shielding the bridge.

Owen’s Bridge

• This bridge measures the inductance in terms

of capacitance.

Owen’s Bridge (Derivation)

Let, L1 – unknown self-inductance of resistance R1

R2 – variable non-inductive resistance

R3 – fixed non-inductive resistance

C2 – variable standard capacitor

C4 – fixed standard capacitor

At balance condition,

And,

Phasor Diagram of Owen’s Bridge

Advantages & Disadvantages of the Owen’s

Bridge

Advantages:

• The balance equation is easily obtained.

• The balance equation is simple and does not contain any

frequency component

• The bridge is used for the measurement of the large range

inductance.

Disadvantages:

• The bridge uses an expensive capacitor which increases the

cost of the bridge and also it gives a one percent accuracy.

• The value of the fixed capacitor C2 is much larger than the

quality factor Q2

MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE

• De sauty Bridge

• Schering Bridge

MEASUREMENT OF FREQUENCY

• Wien’s Bridge

De Sauty Bridge

• It is suitable method for comparing

the two values of capacitor if we

neglect dielectric losses in the

bridge circuit.

Phasor Diagram of De Sauty Bridge

Advantages and disadvantages of

De Sauty bridge

• Advantage:

– The simplicity of the bridge.

• Disadvantage:

– It is almost impossible to obtain balance if

capacitors are not free from dielectric

losses.

– By using this method only Air-capacitors

can be compared.

Schering Bridge

• Used for measuring

the capacitance of the

capacitor, dissipation

factor, properties of an

insulator, capacitor

bushing, insulating oil

and other insulating

materials.

Schering Bridge

Let,

• C1 – capacitor whose capacitance is to be

determined,

• r1 – a series resistance, representing the loss of

the capacitor C1.

• C2 – a standard capacitor (The term standard

capacitor means the capacitor is free from loss)

• R3 – a non-inductive resistance

• C4 – a variable capacitor.

• R4 – a variable non-inductive resistance parallel

with variable capacitor C4.

Schering Bridge

• When the bridge is in the balanced condition, zero

current passes through the detector, which shows

that the potential across the detector is zero. At

balance condition.

The equation (1) and (2) are the balanced equation, and it is free from the

frequency.

Phasor Diagram of Schering Bridge

• The dissipation factor and Loss angle obtains with the help of the phasor

diagram.

• The dissipation factor determines the rate of loss of energy that occurs because

of the oscillations of the electrical and mechanical instrument.

Advantages of Schering bridge

• Balance equations are free from

frequency.

• The arrangement of the bridge is less

costly as compared to the other

bridges.

Wien’s Bridge

• use in AC circuits for determining the

value of unknown frequency.

• The bridge measures the frequencies

from 100Hz to 100kHz.

• The accuracy of the bridges lies

between 0.1 to 0.5 percent.

• The bridge is used for various other

applications

like capacitance measurement,

harmonic distortion analyzer and in

the HF frequency oscillator.

Wien’s Bridge

• This bridge is frequency sensitive.

• So, it is difficult to obtain the balance

point in it.

• The input supply voltage is not purely

sinusoidal, and they have some

harmonics.

• The harmonics of the supply voltage

disturbs the balance condition of the

bridge.

• To overcome this problem the filter is

used in the bridge. The filter connects

in series with the null detector.

