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Non Destructive Testing

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
University of Indonesia
A term used collectively to denote a
variety of inspection, testing, and
measurement process that elicit
information about the characteristic
of an object without damaging it or
impairing its ability to perform its
intended function.

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testing, inspection, and examination
 looking at/through; measuring
something about an object
 to determine: some characteristic of

the object, wheter the object

contain, irregularities,
discontinuities, or flaws.

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9 Areas
 flaw detection and evaluation
 leak detection and evaluation

 metrology

 location determination and

 structure and microstructure
….. (see next page)
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9 Areas
….. (see previous page)
 estimation of mechanical and
physical properties
 stress (strain) and dynamic
 (signature analysis)

 (chemical composition


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Flaw Detection and Evaluation
6 primary factors involved
in selecting an NDE method(s):

 The reason(s) for performing the

 The type(s) of flaws of interest in
the object
 The size and orientation of flaws
that is rejectable
…. (see next page)
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Flaw Detection and Evaluation
6 primary factors involved
in selecting an NDE method(s):

….. (see previous page)

 The anticipated location of the flaws
of interest in the object
 The size and shape of the object

 The characteristics of the material to

be evaluated

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Flaws Definitions
 Discontinuity - Any change of property which
can be detected by means of NDI.
(Discontinuities may be natural features of a
component, eg. a bolt hole, or undesirable
features such as cracks.)
 Flaw - An undesirable discontinuity. (Flaws may
be acceptable, eg. an acceptably small non-
metallic inclusion, or unacceptable as will
usually be the case with a crack.)
 Defect - A flaw, the nature or size of which
renders a material or component unserviceable

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 Inherent defects - present during
initial production of raw materials
 processing defects - resulted from
the manufacturing process
 Service defects - occurred during the

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Examples of causes of defects
 Blowholes - gas trapped during
solidification process
 Segregation - during solidification of
 Scale - oxide formation on the
surface of a metal heated to high
 Stress - residual stress after cold
working or rapid cooling
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 quenching / hardening cracks - rapid
volume change
 tempering cracks - rapid heating
 shrinkage cracks - rapid cooling
 grinding cracks - friction heating
 also caused by residual stress,
collapsed blowholes, improper
rolling, sharp edge of dies etc. etc
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5 Basic Elements
 Source (probe medium)
 Modification (changing as the result of
variations or discontinuities)
 Detection (determining the changes)
 Indication (indicating or recording the
 Interpretation (interpreting the

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 Indication - That which indicates a the presence of
a discontinuity. Indications may be developed
directly on the component being inspected, eg.
penetrant and magnetic particle indications, or on a
separate test instrument eg. in the form of
deflections in a CRT trace, deflections of a pointer
on a meter, or on a separate recording medium, eg.
a radiograph or chart recording
 False Indication - An indication arising from an
unintended source
 Non-relevant Indication - An indication of a
discontinuity which is not of the nature of that
 Relevant Indication - An indication of significance to
the purpose of the inspection
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Methods of NDE
 Acoustic Emissions Testing (AE)
 Neutron Radiographic Testing (NRT)
 Strain measurement (SM)
 Thermographic, etc

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Visual Inspection

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

University of Indonesia
Basic Principles
 Illuminate the test specimen with
 Examine the specimen with the eye

Used to :
 Magnify defects which can not be
detected by the unaided eye
 Assist in the inspection of defects

 Permit visual checks of areas not

accessible to unaided eye
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 Optical Aids
 In-Situ Metallography
 Optical Holography

Optical holography: (a) hologram formation (b) image reconstruction

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 Magnifying Glass
 Magnifying Mirror
 Microscope
 Borescope
• endoscopes or endoprobes
 Flexible Fiber Optic Borescope
• working lengths are normally 60 to 365 cm
with diameters from 3 to 12.5 mm
 Video Imagescope

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Visual acuity
 "Non-destructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification",
which is:
• At least one eye: Capable of reading the letters of an Ortho-Rater 8 or
Jaegar #2 Chart at 12 inches.
• Personnel shall be capable of distinguishing and differentiating
between colours used in the process involved

