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# LINEAR CONTROL

SYSTEMS
Ali Karimpour
Associate Professor
Lecture 23

Lecture 23

domain

## Topics to be covered include:

2
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Bode Diagram
60 0

40 20 log a
Magnitude (dB)

20
0
0

-20 1 1
-40  a

-60
-90
BW reduced.
Phase (deg)

## -135 Speed of system reduced.

PM=25°
PM=40°
-180
Effect of the noise is reduced.
0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10
3
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

a s  1
G(s)  Let a  1
 s 1
Bode Diagram
30
50

20
Magnitude (db)

40

20 log a
Magnitude (dB)

1030

020

 10
10

 200
9090

m
a 1
Phase (deg)

sin  m 
Phase (deg)

a 1 045

 900
10
10
00
1011
10 1 / a 1 /  10102
2
10
10
33
4
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Analysis Design

## Consider a minimum phase system.

Bode Diagram 20 log a
60
0
40
Magnitude (dB)

20 φm
0
0
1
-20
 a
-40

-60
-90
help us?
Phase (deg)

-135

PM=25° PM=40°

-180
0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10

## What is the effect of a lead controller on BW? Speed of system?

5
What is the effect of a lead controller on noise effect? Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
20 log a Lecture 23
Design procedure of the phase-lead controller 0

## in the frequency domain φm

0
1
 a
as  1
Step 1: Consider cG ( s )  k with a  1 as a phase lead controller.
s  1
as  1
Note: If the plant has another gain k, let c G ( s ) 
s  1
Step 2: Try to fix k according to the performance request, otherwise let
k=1
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of the system (with the fixed k ) without controller.
Step 4: Find the system PM and if it is not sufficient choose the
required phase by:
a 1
 m  Desired PM - Existed PM   ? sin  m   a
a 1
Step 5: Put the center of the controller in the new gain crossover frequency:
1
20 log G ( j )   new  10 log(a)  0 c
new
 c new   
c  a
Step 6: Check the controller.
6
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100. Find the
Mp of overall system.

R(s )+ C (s )
k
Gc (s )
- s( s  25)

as  1
Step 1: Consider Gc ( s)  k with a  1 as a phase-lead controller.
s  1
as  1
Note: If the plant has another gain k, let Gc ( s) 
s  1
as  1
Gc ( s )  a 1
s  1

## Step 2: Try to fix k according to the performance request, otherwise let

k=1
k
kv  lim sGc ( s )  100 k  2500
s 0 s ( s  25)
7
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.

R(s )+ C (s )
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of the system (with the Gc (s )
k
fixed k ) without controller. - s( s  25)

2500 100
G ( s)   Bode Diagram

s ( s  25) s ( s / 25  1) 60

40

Magnitude (dB) 20
Step 4: Find the system PM and 0
if it is not sufficient choose the -20
required phase by: -40

##  m  Desired PM - Existed PM   -60

-90

 m  45 - 25  5  2 5
Phase (deg)

-135

a 1 PM=25°
sin 25   a  2.46
a 1
-180
0 1 2
8 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.

## Step 5: Put the center of the controller in the new R(s )+ C (s )

k
gain crossover frequency: Gc (s )
s( s  25)
-
20 log G ( j )   new  10 log(a )  0
c
Bode Diagram
60
20 log G ( j )   new  10 log(a)  3.91
c
40

## new Magnitude (dB) 20

c  60
0
 3.91
-20
new 1
c     0.0106 -40
 a -60
-90

as  1 0.0261s  1
Phase (deg)

Gc ( s )   -135
s  1 0.0106s  1
PM=25°

-180
0 1 2
9 3
10 10 60 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.

R(s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
k
- s( s  25)
0.0261s  1
Gc ( s ) 
0.0106s  1 Bode Diagram
60
1 /   94.33, 1 / a  38.3 40

Magnitude (dB) 20
G ( j )
20 log a  7.8 0
Gc ( j )G ( j )

-20

1 / a  60 -40

-60
-90
 m  25
Phase (deg)

-135

PM  47 
-180
0 1 2
10 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.

R(s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
k
- s( s  25)

Bode Diagram
50
Magnitude (dB)

-50

-100
-90

G ( j )
Phase (deg)

-135
Gc ( j )G ( j )

PM  47 
-180
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4 11
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23
Example 1: Design a lead controller for the following system
such that the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant
be 100. Find the Mp of overall system.

