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Angular momentum

For a single particle,

T T T N rvp !

Example

A mass M is moving with a constant velocity parallel to the X-axis. Its angular momentum with respect to the origin (a) is zero (c) goes on increasing (b) remains constant (d) goes on decreasing

Solution

y

Ø

P b O Vx

Ø

x

y = b is constant.

**L ! rp sin U ! rmv x sin U ! mv x (r sin U) ! mv x b ! cons tan t
**

Hence, answer is (b).

Find the magnitude and direction of angular momentum with respect to O.Example A particle of mass m is moving in the xy plane in a circular path of radius r and linear velocity v about the origin O. y r O v x .

Solution y r O x Since both the vectors. r and v. the direction of the angular momentum vector is +z (coming out of the screen) ! mr v v ! mrvsinJ ! mrvsin 90Q ! mrv L Using the definition of angular momentum v L ! r v p ! r v mv ! mr v v The magnitude of the angular momentum is So the angular momentum vector can be expressed as L ! mrv k Find the angular momentum in terms of angular velocity [ Using the relationship between linear and angular speed 2 2 L ! mrvk ! mr k ! mr !I . are in x-y plane and using right-hand rule.

N ! N U si z U O T N T r T v ! mrv sin U v 2 ! mrB v ! mr ! mrB [ rB 2 B .Angular momentum of a rigid body (about the axis of rotation) Consider a single particle of the system T [ U T T N does not po int along [ However.

Lz ! Conclusion .Summing over all the particles of the body.

§ m r [ ! I[ 2 i iB T The component of L parallel to the axis of rotation is rotational inertia about the axis times angular velocity. .

Then their angular momentum is (a) 1 2 mA mB r [ along the x axis .Example Two masses mA and mB are attached to each other by a rigid. mass less rod of length 2r.They are set to rotation about the centre of the rod with an angular speed [.

2 z (b) .

mA mB r 2 [ along the y axis 1 (c) .

mA mB r 2 [ along the z axis 2 2 (d) .

mA mB r [ in the x y plane MA 2r x r [ r MB .

IB ! mBr 2 2 2 1 @ I ! .Solution 1 1 2 IA ! m Ar .

m A mB r 2 2 1 L ! .

. L is along the z-axis.mA mB r 2[ 2 r As the rotation is in the xy plane. answer is (c). Hence.

L ! ns t n t li[i ! lf [f . Xext ! 0 t en.C nserv tion of Angular Conservation Momentum L ! l[ dL d[ !l ! lE dt dt d[ » « QE! ¬ dt ¼ ½ ! lE A d !0 dt Xext dL ! dt ?Q Xext If.

Example A horizontal platform with a mass of 1 kg rotates at 1 rpm about a vertical axis passing through its centre. With what velocity will the platform begin to rotate if the man moves from the edge to the centre? (a) 22 rpm (c) 44 rpm (b) 11 rpm (d) 66 rpm . A man weighing 6 kg is standing on the edge.

Solution Moment of inertia of platform: 1 2 mPr ! I1 2 Moment of inertia of man at edge: mmr 2 ! I2 Moment of inertia of man at centre= ( r= ) Q .

. is conserved ( no external torque): @ .Solution contd.

I1 I [1 ! I1[ 1 ¨1 ¸ © v 100 60 ¹ v 10 ! v 100 v [ ª º 1100 ! 50[ [ ! rpm Hence. answer is (a). .

Two objects each of mass m are attached gently to the ring. The ring now rotates with an angular velocity. a [M Mm b d [ .Example A thin circular ring of mass M and radius R is rotating about its axis with a constant angular velocity [.

M m M m [ .

M m M [M c M m .

.L I[ [ when two masses are attached.Solution I (rin ) . becomes I' ! MR mR mR ! (M 2m)R 2 2 2 2 L ! I[ ! I' [ ' I[ M[ [' ! ! I' M 2m Hence.I. answer is (c). .

assumptions: 1.Example A star rotates with a period of 3 days about an axis through its center. km. 2. 3. There is no torque acting on it The shape remains spherical Its mass remains constant . which had a radius of 1. Determine the period of rotation of the neutron star. collapses into a neutron star of radius 3. x1 4km. After the star undergoes a supernova explosion. the stellar core.

