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and

Shunt

Com

pensa

tion

Series Compensation

Series compensation is basically a powerful tool

to improve the performance of EHV lines. It

consists of capacitors connected in series with

the line at suitable locations.

Advantages of Series Compensation

1. Increase in transmission capacity

– The power transfer capacity of a line is given by

E.V

P X sin

V is receiving end voltage

X is reactance of line

δ is phase angle between E and V

• Power transfer without and with compensation:

E.V

P1 X sin

L

E.

P2 sin

( X LV

P XC ) X L 1 1

2P

1 ( X L X C ) (1 X C / X L ) 1

K

where K is degree of compensation.

The economic degree of compensation lies in the range of 40-70%

(K < 1, i.e. 0.4-0.7)

2. Improvement of System Stability

• For same amount of power transfer and same value of E

and V, the δ in the case of series compensated line is

less than that of uncompensated line.

E.V

P X sin 1

L

E.

P sin

( X LV

2

XC )

sin 2 ( X L X C )

sin XL

• A lower δ means

1

better system stability

• Series compensation offers most economic solution for

system stability as compared to other methods (reducing

generator, x-mer reactance, bundled conductors,

increase no. of parallel circuits

3. Load Division between Parallel

Circuits

• When a system is to be strengthen by the addition

of a new line or when one of the existing circuit

is to be adjusted for parallel operation in order to

achieve maximum power transfer or minimize

losses, series compensation can be used.

• It is observed in Sweden that the cost of the series

compensation in the 420 kV system was entirely

recovered due to decrease in losses in the 220 kV

system operating in parallel with the 420 kV

system.

4. Less installation Time

• The installation time of the series capacitor

is smaller (2 years approx.) as compared to

installation time of the parallel circuit line (5

years approx.)

• This reduces the risk factor.

• Hence used to hit the current thermal limit.

• The life of x-mission line and capacitor

is generally 20-25 years.

Disadvantages

1. Increase in fault current

2. Mal operation of distance relay- if the

degree of compensation and location is not

proper.

3. High recovery voltage of lines- across

the circuit breaker contacts and is

harmful.

4. Problems of Ferro-resonance

• When a unloaded or lightly loaded transformer is

energized through a series compensated line,

Ferro- resonance may occur.

• It is produced due to resonance occurred in between

the iron-created inductance (i.e., due to iron parts in

the transformer) and in the reactance of the

compensated line.

• This will cause a flow of high current.

• It rarely happens and may be suppressed by using

shunt resistors across the capacitors or by short

circuiting the capacitor temporarily through an isolator

or by-pass breaker.

5. Problems due to sub-synchronous

resonance

• The capacitors introduces a sub-

synchronous frequency (proportional to

series

the In

square-root of the compensation) in the system.

some case this frequency may interact with weak

steam turbine generator shaft and give rise to high

torsional stress.

• In hydro-turbine generators, the risk of sub-

synchronous resonance is small because the

torsional frequency is about 10 Hz or even less.

Sub-Synchronous Resonance

• We know that, with the series compensation

used, the power handling capacity of line

is E.V

P X sin

X ( X L X C ) X L (1 K )

and reactances are at power frequency ‘f0’

Sub-Synchronous Resonance

(continued …)

XC = K. XL

1/ ωC = K ωL (1)

that fr 1 fr 2f L

XC 2fr C ; X

L r

1

2frL

2fr C

1

fr

2

Replacing LC = 1/K(2πf)2 from (1)

LC As K is 0.4-0.7; fr < f

K(2f )2

fr

2 f K Hence called sub-

synchronous frequency

Location of Series Capacitor

• The choice of the location of the series

capacitor depends on many technical and

economical consideration.

• Ineach case, a special system study

concerning load flow, stability,

overvoltage, protection

transient requirements, system

voltage profile etc. is necessary before the

optimal location is chosen.

1. Location along the line

• In this method the capacitor bank is located

at the middle of the line (if one bank) or at

1/3rd distance along the line (if two banks).

• This has advantage of better voltage profile

along the line, lesser short circuit current

through the capacitor in the event of fault

and simpler protection of capacitor.

• The capacitor stations are

generally unattended.

2. Location at one or both ends of line

section on the line side in the switching

station

• The main advantage of this location is that

the capacitor installation is near the manned

sub- stations.

• However, requires more advanced

line protection.

• For the same degree of compensation,

more MVAr capacity is needed as

compared to method 1.

Shunt Compensation

• For high voltage transmission line the line

capacitance is high and plays a significant role in

voltage conditions of the receiving end.