Wien’s Bridge

Wien’s Bridge

- Analysis EMI of a PFC on the Band Pass 150kHz30MHzUploaded byBrehaut
- 10jan2spUploaded byAnti Tech play
- Nkumba Senior s5 PhyUploaded byMulangira Mulangira
- Manual de Servicio K LED43FHDRST2Uploaded byHamza Abbasi Abbasi
- RE Various v1Uploaded byVincent J. Cataldi
- DC Electric Circuits 16 InductorsUploaded byMahmoud Basho
- Motor ParametersUploaded byMohsin Siddiqi
- How to Select Transient Voltage SupressorsUploaded bycesaramartins
- High Freq Noise &I solationUploaded bySuneet Kumar Rath
- PAPER (4)Uploaded byChennaiSuperkings
- 25510-A New Calculation for Designing Multi Layer Planar Spiral Inductors PDFUploaded bykiband1
- AN-2Uploaded bymurad_warraich
- Sample SyllabusUploaded byalecksander2005
- PAPER (10)Uploaded byChennaiSuperkings
- Wipro InfoTech Placement PapersUploaded byGaurav Gujar
- TransformerUploaded byYugandhar Veeramachaneni
- GR Exp 1970_03Uploaded byPedralhada
- Intro Physics 2.a4Uploaded bysherrytangy
- Data SheetUploaded byqwertyui
- Electronic ComponentsUploaded byDevidutta Panda
- Formula SheetUploaded byLegacyGrade12
- 1 APC Self InductanceUploaded byapmishra100
- an404Uploaded byhahakaka
- 10-02_jembatan_acUploaded byDhimas Arief Dharmawan
- Passive CompUploaded byThaiyalNayaki
- Equivalent Series Resistnace ESRUploaded byAubrey Holt
- JEE Main 2019 Paper Answer Physics 10-01-2019 2ndUploaded byDeepak Saini
- Passive RFIDUploaded bykahsif
- clas E inductor amplifeir.pdfUploaded byHoracio Dorantes Reyes
- Document 2 capacitor.docxUploaded bySibongakonke

- Ethiopian Proclamation No. 285-2002 Value Added TaxUploaded byTekeba Birhane
- Questions for Human Resources ManagementUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- Federal Income Tax ProclamationUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- NnnnnnnnnUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- Meseret SeminarUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- VDD PresentationUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- Proclamation No.285 2002Uploaded bykalehiwotkone
- General Rules for the Interpretation of the Harmonized SystUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- DEMEKU Final Seminar (1)Uploaded bykalehiwotkone
- DEMEKU final seminar (1).docxUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- IPS MOTORESUploaded byEDGAR MALDONADO
- Chapter 6 PPT_newUploaded bykalehiwotkone
- sinidu_DBU[1]Uploaded bykalehiwotkone

- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-Thermal Overload Motor Relay ProtectionUploaded byPierre Enrique Carrasco Fuentes
- Step Up ConverterUploaded byYakup Kadri Demirci
- NS127Uploaded byதுரைராஜ் இலட்சுமணன்
- bel and jto test paperUploaded byerjayprakashpatel
- Fundamental of Time Gated MeasurementUploaded byWan Aizuddin
- 55.a DQ Synchronous Reference Frame Control for Single-Phase ConvertersUploaded byKostas Konstantinou
- 1-2 apt12080lvrgUploaded byRick Johnson
- Electronics Write Up APP UpdatedUploaded bysaibharadwaj
- Bldg ServicesUploaded byAthiyo Martin
- 9783319508078-c2Uploaded byAshik Ahmed
- Draft Spec Batt ChargeUploaded byIndra Utama Ichsan
- Getting Started With OneDriveUploaded byAijaz Ahmed Shaikh
- Chapter_10_Field_Effect_Transistors.pdfUploaded byVikas Ps
- PLDC02126 - T.S.M. - CT 80 - Rev. 00 - EN.pdfUploaded byEriflona
- 4 Bit Manchester AdderUploaded byHacking_Deface
- NBA C6.docxUploaded bySatya Narayana
- Lab Manual SFE1013.docUploaded byNik Asyraf Syafiq
- Omega Insertion Fmg-550Uploaded bysavagedlove
- Tesla, Radiant Energy.1 _ Fuel-Efficient-Vehicles.org.pdfUploaded bybaywatch80
- Micro-Hydro Electricity Project KadugannawaUploaded byManoj Galbadaarachchi
- CompilationUploaded byEeHuey Choo
- ZVL Operating en 09Uploaded byJoc Gibaja C
- Репитер SHIYAM.pdfUploaded bymypanacea
- Final Exam Questions #6 - InterferenceUploaded byanonslu2012
- Load Switch XC8102Uploaded bygiusq
- WIKA te1201Uploaded byMmusi Kehetile
- Fisher FIELDVUE™ DVC6200 SIS Digital Valve ControllerUploaded byMADMAX5
- Sgs Performance Measurement SurveyUploaded byCOE201
- Operational AmplifiersUploaded byjimdigriz
- Wolfson Eup3 Ch25 Test BankUploaded byifghelpdesk

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.