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• Popular method of qualitative research.
• Interviews are qualitative but can be used for
all research topics….How?
• An interview is a conversation with an
individual who is engaged in some particular
task (Maykut and Morehouse, 1994).
Why Use Interview….
(i) interviews are a good source of data collection
about the organisational cultures of different
firms operating in various industries; and
(ii) interviews provide good insights about an
interviewee’s attitude, opinions, values,
experiences, background and practices (May,
(iii) Interviews introduce depth and validity into the
findings while studying from within the culture
of the interviewees (Hussey and Hussey, 1997;
Neuman, 2000).
• Unstructured Interview
• Semi-Structured Interview
• Structured Interview
Structured and un-structured
• “In moving from the structured interview to
the unstructured interview, researchers shift
from a situation in which they attempt to
control the interview through predetermining
questions and thus “teach” the respondent to
reply in accordance with the interview
schedule (standardization), to one in which
the respondent is encouraged to answer a
question in their own terms.” (May, 2005, p.
Semi-Structure Interview
• By contrast, in semi-structured interviews,
questions are prepared in advance which
enables the researcher to focus on the
particular areas that he/she wishes to discuss
while providing the interviewee with the
flexibility to respond in the manner which
they believe to be most appropriate.
Semi-Structure Interview
• “The researcher has a list of questions or fairly
specific topics to be covered, often referred to as
an interview guide, but the interviewee has a
great deal of leeway in how to reply. Questions
may not follow on exactly in the way outlined on
schedule. Questions that are not included in the
guide may be asked as the interviewer picks up
on things said by interviewees. But, by and large,
all of the questions will be asked and a similar
wording will be used from interviewee to
interviewee... [and] the interview process is
flexible.” (p. 321)
Semi-Structure Interview
• Semi-structured interviews allow a researcher
to ask new questions that arise as a
consequence of the discussion which has
taken place.
Interview’ Process
Three Steps:
– Pre-Interview
– During Interview
– Post-Interview
Pre-Interview Steps
Interview Guide
• The questions guiding the interviews should
be prepared in advance
• The issues covered in the semi-structured
questionnaire should be based on careful
examination of the literature review.
Pre-Interview Steps
• What is the research question?
• What theory are you using?
• What has the prior literature and research
• Which research paradigm are you using?
Pre-Interview Steps
• Authority letter
• The sample is selected on the basis of target
market, while keeping in mind the need to have a
diverse group of interviewees.
• Respondents agreed to take part in interview
following personal contact or via contact with
friends and family members. This process is
intended to encourage the respondents to share
information without fear that such information
would be misused by the researcher.
Pre-Interview Steps
• The language of interview’ guide should be according
to the target respondents.
• Prior to interviews, the documents should be carefully
studied to ensure the absence of repetition of
questions, in order to avoid uncertainty and confusion
among the respondents.
• Before each interview, browse the internet to gain
some idea of the nature of organisation and its
financial health. This process provided confidence to
the researcher during the conversation with the
Pre-Interview Steps
• Prior to interviews, the documents should be
carefully studied to ensure the absence of
repetition of questions, in order to avoid
uncertainty and confusion among the
Pre-Interview Steps
• Prior to the start of each conversation,
interviewees should be given assurance that the
interview did not require any theoretical or
academic understanding, but dealt instead with
the practices which prevail in the organization.
• Moreover, respondents should be assured that
the company would not be labelled or analysed
individually, in order to keep its confidentiality.
Pre-Interview Steps
• Each interviewee should be consulted
beforehand about their availability for a
meeting and sent a copy of the semi-
structured interview documents in some
During Interview
• Be on time
• Smile
• Shake hands
• Be friendly and chatty
• Talk about the weather/premises/town – think
of something very nice to say!!
• Be positive and complimentary
During Interview
• Make eye contact
• Smile/ laugh
• Encourage
– “That’s interesting!”
– “Really?”
• Pick up on points made by the interviewee
and get them to expand on things that you
had not already thought about- this enriches
your work.
During Interview
• The interviews followed a “funnel” approach
(Sekeran, 2002). Under such approach, the
interviewees should be initially asked general
questions; more specific questions then followed.
• Some interviews are taped subject to the
permission of the respondents. These recorded
interviews were transcribed and important
quotations noted down. In addition, complete
notes are taken for all interviews during and
immediately after the interviews.
During Interview
• A conversational approach should be used
during the interviews to allow individual
respondents space to express their opinions in
detail while at the same time ensuring that all
the questions were answered.
• Thank the interviewee for their time.
• Send copies of anything that you promised
• You may wish to e-mail and thank them.
Post-Interview Steps
• For the purpose of this analysis, a unique
code was assigned to each interviewee in
order to maintain the anonymity of the
respondents and to protect the identity of
their organisations.
• A spreadsheet was used to enter a summary of
the interviewees‟ responses to each question
and percentages were then calculated for the
proportion of the sample who offered a similar
perspective on an issue raised.
• Free from the personal emotions of researchers.
Analyse every interview question by question
• Do a summary where applicable
Question Inter- Inter- Inter- Inter-
viewee 1 viewee 2 viewee 3 viewee 4
C1 C2 C3 C4
1 Yes Yes Yes No
2 3 years 4 years 1 year 2 years
3 IAS 39 IAS 39 IAS 39 IAS 42
4 UK only UK and AIM UK and
US Japan
• What are the key findings in answer to your
research questions
• How are you going to tell this story?
• Tie your findings back to the literature
– Do your findings agree or disagree with prior
research findings
– Do your findings clarify previous findings
• Next write down key quotes that highlight the
points that are being made
• They should be included in your write up
– they give validity and credibility to your findings.
– Single space quotes and indent them
– Refer to them as:
• Interviewee X stated:
“ People can have a fair value option….”
Write up
• Write your findings up – and tell a story
• Always think- So what???
• So???
• Why are you telling me this?
• What is the point????
• Tie your findings back to your theory and research
– Have you answered all your research questions
• NVIVO is software used for analysis of
• The interviews were costly to conduct since
travel an accommodation expenses were
• Interviews are time-consuming.