• When the line is loaded then the reactive power

demand of the load is partially met by the reactive

power generated by the line capacitance and the

remaining reactive power demand is met by the

reactive power flow through the line from sending

end to the receiving end.

Shunt Compensation (continued…)

• When load is high (more than SIL) then a large

reactive power flows from sending end to the

receiving end resulting in large voltage drop in

the line.

• To improve the voltage at the receiving end shunt

capacitors may be connected at the receiving end

to generate and feed the reactive power to the

load so that reactive power flow through the line

and consequently the voltage drop in the line is

reduced.

Shunt Compensation (continued…)

• To control the receiving end voltage a bank of

capacitors (large number of capacitors

connected in parallel) is installed at the

receiving end and suitable number of

capacitors are switched in during high load

condition depending upon the load demand.

• Thus the capacitors provide leading VAr to

partially meet reactive power demand of the

load to control the voltage.

Shunt Compensation (continued…)

• If XC = 1/ωC be the reactance of the shunt

capacitor then the reactive power generated of

leading VAr supplied by the capacitor:

2

V

QC X V 2

2

2

C

C

end voltage.

Shunt Compensation (continued…)

• When load is small (less than SIL) then the load

reactive power demand may even be lesser than the

reactive power generated by the line capacitor. Under

these conditions the reactive power flow through the

line becomes negative, i.e., the reactive power flows

from receiving end to sending end, and the receiving

end voltage is higher than sending end voltage (Ferranti

effect).

• To control the voltage at the receiving end it is

necessary to absorb or sink reactive power. This is

achieved by connecting shunt reactors at the receiving

end.

Shunt Compensation (continued…)

• If XL = ωL be the reactance of the shunt reactor

(inductor) then the reactive VAr absorbed by

the shunt rector:

2

V

2

/ L

QL X V 2

2

L

end voltage.

Shunt Compensation (continued…)

• To control the receiving end voltage generally

one shunt rector is installed and switched in

during the light load condition.

• To meet the variable reactive power demands

requisite number of shunt capacitors are

switched in, in addition to the shunt reactor,

which results in adjustable reactive power

absorption by the combination.

Degree of series compensation

We know that the surge impedance

ZC L j L xxL

C j C

Suppose Cse is the series capacitance per unit length for series compensation.

Therefore total series reactance will be

j

jL' jL j L j . j L

C s Cse

1 e j L

jL1 Xcse jL1 se

X

jL1 2

se L

LC

where γse is known as degree of series compensation. Therefore, virtual

surge impedance

jL(1 se )

Z C' ZC (1 se )

j C

Degree of shunt compensation

We know that the surge impedance

ZC L j L xL x L

C j C

Suppose shunt inductance Lsh per unit length is used for shunt compensation.

Therefore the net shunt susceptance will be

1

jC' jC jC j .

jLsh Lsh

C

1 C

Xc

jC1 2 CL jC1 X jC 1 sh

sh Lsh

where γsh is known as degree of shunt compensation. Therefore, virtual

surge impedance

j L ZC

Z C' jC(1 )

sh (1 sh )

• Considering both series and shunt

compensation simultaneously:

jL' 1

Z C' jC' Zc

1 sh

se

1

PC' Pc 1 se

sh

• It is clear that a fixed degree of series compensation and

capacitive shunt compensation decreases the virtual surge

impedance of line.

• However, inductive shunt compensation increases the virtual

surge impedance and decreases the virtual surge impedance

loading of line. If inductive shunt comp. is 100%, the virtual

surge impedance becomes infinite and loading zero.

• Suppose, we want flat voltage profile corresponding to 1.2 PC

without series compensation, the shunt capacitance

compensation required will be:

PC'

Pc / 1 se

1.2PC PC / 1 se

se 0.306 pu

• Now, assuming shunt compensation to be zero, the

series compensation required corresponding to 1.2 PC :

PC'

Pc 1 sh

1.2PC PC 1

sh

sh 0.44 pu

• However, of lumped nature of series

becausecontrol usingcapacitor,

voltage series capacitors is not

recommended.

• Normally used for improving stability limits of the system.

Active Compensation

• Synchronous condensers are the active shunt

compensators and have been used to improve the

voltage profile and system stability.

• When machine is overexcited, it acts as shunt

capacitor as it supplies lagging VAr to the system

and when under excited it acts as a shunt coil as it

absorbs reactive power to maintain terminal

voltage.

• The synchronous condenser provides continuous

(step less) adjustment of the reactive power in

both under excited and overexcited mode.