R(s )+ C (s )
Find Mp Gc (s )
k
- s( s  25)

Nichols Chart
60

40
0 dB
Mp= 2 db 0.25 dB
0.5 dB
20 1 dB -1 dB
Open-Loop Gain (dB)

3 dB
6 dB -3 dB
0 -6 dB

-12 dB
G ( j )
-20 -20 dB

Gc ( j )G ( j )
-40 -40 dB

-60 dB
-60
-360 -315 -270 -225 -180 -135 -90 -45 0 12
Open-Loop Phase (deg) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

## Example 2: Find the step response of example 1 and

0.0261s  1 R(s )+ k C (s )
Gclead ( s )  Lead controller of example 1 Gc (s )
0.0106s  1 - s( s  25)

0 .5 s  1
Gclag ( s )  Lag controller of example 1 lecture 29
1.4092s  1

G ( s) 2500
M 1 ( s)   2 Closed loop transfer function without controller
1  G ( s) s  25s  2500

## Gclead ( s ).G ( s ) 6156s  235800 Closed loop transfer function

M 2 (s)   3
1  Gclead ( s).G ( s) s  119 .3s 2  8514s  235800 with a phase-lead controller

## Gclag ( s ).G ( s ) 887 s  1774

M 3 (s)   Closed loop transfer function
1  Gclag ( s ).G ( s ) s 3  25.71s 2  904.8s  1774 with a phase-lag controller

13
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

## Example 2: Find the step response of example 1 and

0.0261s  1 R(s )+ k C (s )
Gclead ( s )  Lead controller of example 1 Gc (s )
0.0106s  1 - s( s  25)

0 .5 s  1
Gclag ( s )  Lag controller of example 1
1.4092
1.5
s 1 Step Response

Without controller
Phase-lag controller Check the speed of
different
1
controllers and
compare it with the
Amplitude

0.5
properties in slide
#4 and #6

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
14
Time (sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.

R (s )+ k C (s)
Gc (s )
- s( s  10)( s  20)

as  1
Step 1: Consider Gc ( s)  k with a  1 as a phase-lead controller.
s  1
as  1
Note: If the plant has another gain k, let Gc ( s) 
s  1
as  1
Gc ( s )  a 1
s  1

## Step 2: Try to fix k according to performance request, otherwise let k=1

k
kv  lim sGc ( s )  100 k  20000
s 0 s ( s  10)( s  20)
15
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.

R (s )+ k C (s )
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
- s ( s  10)( s  20)
fixed k ) without controller.
20000 100
G (s)   Bode Diagram
s ( s  10)( s  20) s ( s / 10  1)( s / 20  1100
)
50
Magnitude (dB)
Step 4: Find the system PM and 0

## if it is not sufficient choose the

-50
required phase by:
-100
 m  Desired PM - Existed PM   -90

-135
 m  45 - (-20)  5  70
  
Phase (deg)

-180
PM= -20°
a 1
sin 70 
-225
 a  32
a 1 -270
10
-1 0
10 10
1
10
2 16 103
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.

## Step 5: Put the center of controller in the new gain R (s )+ k C (s )

Gc (s )
crossover frequency: - s ( s  10)( s  20)

c
Bode Diagram
100

## 20 log G ( j )   new  10 log(a )  15

c 50

Magnitude (dB)
0
 15
c new
 45
-50

-100
1 -90
c new     0.0039
 a -135
Phase (deg)

-180
as  1 0.1248s  1 PM= -20°
Gc ( s )   -225
s  1 0.0039s  1
-270
10
-1 0
10 10
1
45 10
2 17 10
3

## Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013

Lecture 23

Example 3: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the ramp error constant be 100.

R (s )+ k C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
- s ( s  10)( s  20)

Bode Diagram
100

50
Magnitude (dB)

0 Gc ( j )G ( j )
-50

-100 G ( j )
Note: Design is not
-150 possible!
-200
-90

-135 Why?
Phase (deg)

PM  18 
-180

-225

-270
10
-1 0
10 10
1
10
2 3
10
4
10
18
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R(s)+ C (s)
1
Gc (s )
- s2

as  1
Step 1: Consider Gc ( s)  k with a  1 as a phase-lag controller.
s  1
as  1
Note: If the plant has another gain k, let Gc ( s) 
s  1
as  1
Gc ( s )  k a 1
s  1
Step 2: Try to fix k according to performance request, otherwise let k=1

k
20 log  3 k  17.7
2  5 Why?
19
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R (s )+ C (s )
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
1
fixed k ) without controller. - s2

17.7
G (s)  2 Bode Diagram
s 40

20

## Step 4: Find the system PM and

Magnitude (dB)
0
if it is not sufficient choose the
-20
required phase by:
-40

-179

##  m  45 - (0)  0  45 -179.5

Phase (deg)

-180

a 1
sin 45   a  5.8 -180.5

a 1
-181
0 1 2
20 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

## Step 5: Put the center of controller in the new gain R (s )+

1
C (s )
crossover frequency: Gc (s )
- s2

c
Bode Diagram
40

## 20 log G ( j )   new  10 log(a)  7.63 20

c

Magnitude (dB)
0
 7.63
c new  6.7 -20

-40

-60
1
c new -179
    0.062
 a -179.5
Phase (deg)

as  1 0.3596 s  1
-180

Gc ( s )   17.7
s  1 0.062 s  1 -180.5

-181
0
21
10 6.7 101 10
2
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
3
10
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R (s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
1
- s2

Bode Diagram
40

20
Magnitude (dB)

0
3
-20
Gc ( j )G ( j )
-40

-60 G ( j )
Controller is not ok
-80

## -135 Try again

Phase (deg)