7 v 10 6 days ! 0 . Li ! L f Using angular momentum conservation I i[ M ! I f [ f The angular speed of the star with the period T is I i[ M mr i 2 2 T [f ! I ! 2 Thus f [! 2T T mr f Ti ¨ r f2 ¸ 2T Tf ! !© 2¹ ©r ¹ [f ª i º i 3 .0 ¨ ¸ !© v 30 days ! 2 .Solution The period will be significantly shorter. because its radius got smaller. 0 v 10 º 2 . 23 s 4 ¹ ª 1 .

Analogies LINEAR Inertia Momentum Newton¶s Second aw Work Kinetic Energy Power(const ant force) m ANGULAR I P=Mv F=ma L ! I[ X ! IE W ! ´ XdU W ! ´ Fdx 1 K ! mv 2 2 P=Fv K! 1 2 IE 2 P ! X[ .

Rotational motion about the CM gover ed by E ! X e xt / Ic m . translational motion of the CM g o v e r e d b y a cm ! F e xt /M 2.Combined rotation and translation As we saw earlier that motion of a rigid body can be broken down into« 1.

the linear distance moved by the CM in the same interval s = RØ . There is no slipping and hence no relative motion at the surface of contact. If the sphere rotates by a angle Ø about the CM during an interval. However static friction may act. Kinetic friction doesn¶t act.Pure rolling R Ø Ø Consider a purely rolling sphere.

Pure rolling s = RØ Differentiating once Vcom= R Condition for pure rolling Vcm= R .

So it starts acting in the forward direction ( in the direction of motion of the body). The body slips in the backward direction. Kinetic friction opposes the relative motion. .What if Vcom< R ? Vcom < R Backward slipping f The tendency to rotate about the CM is greater than it should be for pure rolling.

The body slips in the forward direction. Kinetic friction opposes the relative motion. . So it starts acting in the backward direction ( opposite to the direction of motion of the body).What if Vcom> R ? Vcom > R f forward slipping The tendency of the CM to translate is greater than it should be for pure rolling.

Then (a) it moves faster and its rotation slows down (b) it moves slower and its rotation slows down (c) there is no friction at P (d) it stops A [o P Vo .Example Body A is placed on a rough horizontal surface with a horizontal speed of V and a spin of [ as shown.

Solution As [ tends to produce a forward motion at the point of contact P. . friction is in backward direction. So both V and [ reduce. answer is (b). Vo [o P Friction Translation due to rolling in forward direction Hence.

Example A ball is released on a rough horizontal plane with a speed v so that it slides on the surface without rolling. To what value should the speed decrease so that it rolls without sliding? Vo P .

frictional force f acts to the left. v= r. et the pure rolling motion start at linear velocity v.Solution The moment the ball touches the surface with speed v to right. Torque X due to f produces clockwise rotation (so [ increases from initial zero value) while f itself causes v to decease. [ r Vo f P When pure rolling starts. .

Solution Analyze rotational and translational motions separately. Translation: Acceleration Qmg ! Qg (m : mass of ball) m v ! v 0 Qgt Rotation: [ ! 0 Et X Qmgr 5Qmgr E! ! ! I I 2mr 2 2 2» « ¬Q I ! 5 mr ¼ ½ 5Qg 5Qgt E! [! 2r 2r .

v ! v 0 7Qg 7 .Solution Also [ ! v v 0 Qgt 5Qgt Qgt v 0 ! ! r r r 2r r r 2v 0 7Qgt v 0 ! t! 2r r 7Qg Qg v 2v 0 5 v ! v0 So.

The sphere first slips on the surface. mass M) is given a clockwise angular velocity [0 and lowered to a flat horizontal surface with coefficient of friction Q with the sphere.Example A solid sphere (radius R. After time t the motion changes to pure rolling without slipping. What is the value of t and the value of velocity of centre of mass at t? .

let v and [ be the linear and angular velocities respectively.Solution When rolling starts. v [o f . f=Q Mg is the friction force (in the forward direction). which produces an acceleration a = Q g.