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Liquid Penetrant

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

University of Indonesia
 Used very extensively
 Relatively inexpensive
 Few limitations to specimens
geometry or material
 Equipments is very simple
 Relatively little specialized training to
perform inspection

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 Penetrant is drawn into crack by
capillarity action. Water spray
removes penetrants from surface
(but not from crack). Developer acts
like a blotter to draw penetrant out
of crack.
 If fluorescent penetrant used, black
light causes penetrant to glow in
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 surface opening due to cracks,
porosity, seams, laps, fold, small
discontinuities, etc
 Use to :
• Monitoring production technique
• Find and isolating the flaws, before
other processes continue
• Quality cross check for finishing product

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 magnetic and non magnetic
 homogeneous, not porous.
 castings, forgings, machined parts,
and cutting tools, field inspections;
turbine blades for surface cracks or

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 Cohesive and adhesive action

Molecular arrangements at a
liquid-wall interface. (a) The
contact angle, θ, as shown,
between the liquid and the wall
is less than 90o, and the
surface of the wall is wetted.
(b) Cohesive forces between
like molecules are greater than
the adhesive forces between
unlike molecules. In this case,
the surface of the wall is not
wetted and the liquid is in the
form of separate droplets

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Surface tension contact angle and surface wetting. The contact

angle, θ and the surface tension between solid and vapor (γSV),
solid and liquid (γSL) and liquid and vapor (γLV) are related as
shown. The surface tensions (γSV), (γSL) and (γLV) are not the
same. Good surface wetting requires θ to be much less than 90°.
Other wise, if θ > 90°, the liquid will form droplets and no
surface wetting will occur
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 Capillarity action

2  LV cos 
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Height, h that liquid penetrates in a crack :
 Depends on the capillarity force due to the

surface tension
 Requires a contact angle less than 90

 Increase as the crack width decrease

 Does not depends on the viscosity of the


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 U.S. Military Specification MIL-I-25135E
• Penetrant Systems :
 Type I - Fluorescent dye
 Type II - Visible dye
 Type III - Visible and fluorescent dye (dual mode)

 Method A - Water washable

 Method B - Post emulsifiable, lipophilic
 Method C - Solvent removable
 Method D - Post emulsifiable, hydrophilic

 Sensitivity Level 1/2

 Sensitivity Level 1 - Low
 Sensitivity Level 2 - Medium
 Sensitivity Level 3 - High
 Sensitivity Level 4 - Ultrahigh
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• Developers
 Form a - Dry Powder
 Form b - Water soluble
 Form c - Water suspensible
 Form d - Non-aqueous
 Form e - Specific application
• Solvent removers
 Class (1) - Halogenated
 Class (2) - Non-halogenated
 Class (3) - Specific application
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Material Conditions
 Direct use and simple preparation
 Ability to penetrate and remain in fine and
coarse openings
 vaporize and drying slowly
 Easy cleaned off after process
 Good contrast ability or fluorescent ability
 Chemical stability for operating and storage
 Non-corroded
 inexpensive
 Non-flammable
 Non-toxic and other dangerous effect to
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1. Portable kits are used for carrying out
inspection of small areas, for use on site; these
often contain the materials to be used in aerosol
2. Fixed installations are used for testing
components on a continuous basis, with a series
of processing stations in sequential order to
form a flow line. Increasingly, these are being
automated to provide automatic component
handling and timing
3. Self-contained processing booths are used for
testing large components which cannot be
moved during testing.
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Portable Kits

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1. Surface preparation. The surface must be free
of oil, grease, water, or other containing flaws.
Penetrant inspection should be scheduled prior
to the mechanical operations such as grit or
vapor blasting, which have a tendency to smear
the surface of parts, thus closing the defects.

2. Penetrant application. Penetrant may be

applied by spraying or immersing parts in a
penetrant bath

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3. Penetrant dwell. The penetrant is left on the
surface for a sufficient time to allow penetration
into flaws. The time involved is based on

4. Excess penetrant removal. This is a most

delicate procedure because it is essential not to
remove penetrant from fine surface cracks.
Penetrants may be washed off directly with
water, or first treated with an emulsifier and
then rinsed with water, or they may be removed
with a solvent.

