SYSTEMS
Ali Karimpour
Associate Professor
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
lecture 5
Lecture 5
Topics to be covered include:
Nonlinear systems
،گرچه تقریبا تمام سیستمهای واقعی دارای رفتار غیر خطی هستند
بسیاری از سیستمها را می توان حداقل در یک رنج کاری خاص خطی
.نمود
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Example 1
Consider a continuous time system with true model
given by
Operating point: 6
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Example 1 (Continue)
Operating point:
f 1 3 f 2 4
A  x xQ ,u uQ B  x xQ ,u uQ uQ
x 2 xQ 8 u 3 3
3 4
x x u
8 3 7
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Example 2 (Pendulum)
Find the linear model around equilibrium point.
d 2
J 2 ul mgl sin , J ml 2
dt
θ l d 2 u g
sin x1 , x2
u dt 2 ml l
x1 x2 x1Q x2Q uQ 0
u g
mg x2 sin x1 is operating point
ml l
0 1 0
x1
x1 1 u
x g
2 0 x2
l ml
Remark: There is also another equilibrium point at x2=u=0, x1=π 9
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Equilibrium point:
x1 x2
0 1 0
g g x1 x1 0
x2 x1 2
x3 x g g
y0 My0 2 y 0 2 x2 0e(t )
My0
x3 0 x3 1
R1 e(t ) R1 11
x3 x3 0 0 L
L L L Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
lecture 5
Example 4 Consider the following nonlinear system. Suppose u(t)=0
and initial condition is x10=x20=1. Find the linearized system around
response of system.
1
x1 (t )
x2 (t ) 2
x2 (t ) u (t ) x1 (t )
x2 (t ) 0.x1 (t ) 0 x2 (t ) a 1
x1 (t ) 1 x1 (t ) t b t 1
x1 0 2 x1 0
x 0 u(t )
2 0 x2 1 t 12
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s 1 1 1
e s
e 2
3
2
1 s s2 s 3 ........ 1 s s2
2 6 2
s
e 2 1 s
s
e
2
Pade approximation
e 2
s
1 s
2
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Nonlinear model
where m = (M/m)
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Linear model
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s6 1 2 1
Step Response of c( s)
s( s 5s 6) s s 2 s 3
2
Example 6 (Continue)
s6
Transfer function G( s)
s 2 5s 6
Step Response
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
Amplitude
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time (sec)
z1= 6 z2=0.6
s6 1 2
c1 ( s)
1
s( s 5s 6) s s 2 s 3
2
c1 (t ) 1 2e
2t
1e 3t
u (t )
10s 6 8
c2 ( s)
1
7
s( s 5s 6) s s 2 s 3
2
c2 (t ) 1 7 e 2t
8e 3t
u (t )
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s6 10s 6
Transfer function G1 ( s )
s 2 5s 6
G2 ( s )
s 2 5s 6
y 5 y 6 y u u
y( s) s 1
2 It has a zero at z=1
u ( s ) s 5s 6
Open
loop Controller
Closed Controller
loop
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When is the open loop representation applicable? lecture 5
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SISO and MIMO lecture 5
u1 System y1
SISO
u1 y1
u2 System y2
u3 y3
MIMO
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Sensitivity حساسیت
Sensitivity حساسیت
r
K(s) G(s)
c M G( s) K ( s)
Open loop system M G G( s)
S K ( s) 1
G M K ( s)G ( s)
K ( s)G( s)
r + c M ( s)
K(s) G(s) 1 K ( s)G( s)

M G 1
Closed loop system S
G M 1 K ( s)G( s)
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a) system gain
b) system stability
c) system sensitivity
Exercises
s2 4
51 Find the poles and zeros of following system. G( s) 3
S 3s 2 3s 3
54 Find the step response of following system for a=1,3,6 and 9.
as 2
G ( s)
s 2 2s 2
55 Find the linear model of system in example 2 around 32
x2=u=0, x1=π Ali Karimpour Feb 2013