Solution @v ! Qgt .(ii) Qgt 5Q g ! [0 (i) and (ii) give [ ! t R 2R 2 [0R 7 Qgt ! [0 t ! 2 R 7Qg v! 2 [ 0R 7 .(i) The torque is f = Q g R and 5Qg ! 2R Q MgR ¨ 2 2¸ E! © I ! MR ¹ I ª 5 º 5Qg @ [ ! [ 0 t 2R .....

e.t. r .Velocities of different points on the body during rolling Vcom P r r Vcom The net velocity of any point P has two components.. 1. The velocity of the CM itself i. ..r. where r is the distance from the CM The net velocity of any point P has to be the vector sum of above two. Remember that P is executing a circular motion about the CM Having a linear velocity r .e. the CM i. The velocity of P w. Vcom 2.

and the velocity of the point of contact is zero.In case of pure rolling«. If P is on the circumference Note that the velocity of the topmost point is 2Vcom. .

Angular momentum of a rigid body Angular momentum about any point .r. O T rcm ! Position vector of CM w. O . T ! Ang. Momentum about an arbitrry point O ! Ang.r. Momentum about CM Angular momentum of the CM about O r Lcm T v cm ! Velocity of CM w. about the CM r r r r L ! L cm rcm v Mv cm Where.t.t.

Angular Impulse d[ N ! Xz dt ! I ! I .

. t2 N ! ´ rFdt ! rJ .[2 [1 ! L 2 L1 dt t1 t1 t2 t2 N is the angular impulse If the torque is due to a force F with moment arm r. t1 where J is the linear impulse.

Example A billiard ball is given a sharp impulse by a cue as shown. Show that h = 4R/5 h F R . Its leaves the cue with an initial velocity of v0 and because of ³forward English´ acquires a final velocity of 9v0/7.

Ans t J ! ´ Fdt ! mv 0 0 t @ I[0 ! ´ Xdt ! hJ ! hmv 0 0 5hv 0 Or . [0 ! 2 2R 2R If h ! . [0 R ! v 0 5 and the ball will roll from the start .

et it take time T for the ball to start rolling after it was hit. ([ ! 7R 5hv 0 5v 0 @ [! 2 2R 7R (When rolling starts) . 2mv 0 @ fT ! m(v ! 7 2Rmv 0 @ I([ ! XT ! RfT ! 7 f R > v0 5v 0 Or .

4R h! 5 . 9v0/7 = R Solving for h. when the ball starts rolling.However.

Kinetic energy of a rolling body Total Kinetic energy = Translational KE of the CM + Rotational KE of the motion about the CM = 1 M 2 2 cm 1 2 I[ 2 .

Assume pure rolling and find out the velocity of the CM at the bottom of the incline.Example Object of radius R h An object of moment of inertia mR2 and mass m rolls down an inclined plane of height h. .

of energy holds as kinetic friction does not act mgh = Ktrans + Krot = ½ mvcm2 + ½ I[2 vcm= R[ or [ = vcm/R so mgh = ½ mvcm2 + ½ Ivcm2/R2 total energy (KE) = ½ mvcm2 + ½ vcm2FmR2/R2 = ½ mvcm2 + ½ mvcm2F = ½ mvcm2(1 + F) . Cons.Solution Assume pure rolling.

rotational energy.mgh = Ktotal = Ktrans + KRot = ½ mvcm2 + ½ mvcm2F h h = ½ mvcm2(1 + F) v cm ! 2gh (1 ) The kinetic energy is shared The larger F. and the smaller the centre of mass velocity 1 mv 2 cm 2 1 mv 2 (1 F ) cm 2 The fraction of KE that is translational is ! 1 1F . the more of the between translational and available energy goes into rotational motion.

Example A solid sphere rolls on a horizontal plane without slipping. percentage of KE which is rotational is approximately (a) 28 (c) 72 (b) 3 (d) 1 .

answer is (a). .4 1) 2 0. 1 2 1 KE ! I[ mv 2 2 2 1¨ 2 ¸ ! © mr 2[2 mv2 ¹ 2ª5 º 1 mv 2 (0.4 ! 28% ! Hence. You can also use the result derived in the previous Example.4 @ Rotational KE percentage ! v 100% 1.Solution For a sphere.

f · R = I E (anticlockwise) For translational motion.Pure Rolling on an Inclined Plane: Acceleration Body has tendency to slip in forward direction. a = RE R ± f = ma f gsi U ! « I » ¬ 2¼ M ½ sin U U . mg sin For rolling. For rotational motion. Friction acts in backward direction.

Food For thought A sphere. Think both in terms of conservation of energy and acceleration of the center of mass. a ring all of the same mass start rolling (pure) down from rest on identical inclined planes. Arrange them in the increasing order of linear speeds when they reach the bottom. a disk. Do you get identical results? .

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