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5. Developer application. Developer may be
applied by dusting (dry powdered) or immersion
or spray (water developers) applications. Non
aqueous wet developers may be applied by
spray only. The developer should then be
allowed to dwell on the part surface for
sufficient time (usually’ 10 mm minimum) to
permit it to draw penetrant out of any surface
flaws to form visible indications of such flaws.
Longer times may be necessary for tight cracks.
6. inspection. Inspection is then performed under
appropriate lighting to detect any flaws which
may be present.
7. Clean surface.
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Pre-cleaning Apply penetrant Remove excess

Apply developer inspection

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Post Emulsifier

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Multistation Processing Unit

 Parts cleaning using MEK (methyl ethyl ketone)

 Penetrant application 5-30'
 Emulsifier station (if emulsifiable penetrant used)
 Rinse station (water spray tank), parts washing
 Drying oven (parts drying cabinet), 122F/50C
 Developing station (developer application) 5-15'
 Inspection booth
 Post cleaning
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Test Methods
Designation Method Symbol
Fluorescent Water-washable FA
penetrant testing Post-emulsifiable FB
Solvent-removable FC
Dye Penetrant Water-washable VA
testing Solvent-removable VC

Dry developing Dry developer D

Wet developing Wet developer W
Solvent developer S
Non-developing No develop N
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Penetrating methods

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Penetrating time

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Dwell times

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Flaws Types
 Continuous Lines : Cracks are observed generally as jagged
lines; cold shuts appear as smooth, narrow straight lines;
forging laps appear as smooth wavy lines; scratches tend to
be shallow.
 Broken Lines : Continuous lines become partially closed by
working, such as grinding, peening, forging, or machining,
resulting in a discontinuous line.
 Small Round Holes : These are typical of general porosity,
gas holes, pin holes, or very large grains.

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Effect of mechanical surface

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False indications

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Detecting fine cracks

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Glossary of Terms
 black light. Electromagnetic radiation in the near-ultraviolet range of
wavelength (330 to 390 nm).
 developer. A material applied to the specimen surface to accelerate bleed
out and to enhance the contrast of indications.
 Aqueous. A suspension of developer particles in water.
 Dry. A fine free-flowing powder.
 Liquid film. A suspension of developer particles in a solvent which leaves a
resinous film on the surface after drying.
 Soluble. A developer completely soluble in its carrier.
 Solvent. Developer particles suspended in a non-aqueous vehicle prior to
 developing time. The time between the application of the developer and
the examination of the part.
 dwell time. The time that the penetrant or emulsifier is in contact with
the specimen surface, including the time required for application and to
drain (see Fig. 4.2).
 emulsification time (emulsifier dwell time). The time that an
emulsifier remains on the specimen to combine with the surface penetrant
prior to removal.
 emulsifier. A liquid that interacts with an oily substance making it water
 hydrophilic. Having a strong affinity for water. Substance that is
attracted to a water phase rather than to air in an air-water
interphase (e.g., —OH).
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Glossary of Terms
 hydrophilic emulsifier. A water-based liquid that interacts with the
penetrant oil rendering it water washable.
 lipophilic. A fat-liking molecular group (e.g., CH3) that has affinity for
 lipophilic emulsifier. An oil-based liquid that interacts with the penetrant
oil rendering it water washable.
 lyophilic. Solid-liquid mixture with surface active molecules containing
several molecular groups with both affinities and repulsions for the liquid
phase; “solvent loving” (opposite of lyophobic).
 lyophobic. “Solvent-hating” (opposite of lyophilic).
 penetrant. A liquid that is applied to the surface of a part so that it
penetrates surface- breaking defects.
 • Dual purpose. Produces both fluorescent and color contrast visible
 • Fluorescent. Emits visible radiation when excited by black light.
 • Solvent-removable. Traces removable by wiping with a material lightly
moistened with solvent remover.
 • Visible. Characterized by an intense color, usually red.
 • Water-washable. With a built-in emulsifier.
 Post emulsifications penetrant. Requires the application of a separate
emulsifier to render the excess surface penetrant water washable.

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