SYSTEMS
Ali Karimpour
Associate Professor
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Lecture 23
Lecture 23
2
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
40 20 log a
Magnitude (dB)
20
0
0
-20 1 1
-40 a
-60
-90
BW reduced.
Phase (deg)
A phase-lead controller
a s 1
G(s) Let a 1
s 1
Bode Diagram
30
50
20
Magnitude (db)
40
20 log a
Magnitude (dB)
1030
020
10
10
200
9090
m
a 1
Phase (deg)
sin m
Phase (deg)
a 1 045
900
10
10
00
1011
10 1 / a 1 / 10102
2
10
10
33
4
Frequency(rad/sec)
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
20 φm
0
0
1
-20
a
-40
-60
-90
How can the lead controller
help us?
Phase (deg)
-135
PM=25° PM=40°
-180
0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
R(s )+ C (s )
k
Gc (s )
- s( s 25)
as 1
Step 1: Consider Gc ( s) k with a 1 as a phase-lead controller.
s 1
as 1
Note: If the plant has another gain k, let Gc ( s)
s 1
as 1
Gc ( s ) a 1
s 1
R(s )+ C (s )
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of the system (with the Gc (s )
k
fixed k ) without controller. - s( s 25)
2500 100
G ( s) Bode Diagram
s ( s 25) s ( s / 25 1) 60
40
Magnitude (dB) 20
Step 4: Find the system PM and 0
if it is not sufficient choose the -20
required phase by: -40
m 45 - 25 5 2 5
Phase (deg)
-135
a 1 PM=25°
sin 25 a 2.46
a 1
-180
0 1 2
8 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.
as 1 0.0261s 1
Phase (deg)
Gc ( s ) -135
s 1 0.0106s 1
PM=25°
-180
0 1 2
9 3
10 10 60 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.
R(s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
k
- s( s 25)
0.0261s 1
Gc ( s )
0.0106s 1 Bode Diagram
60
1 / 94.33, 1 / a 38.3 40
Magnitude (dB) 20
G ( j )
20 log a 7.8 0
Gc ( j )G ( j )
-20
1 / a 60 -40
-60
-90
m 25
Phase (deg)
-135
PM 47
-180
0 1 2
10 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.
R(s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
k
- s( s 25)
Bode Diagram
50
Magnitude (dB)
-50
-100
-90
G ( j )
Phase (deg)
-135
Gc ( j )G ( j )
PM 47
-180
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4 11
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.
R(s )+ C (s )
Find Mp Gc (s )
k
- s( s 25)
Nichols Chart
60
40
0 dB
Mp= 2 db 0.25 dB
0.5 dB
20 1 dB -1 dB
Open-Loop Gain (dB)
3 dB
6 dB -3 dB
0 -6 dB
-12 dB
G ( j )
-20 -20 dB
Gc ( j )G ( j )
-40 -40 dB
-60 dB
-60
-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0 12
Open-Loop Phase (deg) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
0.0261s 1 R(s )+ k C (s )
Gclead ( s ) Lead controller of example 1 Gc (s )
0.0106s 1 - s( s 25)
0 .5 s 1
Gclag ( s ) Lag controller of example 1 lecture 29
1.4092s 1
G ( s) 2500
M 1 ( s) 2 Closed loop transfer function without controller
1 G ( s) s 25s 2500
13
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
0.0261s 1 R(s )+ k C (s )
Gclead ( s ) Lead controller of example 1 Gc (s )
0.0106s 1 - s( s 25)
0 .5 s 1
Gclag ( s ) Lag controller of example 1
1.4092
1.5
s 1 Step Response
Without controller
Phase-lag controller Check the speed of
different
1
controllers and
compare it with the
Amplitude
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
14
Time (sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.
R (s )+ k C (s)
Gc (s )
- s( s 10)( s 20)
as 1
Step 1: Consider Gc ( s) k with a 1 as a phase-lead controller.
s 1
as 1
Note: If the plant has another gain k, let Gc ( s)
s 1
as 1
Gc ( s ) a 1
s 1
k
kv lim sGc ( s ) 100 k 20000
s 0 s ( s 10)( s 20)
15
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.
R (s )+ k C (s )
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
- s ( s 10)( s 20)
fixed k ) without controller.
20000 100
G (s) Bode Diagram
s ( s 10)( s 20) s ( s / 10 1)( s / 20 1100
)
50
Magnitude (dB)
Step 4: Find the system PM and 0
-135
m 45 - (-20) 5 70
Phase (deg)
-180
PM= -20°
a 1
sin 70
-225
a 32
a 1 -270
10
-1 0
10 10
1
10
2 16 103
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.
Magnitude (dB)
0
15
c new
45
-50
-100
1 -90
c new 0.0039
a -135
Phase (deg)
-180
as 1 0.1248s 1 PM= -20°
Gc ( s ) -225
s 1 0.0039s 1
-270
10
-1 0
10 10
1
45 10
2 17 10
3
Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.
