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LINEAR CONTROL

SYSTEMS
Ali Karimpour
Associate Professor
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
lecture 5

Lecture 5
Topics to be covered include:
 Nonlinear systems

 Linearization of nonlinear systems

 Transfer function representation


 Property
 Poles and zeros and their physical meaning
 SISO and MIMO
 Open loop and closed loop system
 Effect of feedback
 Characteristic equation for SISO system 2
Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
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Nonlinear systems. ‫سیستمهای غیر خطی‬

Although almost every real system includes


nonlinear features, many systems can be reasonably
described, at least within certain operating ranges, by
linear models.

،‫گرچه تقریبا تمام سیستمهای واقعی دارای رفتار غیر خطی هستند‬
‫بسیاری از سیستمها را می توان حداقل در یک رنج کاری خاص خطی‬
.‫نمود‬

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Nonlinear systems. ‫سیستمهای غیر خطی‬

Say that {xQ(t), uQ(t), yQ(t)} is a given set of trajectories that


satisfy the above equations, so we have

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Linearized system ‫سیستم خطی شده‬

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Example 1
Consider a continuous time system with true model
given by

Assume that the input u(t) fluctuates around u = 2.


Find an operating point with uQ = 2 and a linearized
model around it.
22 16
uQ  2  0   xQ   xQ 
3 9

Operating point: 6
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Example 1 (Continue)
Operating point:

f 1 3 f 2 4
A | x  xQ ,u uQ    B | x  xQ ,u uQ  uQ 
x 2 xQ 8 u 3 3

 3 4
x   x  u
8 3 7
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Simulation ‫شبیه سازی‬

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Example 2 (Pendulum)
Find the linear model around equilibrium point.
d 2
J 2  ul  mgl sin  , J  ml 2
dt
θ l d 2 u g
  sin  x1   , x2  
u dt 2 ml l
x1  x2 x1Q  x2Q  uQ  0
u g
mg x2   sin x1 is operating point
ml l
 0 1 0 
x1  
  x1    1 u
x    g  
 2  0 x2   
 l   ml 
Remark: There is also another equilibrium point at x2=u=0, x1=π 9
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Example 3 Suppose electromagnetic force is i2/y and


find linearzed model around y=y0
d2y i 2 (t )
M 2  Mg 
dt y
x1  y , x2  y , x3  i
di
e(t )  R1i  L
y dt
M
2
1 x3 R1 e(t )
x1  x2 x2  g  x3   x3 
M x1 L L

Equilibrium point:

x1Q  y0 x2 Q  0 x3Q  i Q  Mgy0 eQ  R1 Mgy0


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Example 3 Suppose electromagnetic force is i2/y and


find linearzed model around y=y0
2
1 x3 R1 e(t )
x1  x2 x2  g  x3   x3 
M x1 L L
y Equilibrium point: x1Q 
, x2Q , x3Q , eQ  y0 , 0 , Mgy0 , R1 Mgy0 
M

x1  x2  
 0 1 0   
g g x1    x1   0
x2  x1  2
 x3 x    g g    
y0 My0  2  y 0 2   x2    0e(t )
My0
x3   0  x3   1 
R1 e(t )  R1   11
x3   x3  0 0   L 
L L  L  Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
lecture 5
Example 4 Consider the following nonlinear system. Suppose u(t)=0
and initial condition is x10=x20=1. Find the linearized system around
response of system.

1
x1 (t ) 
x2 (t ) 2
x2 (t )  u (t ) x1 (t )
x2 (t )  0.x1 (t )  0  x2 (t )  a  1
x1 (t )  1  x1 (t )  t  b  t  1

x1  0 2 x1   0 
x   0     u(t )
 2  0 x2  1  t  12
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Linear model for time delay

 s 1 1 1
e  s  
e  2
 3
2
1 s  s2  s 3  ........ 1 s  s2
2 6 2


 s 
e 2 1 s
 s
e  
 2

Pade approximation
e 2
s
1 s
2
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Example 5(Inverted pendulum)


‫ پاندول معکوس‬5 ‫مثال‬

Figure 3.5: Inverted pendulum


In Figure 3.5, we have used the following notation:
y(t) - distance from some reference point
(t) - angle of pendulum
M - mass of cart
m - mass of pendulum (assumed concentrated at tip)
l - length of pendulum
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f(t) - forces applied to pendulum Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
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Example of an Inverted Pendulum

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Nonlinear model

Application of Newtonian physics to this system


leads to the following model:

where m = (M/m)

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Linear model

This is a linear state space model in which A, B and C are:

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TF model properties ‫خواص مدل تابع انتقال‬

1- It is available just for linear time invariant systems. (LTI)

2- It is derived by zero initial condition.