PM  45
-180

0 1 2 3
10
BWopen loop  7 rad 10
/ sec 10 10
22
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R(s)+ C (s)
1
Gc (s )
- s2

## Step 2: Try to fix k according to performance request, otherwise let k=1

Open loop bandwidth is near to gain crossover frequency so:
k
20 log  3 k  17.7
2  5

k
20 log 2  3 k  35.7
  7

23
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R (s )+ C (s )
1
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
- s2
fixed k ) without controller.
35.7
G(s)  2 Bode Diagram
s 40

20

Magnitude (dB)
Step 4: Find the system PM and 0

## if it is not sufficient choose the -20

required phase by:
-40

 m  Desired PM - Existed PM  
-60
-179

-179.5
 m  45 - (0)  0  45
Phase (deg)

-180

a 1
sin 45   a  5.8 -180.5

a 1 -181
0 1 2 24 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

## Step 5: Put the center of controller in the new gain R (s )+

1
C (s )
crossover frequency: Gc (s )
- s2

c
Bode Diagram
40

## 20 log G ( j )   new  10 log(a)  7.63 20

c

Magnitude (dB)
0
 7.63
c new  9 -20

-40

-60
1 -179
c new
    0.0461
 a -179.5
Phase (deg)

-180
as  1 0.2674s  1
Gc ( s )   35.7
s  1 0.0461s  1
-180.5

-181
0 1 2
25 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R (s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
1
- s2
Bode Diagram
100

50
Magnitude (dB)

0
3
Gc ( j )G ( j )

-50
G ( j )
-100
Controller is not ok
-135

Try again
Phase (deg)

PM  45 

-180

-1 0 1 2 3
10 10 BWopen loop10 14 rad / sec 10 10
26
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R(s)+ C (s)
1
Gc (s )
- s2

## Step 2: Try to fix k according to performance request, otherwise let k=1

Open loop bandwidth is near to gain crossover frequency so:
k
20 log  3 k  35.7
2  7

k
20 log 2  3 k  25.5
  6

27
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R (s )+ C (s )
1
Step 3: Sketch the Bode plot of system (with the Gc (s )
- s2
fixed k ) without controller.
25.5
G(s)  2 Bode Diagram
s 40

20

## Step 4: Find the system PM and

Magnitude (dB)
0
if it is not sufficient choose the -20
required phase by:
-40

##  m  Desired PM - Existed PM   -60

-179

-179.5
 m  45 - (0)  0  45
Phase (deg)

-180

a 1
sin 45   a  5.8 -180.5

a 1 -181
0 1 2
28 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

## Step 5: Put the center of controller in the new gain R (s )+ C (s )

1
crossover frequency: Gc (s )
- s2

c
Bode Diagram
40

## 20 log G ( j )   new  10 log(a)  7.63 20

c

Magnitude (dB)
0
 7.63
c new  8 -20

-40

-60
1 -179
c new
    0.0519
 a -179.5
Phase (deg)

-180
as  1 0.301s  1
Gc ( s )   25.5
s  1 0.0519s  1
-180.5

-181
0 1 2
29 3
10 10 10 10
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Example 4: Design a lead controller for the following system such that
the phase margin be 45° and the open loop bandwidth be 10 rad/sec

R (s )+ C (s )
Step 6: Check the controller. Gc (s )
1
- s2

Bode Diagram
40

20

Controller is ok
Magnitude (dB)

0
3
-20 Gc ( j )G ( j )
-40

-60
G ( j )
-80

-135

Phase (deg)

## PM  45 better method without trial

-180
and error. Try to find it.

0 1 2 3

## open loop  10 rad / sec

10 10 10 10 30
BW
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Exercises

1 Design a lead controller for the following system such that the phase
margin be 40° and the open loop bandwidth be 23 rad/sec
R (s)+ C (s )
1
Gc (s )
- s2

2 Design a lead controller for the following system such that the phase
margin be 40° and the acceleration constant be 25.
R (s )+ C (s )
1
Gc (s )
- s2
0.301s  1
Answer : G c (s)  k
0.0519 s  1

31
Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Exercises

## 3 Following is the open loop transfer function of a system. Design a lead

controller such that PM=45°. Draw the bode plot of compensated system.
Bode Diagram
40

20
Magnitude (dB)

-20

-40

-60
-179

-179.5
Phase (deg)

-180
0.2674 s  1
-180.5 Answer : G c (s)  k
0.0461s  1
-181
10
0 1
10
2
10
3
10
32
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013
Lecture 23

Exercises
4 Following is the open loop transfer function of a system.
a) What is the velocity error constant. (answer 80)
c) Design a lead controller such that PM=50° and the velocity error constant be 200.
Bode Diagram
80

60

40
Magnitude (dB)

20

-20

-40

-60
-90
Phase (deg)

-135

-180
-1 0 1 2 3 33
10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (rad/sec) Dr. Ali Karimpour Dec 2013