Flexible AC Transmission System

(FACTS)

• Using high speed thyristors for switching in or out

transmission line components such as capacitors,

reactors or phase shifting transformer for desirable

performance of the systems.

• Power transfer between two systems

interconnected

through a tie-line is given as E.

P sin

VX

• The FACTS devices can be used to control one or

more of voltages at the two ends, the reactance of the

tie-line and the difference of the voltage angles at the

two ends.

FACTS Devices

• The various devices used are

– Static VAr compensator (SVC)

– Static Condensors (STATCON)

– Advanced Thyristor Controlled Series

Compensation (ATCSC)

– Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting

Transformer

Active Compensation using

SVC

Static VAr Compensators (without rotating part)

• An static VAr system consists of two elements

in parallel (a rector and a bank of capacitors).

• Used for surge impedance compensation and

for compensation by sectioning a long transmission

line.

• Also for load compensation to maintain

constant voltage for

– Slow variation of Load

– Load rejection, outage of generator/line

– Under rapid variation of Load

• Improves system pf and stability.

Static VAr Compensators

(continued…)

• An ideal static reactive power compensator must be

capable of step-less adjustment of reactive power

over an unlimited range (lagging and leading) without

any time delay.

• Some important compensators used in transmission

and distribution networks are:

– Thyristor controlled reactor (TCR)

– Thyristor switched capacitor (TSC)

– Saturated rectors (SR)

Common feature in Static

compensators

• A fixed capacitor in parallel with

susceptance. The fixed capacitors are usually

controlled

tuned with small reactors to

frequencies to absorb harmonics generated

harmonic

by

controlled susceptance.

Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR)

reactor and the controlling element

is the thyristor controller consisting

of two opposite poled thyristors

which conduct every half cycle of

the supply frequency.

Currently available thyristors can

block voltage upto 4000-9000 V

and conduct current upto 3000-6000

A.

Practically 10-20 thyristors are

connected in series to the

required

meet blocking voltage .

• The current in the reactor can be controlled by the

method of firing delay angle control. The closure of

the thyristor valve is delayed wrt the peak of the

applied voltage in each half-cycle. Let the firing delay

angle is α, applied voltage is v.

v(t) Vm cost

Vm

iL (t) sin t sin

L

• The amplitude ILF(α) of the reactor

fundamental current iLF(α) can be expressed

as:

I ( ) 1 sin 2

LF

Vm 2 1

L

• The admittance as a function of angle α, can

be written directly from the current equation.

1 2 1

B L ( ) 1 sin 2

L

• Evidently, the admittance

BL(α) varies with α

in the same manner as the fundamental

current ILF(α).

• If the switching is restricted to a fixed

delay angle, usually =0, then it becomes

thyristor- switched reactor (TSR). The

TSR provides fixed inductive admittance.

• As the SCR’s are fired then the distortion in the

sine-wave is observed with the production of odd-

harmonics.

• Arranging the TCR and coupling X’mer

secondary in delta cancels the third harmonics

and its multiple. But 5th, 7th, … harmonics are still

present.

• Small reactors are usually included in the fixed

capacitor branches, which tunes with these

branches as filters for 5th and 7th harmonics.

Operating V-I area of the TCR (a) and of the TSR (b).

Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC)

• In this scheme TSC’s are used

with TCR’s.

• The TCR’s and capacitance

changed in discrete steps. The

susceptance is adjusted by

controlling the no. of parallel

capacitors.

• The capacitors serve as filters

for harmonics when only the

reactor is switched.

• Advantage: Dynamic stability

is better

• Disadvantages: more no. of

SCRs, more cost

Basic TSC (a) and associated waveforms (b)

• Normally a relatively small surge current limiting

reactor is used in series with the TSC branch. This is

needed primarily to limit the surge current in the

thyristor valve under abnormal condition (switching

at wrong time).

•Transient free switching:

‘switching in’

• Case 1: vC <= V

– at vC =v or vsw = 0 (dv/dt

should be 0) and

• Case 2: vC > V

– α = 0 and vsw = min.

‘switching out’ at i = 0.

Transient free switching

Transient free switching of TSC with

different residual voltages

Operating V-I area of single TSC

TCR-FC

• The TCR-FC system provides continuously

controllable lagging to leading VArs through

thyristor control of reactor current.

• Leading VArs are supplied by two or more

fixed capacitor banks. The TCR is generally rated

larger than the total of fixed capacitance so that

net lagging VArs can also be supplied.

• The variation of current through the reactor is

obtained by phase angle control of back to back

pair of thyristors connected in series with the

reactor.