R (s )+ k C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
- s ( s 10)( s 20)
Bode Diagram
100
50
Magnitude (dB)
0 Gc ( j )G ( j )
-50
-100 G ( j )
Note: Design is not
-150 possible!
-200
-90
-135 Why?
Phase (deg)
PM 18
-180
-225
-270
10
-1 0
10 10
1
10
2 3
10
4
10
18
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R(s)+ C (s)
1
Gc (s )
- s2
as 1
Step 1: Consider Gc ( s) k with a 1 as a phase-lag controller.
s 1
as 1
Note: If the plant has another gain k, let Gc ( s)
s 1
as 1
Gc ( s ) k a 1
s 1
Step 2: Try to fix k according to performance request, otherwise let k=1
k
20 log 3 k 17.7
2 5 Why?
19
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R (s )+ C (s )
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
1
fixed k ) without controller. - s2
17.7
G (s) 2 Bode Diagram
s 40
20
-180
a 1
sin 45 a 5.8 -180.5
a 1
-181
0 1 2
20 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
Magnitude (dB)
0
7.63
c new 6.7 -20
-40
-60
1
c new -179
0.062
a -179.5
Phase (deg)
as 1 0.3596 s 1
-180
Gc ( s ) 17.7
s 1 0.062 s 1 -180.5
-181
0
21
10 6.7 101 10
2
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
3
10
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R (s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
1
- s2
Bode Diagram
40
20
Magnitude (dB)
0
3
-20
Gc ( j )G ( j )
-40
-60 G ( j )
Controller is not ok
-80
PM 45
-180
0 1 2 3
10
BWopen loop 7 rad 10
/ sec 10 10
22
Frequency (rad/sec)
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R(s)+ C (s)
1
Gc (s )
- s2
k
20 log 2 3 k 35.7
7
23
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R (s )+ C (s )
1
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
- s2
fixed k ) without controller.
35.7
G(s) 2 Bode Diagram
s 40
20
Magnitude (dB)
Step 4: Find the system PM and 0
m Desired PM - Existed PM
-60
-179
-179.5
m 45 - (0) 0 45
Phase (deg)
-180
a 1
sin 45 a 5.8 -180.5
a 1 -181
0 1 2 24 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
Magnitude (dB)
0
7.63
c new 9 -20
-40
-60
1 -179
c new
0.0461
a -179.5
Phase (deg)
-180
as 1 0.2674s 1
Gc ( s ) 35.7
s 1 0.0461s 1
-180.5
-181
0 1 2
25 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R (s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
1
- s2
Bode Diagram
100
50
Magnitude (dB)
0
3
Gc ( j )G ( j )
-50
G ( j )
-100
Controller is not ok
-135
Try again
Phase (deg)
PM 45
-180
-1 0 1 2 3
10 10 BWopen loop10 14 rad / sec 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec)
26
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R(s)+ C (s)
1
Gc (s )
- s2
k
20 log 2 3 k 25.5
6
27
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R (s )+ C (s )
1
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
- s2
fixed k ) without controller.
25.5
G(s) 2 Bode Diagram
s 40
20
-179.5
m 45 - (0) 0 45
Phase (deg)
-180
a 1
sin 45 a 5.8 -180.5
a 1 -181
0 1 2
28 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
Magnitude (dB)
0
7.63
c new 8 -20
-40
-60
1 -179
c new
0.0519
a -179.5
Phase (deg)
-180
as 1 0.301s 1
Gc ( s ) 25.5
s 1 0.0519s 1
-180.5
-181
0 1 2
29 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Frequency (rad/sec)
Lecture 23
Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec
R (s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
1
- s2
Bode Diagram
40
20
Controller is ok
Magnitude (dB)
0
3
-20 Gc ( j )G ( j )
-40
-60
G ( j )
-80
-135
0 1 2 3
Exercises
1 Design a lead controller for the following system such that the phase
margin be 40° and the open loop bandwidth be 23 rad/sec
R (s)+ C (s )
1
Gc (s )
- s2
2 Design a lead controller for the following system such that the phase
margin be 40° and the acceleration constant be 25.
R (s )+ C (s )
1
Gc (s )
- s2
0.301s 1
Answer : G c (s) k
0.0519 s 1
31
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Exercises
20
Magnitude (dB)
-20
-40
-60
-179
-179.5
Phase (deg)
-180
0.2674 s 1
-180.5 Answer : G c (s) k
0.0461s 1
-181
10
0 1
10
2
10
3
10
32
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Exercises
4 Following is the open loop transfer function of a system.
a) What is the velocity error constant. (answer 80)
b) Design a lead controller such that PM=50°. (answer Gc(s)=(0.0315s+1)/(0.0126s+1))
c) Design a lead controller such that PM=50° and the velocity error constant be 200.
(answer Gc(s)=2.5(0.0192s+1)/(0.0052s+1))
Bode Diagram
80
60
40
Magnitude (dB)
20
-20
-40
-60
-90
Phase (deg)
-135
-180
-1 0 1 2 3 33
10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013