3- It just shows the relation between input and output so it
may lose some information.

4- It is just dependent on the structure of system and it is


independent to the input value and type.

5- It can be used to show delay systems but SS can not.


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Poles of Transfer function ‫قطب تابع انتقال‬


n( s )
Transfer function G( s) 
d ( s)

Pole: s=p is a value of s that the absolute value of TF is


infinite.

How to find it? Let d(s)=0 and find the roots

Why is it important? It shows the behavior of the system.


Why?????
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Poles and their physical meaning


Example 6
‫قطبها و خواص فیریکی آنها‬
s6
Transfer function G( s) 
s 2  5s  6
S2+5s+6=0  p1= -2, p2=-3 roots([1 5 6])

s6 1 2 1
Step Response of c( s)    
s( s  5s  6) s s  2 s  3
2

c(t )  1u(t )  2e 2t u(t )  1e 3t u(t )

p1= -2, p2=-3 20


Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
lecture 5

Example 6 (Continue)

s6
Transfer function G( s) 
s 2  5s  6
Step Response
1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
Amplitude

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Time (sec)

step([1 6],[1 5 6]) 21


Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
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Zeros of Transfer function ‫صفر تابع انتقال‬


n( s )
Transfer function G( s) 
d ( s)

Zero: s=z is a value of s that the absolute value of TF is zero.

Who to find it? Let n(s)=0 and find the roots

Why is it important? It also shows the behavior of system.


Why?????
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Example 7 Zeros and their physical meaning


‫صفرها و خواص فیریکی آنها‬
s6 10s  6
Transfer functions G1 ( s ) 
s 2  5s  6
G2 ( s ) 
s 2  5s  6

z1= -6 z2=-0.6

s6 1 2
c1 ( s)    
1
s( s  5s  6) s s  2 s  3
2
c1 (t )  1  2e 
 2t
 1e 3t
u (t ) 

10s  6 8
c2 ( s)  
1

7

s( s  5s  6) s s  2 s  3
2
c2 (t )  1  7 e  2t
8e 3t
u (t ) 

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Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
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Zeros and their physical meaning


Example 7 ‫صفرها و خواص فیریکی آنها‬

s6 10s  6
Transfer function G1 ( s ) 
s 2  5s  6
G2 ( s ) 
s 2  5s  6

step([1 6],[1 5 6]) ;hold on;step([10 6],[1 5 6]) 24


Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
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Example 8 Zeros and its physical meaning


‫صفرها و خواص فیریکی آنها‬

y  5 y  6 y  u  u

Transfer function of the system is:

y( s) s 1
 2 It has a zero at z=-1
u ( s ) s  5s  6

u=e -1t and suitable y and


What does it mean? 0
y’0 leads to y(t)=0 25
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Open loop and closed loop systems


‫سیستمهای حلقه باز و حلقه بسته‬

Open
loop Controller

Closed Controller

loop
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When is the open loop representation applicable? lecture 5

‫در چه شرایطی کنترل حلقه باز مناسب است؟‬

 The model on which the design of the controller


has been based is a very good representation of the
plant,

 The model must be stable, and

 Disturbances and initial conditions are negligible.

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Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
SISO and MIMO lecture 5

‫سیستم تک ورودی تک خروجی و چند ورودی چند خروجی‬

u1 System y1

SISO

u1 y1
u2 System y2
u3 y3

MIMO
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Sensitivity ‫حساسیت‬

Sensitivity is defined as:


M / M M G
S 
G / G G M
M is the system + controller transfer function
G is the system transfer function
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Ali Karimpour Feb 2013
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Sensitivity ‫حساسیت‬

r
K(s) G(s)
c M  G( s) K ( s)
Open loop system M G G( s)
S  K ( s) 1
G M K ( s)G ( s)

K ( s)G( s)
r + c M ( s) 
K(s) G(s) 1  K ( s)G( s)
-

M G 1
Closed loop system S 
G M 1  K ( s)G( s)
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Feedback properties ‫ویژگیهای فیدبک‬

Feedback can effect:

a) system gain

b) system stability

c) system sensitivity

d) noise and disturbance


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Exercises
s2  4
5-1 Find the poles and zeros of following system. G( s)  3
S  3s 2  3s  3

5-2 Is it possible to apply a nonzero input to the following system


for t>0, but the output be zero for t>0? Show it. y  5 y  6 y  2u  u

5-3 Find the step response of following system.


s2  4
G( s)  3
s  3s 2  3s  3

5-4 Find the step response of following system for a=1,3,6 and 9.
as  2
G ( s) 
s 2  2s  2
5-5 Find the linear model of system in example 2 around 32
x2=u=0, x1=π Ali Karimpour Feb 2013