Basic TCR-FC and

its VAr demand vs VAr output characteristics

Operating V-I area of TCR-FC

TSC-TCR

Basic TSC-TCR type static var generator and its VAr demand vs VAr output characteristic.

Operating V-I area of the TSC-TCR type VAr generator with two thyristor-switched

capacitor banks

Mechanically Switched Capacitors

(MSC)

• In this scheme MSC’s are

also used with TCR’s.

• Uses conventional

mechanical or SF6 switches

instead of thyristors to

switch the capacitors.

• More economical when

there are a large no. of

capacitors to be

switched than using • This method is suitable for

• The

TSCs.speed of switching

is however longer and steady load conditions,

this may affect transient where the reactive power

stability. requirements are predictable

Saturated Reactors (SR) Scheme

• In some schemes for compensation saturated

reactors are used.

• Three-phase saturated reactor having a short

circuited delta winding which eliminates third

harmonic currents from the primary.

• Fixed capacitors are provided as usual.

• A slope-correction capacitor is usually connected

in series with the saturated reactor to alter the B-

H characteristics and hence the reactance.

• A three-phase saturated reactor having a short

circuited delta winding which eliminates

third harmonic currents from the primary

winding.

• The SR compensator is maintenance free, it

has no control flexibility and it may require

costly damping circuits to avoid any

possibility of sub harmonic instability.

• Has the overload capability which is useful

in limiting overvoltage.

Static Condenser (STATCON)

or Static Compensator (STATCOM)

STATCON is a GTO (Gate Turn off) based compensation system.

Source Inverter (VSI) based

STATCON are an inverter, a DC

capacitor and a transformer to

match the line voltage

When inverter fundamental

output voltage is higher than the

system line voltage the

STATCON works as a capacitor

and reactive VAr is generated.

However, when the inverter

voltage is lower than the system

line voltage, the STATCON acts

as an inductor thereby absorbing

the reactive VArs from the

system.

For purely power flow, three-phase induced

reactive

electromotive forces (EMFs),

the ea, eb and ec of the synchronous

rotating machine are in phase with the system

voltages, va, vb, and vc. The reactive current I drawn by

synchronous compensator

the is determined by the magnitude of the

system voltage V, that of the internal voltage E, and the total

circuit reactance (synchronous machine plus

reactance

transformer reactance plus system

leakage reactance) short circuit

X: X

VE

I

E

1

Q V V 2

X

By controlling the excitation of the machine, and hence

of

the the systemE ofvoltage,

amplitude its the internal

reactivevoltage

power flow can to

relative

be controlled.

the amplitude V

• From a DC input voltage source, provided by the charged capacitor CS, the

converter produces a set of controllable three-phase output voltages with the

frequency of the ac power system. Each output voltage is in phase with, and

coupled to the corresponding ac system voltage via a relatively small (0.1-0.15

p.u.) tie reactance (which in practice is provided by the per phase leakage

inductance of the coupling transformer).

• By varying amplitude of the output voltages produced, the reactive

the

power exchange between the converter and the ac system can

be controlled in a manner similar to that of the rotating

synchronous machine.

• That is, if the amplitude of the output voltage is increased above that of the ac

system voltage, then the current flows through the tie reactance from the

converter to the ac system, and the converter generates reactive (capacitive)

power for the ac system.

• If the

system, then

amplitude reactive

of the output

currentvoltage

flows is from

decreased

the acbelow

system

that to

of the

the ac

converter, and

the converter absorbs reactive (inductive) power. If the

amplitude of the output voltage is equal to that of ac system

the

voltage, the reactive power exchange is zero.

• Hence, also known as Static Synchronous Generator (SSG).

• The main difference between the SVC and STATCON is that in case

of SVC the current injected into the system depends upon the system

voltage, but in case of STATCON it is independent of system voltage.

• STATCON generate or absorb reactive power without the use

of capacitor or reactors.

• The STATCON current I is made perpendicular to the system voltage

V. The STATCON coordinators adjust the phase of I so that it leads or

lags wrt to V.

Advantages:

• The steady state load ability of the line is improved.

• The voltage rises due to capacitor switching is substantially reduced

both in magnitude and duration.

• Voltage variation due to customer’s loading is reduced.

compensation on a per unit steady-state MVA basis, however, the

performance of the STATCON outweights the increase in cost.

GTO Thyristor-Controlled

Series Capacitor (GCSC)

It consists of a fixed

capacitor in parallel with

a thyristor (or

equivalent)

GTO valve (or

switch) that has the

capability to turn on

and off upon command.

turn-off delay angle control, and (c) attainable compensating

voltage waveform

• The objective of the GCSC scheme is to control the ac voltage vc across the

capacitor at a given line current i. Evidently, when the GTO valve, sw, is

closed, the voltage across the capacitor is zero, and when the valve is open,

it is maximum. For controlling the capacitor voltage, the closing and

opening of the valve is carried out in each half-cycle in synchronism with

the ac system frequency.

• The GTO valve is to close (through appropriate control

action) whenever the

stipulated capacitor voltage crosses zero. (Recall that

the

thyristor valve of the TCR opens whenever the current crosses zero.)

• When the valve sw is opened at the crest of the (constant) line current (γ =

0), the resultant capacitor voltage vc will be the same as that obtained in

steady state with a permanently open switch. When the opening of the

valve is delayed by the angle γ with respect to the crest of the line current,

the capacitor voltage can be expressed with a defined line current, i(t) = I

v (t) C

cos ωt, as follows:C 1 t 1

C

i(t)dt sin t sin

The amplitude of fundamental capacitor voltage can be expressed as a

function of γ I 2 1

C

where γ is the amplitude of the line current, C is the capacitance of the GTO

Fundamental component of the series capacitor voltage vs. the turn-off delay angle γ.

1 2 1

This impedance can be written as X C ( ) C (1 sin 2 )

In a practical application the GCSC can be operated either to control the

compensating voltage, VCF(γ), or the compensating reactance, XC(γ). the

voltage

In compensation mode, the GCSC is to maintain the rated compensating

voltage in face of decreasing line current over a defined interval Imin<= I <=Imax as

illustrated in Figure (a1).

In this compensation mode the capacitive reactance XC, is selected so as to

produce the rated compensating voltage with I= i.e., VCmax = XC Imin. As

Imin,

current Imin is increased toward Imax, the turn-off delay angle γ is increased to reduce

the duration of the capacitor injection and thereby maintain the compensating

voltage with increasing line current.

• In the impedance compensation mode, the GCSC

is to maintain the maximum rated compensating

reactance at any line current up to the rated

maximum. In this compensation mode the

capacitive impedance is chosen so as to provide

the maximum series compensation at rated

current, XC = Vcmax/Imax, that the GCSC can vary in

the 0 <= XC(γ) <= XC range by controlling the

effective capacitor voltage VCF(γ), i.e., XC(γ) =

VCF(γ)/I.

Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor

(TSSC)

• The operating principle: the degree of series

is controlled in a step-like manner by increasing or

compensation

decreasing the number of series inserted.

capacitors is inserted

capacitor by turning off, and it is bypassed

by turning on the corresponding thyristor

A

valve.

• A thyristor valve commutates "naturally," that is, it turns off

when the current crosses zero. Thus a capacitor can be

inserted into the line by the thyristor valve only at the zero

crossings of the line current.

• Since the insertion takes place at line current zero, a full half-cycle of

the line current will charge the capacitor from zero to maximum and

the successive, opposite polarity half-cycle of the line current will

discharge it from this maximum to zero.

• As can be seen, the insertion at line

zero, necessitated by the capacitor limitation current of

valve, results in a dc offset voltage

switching

which is equalthe to the

thyristor

amplitude

of the ac

current in capacitor

the valve,

voltage.

and In corresponding

order to minimize circuit

thetransient,

initial

surgethyristor

the valve turned

the on for only when

should be voltage is

capacitor With bypass

the dc offset, the

requirement

zero. can cause a delay prevailing

of up to one full cycle, which would

set the theoretical limit for attainable response of this

the

the

TSSC. time

Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor

(TCSC)

It consists of the series compensating capacitor

shunted by a TCR. In a practical TCSC

implementation, several such basic

compensators may be connected in series to

obtain the desired voltage rating and operating

characteristics. This arrangement is similar in

structure to the TSSC and, if the impedance of

the reactor, X1, is sufficiently smaller than that

of the capacitor, XC, it can be operated in an

on/off manner like the TSSC. However, the

basic idea behind the TCSC scheme is to X X

provide a continuously variable capacitor by XTCSC ( ) C X(L() ) X C

L

compensating capacitance by the TCR.

X L ( )

X L

2 sin

Thyristor-Controlled Phase

Shifting Transformer

(TCPST)

In general, phase shifting is obtained by

adding a perpendicular voltage vector

in series with a phase. This vector is

derived from the other two phases via

shunt connected transformers. The

perpendicular series voltage is made

variable with a variety of power

electronics topologies. A circuit concept

that can handle voltage reversal can

provide phase shift in either direction.

This Controller is also referred to as

Thyristor- Phase

Controlled Angle

Regulator (TCPAR).

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