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Q and A
Presented by


Faculty of Ph.D Crim, M.S.Crim, B.S.Crim & B.F.Sci
Program Head, Forensic Science
University of Baguio
1. Who is the father of medicine?
A. Hippocrates
B. Paulus Zacchias (Paolo Zacchia)
C. Hans Gross
D. Etneciv Leerzej
2. Who is the father of FORENSIC
A. Hippocrates
B. Paulus Zacchias (Paolo Zacchia)
C. Hans Gross
D. Etneciv Leerzej
3. In Philippine setting history of forensic medicine, who
published his book on Legal Medicine that was
entitled “Manual De Medicina Domestica”?
A. Dr. Rafael Mas
B. Dr. Gregorio Lantin
C. Dr. Pedro Solis
D. Dr. Enrique Delos Santos
4. The head of the NBI Medicolegal section in 1947?
A. Dr. Rafael Mas
B. Dr. Gregorio Lantin
C. Dr. Pedro Solis
D. Dr. Enrique Delos Santos
Dr. Gregorio Lantin – Headed the DI Medicolegal
Dr. Pedro Solis – current famous author on Forensic
5. It is the branch of medical science that deals with the
application of medical knowledge.
A. Legal Medicine
B. Medical Jurisprudence
C. Forensic Medicine
D. Medical evidence
Legal Medicine – or Forensic medicine. Includes
the use of clinical, medical and paramedical
sciences to elucidate legal problems.
Medical Jurisprudence – branch of law that
regulates medical profession.
Medical evidence – means sanctioned by the
rules of court ascertaining in a judicial
proceeding the truth respecting a a matter of fact
6. Death is the complete cessation of all vital functions
without possibility of resuscitation. What death is the
absence of electrical brain activity?
A. Brain death
B. Somatic/Clinical death
C. Molecular/Cellular death
D. Apparent/State/Suspended death
Somatic/Clinical – complete, persistent and
continuous cessation of vital functions of the
brain, heart and lungs.
Molecular/Cellular – from 3-6 hours, cells will die.
Apparent/State/Suspended – NOT really death,
transient loss of consciousness, temporary
7. The following are signs of death, except _____.
A. Cessation of heart action and circulation
B. Cessation of respiration
C. Insensibility of the body and loss of power to move.
D. Livor mortis

Another sign of death is

ALGOR MORTIS which refers
to the Cooling of the Body.
8. On duration of death, this refers to the Stiffening of the
A. Rigor mortis
B. Post mortem lividity
C. Stage of decomposition
D. None of these

Rigor mortis – 2-3 hrs after death, Fully developed in 12 hrs

and may last from 18-36 hrs.
Post mortem lividity – 3-6 hrs after death, the accumulation
of blood in the most dependent portion of the body.
Stage of decomposition – maybe inferred from the degree
of decomposition.
9. On the onset of decomposition, watery, foul smelling froth
coming from the nostrils and mouth. The body is soft,
and there is the presence of cavitations when pressure is
applied on the skin. All these are observable in _____.
A. More than 24 hours
B. 6-8 hours
C. 1-2 years
D. 24-48 hours

More than 24 hours – Maggots are present

6-8 hours – Blood clots inside the blood vessels
1-2 years – soft tissues of the body may disappear
10. Algor mortis came from the Latin ALGOR = Coolness
(Cooling), Livor mortis from the Latin LIVIDUS = Bluish
(Stiffening), Rigor mortis from the Latin RIGOR =
Stiffening and mort death).
A. Phases of Death, Signs of Death
B. Post mortem caloricity is the rise of temperature of the
body in the first 2 hours.
C. Post mortem contact flattening – body becomes
flattened on areas which are in contact with the surface
it rests
D. Changes in and about the eye – clouding of the cornea
and pupil cannot react with light
11. Considering the chronological sequence of putrefactive
changes occurring in tropical region, if body has Rigor
mortis, hypostasis and greenish discoloration of the
caecum, How many hours the body is dead?
A. 12 hours
B. 24 hours
C. 48 hours
D. 72 hours
12. If grrenish discoloration is over whole abdomen and
spreading to chest, the body is dead for _____.
A. 24 hours
B. 48 hours
C. 72 hours
D. One week
48 hours – Trunk bloated and Ova flies are seen
72 hours – whole body is swollen and disfigured
One week – Soft viscera putrefied
One month – Body skeleton
13. When body is submerged in water, there is very little
change is water is cold for the first 4-5 days. What
happens in its 5-7 days?
A. Skin on the hands and feet become swollen and
B. The face appears softened
C. Skin wrinkled, scrotum and penis distended with gas,
nails and hair still intact.
D. Abdomen distended, skin of hands and feet come off
with the nails like a glove.
B = 1-2 weeks
C = 4 weeks
D = 6-8 weeks
14. What do you call the reddish discoloration during the
process of decomposition?
A. Marbolization
B. Mummification
C. Maceration
D. None of these
Mummification – dehydration of the body, occurs when
body is buried in hot place, dry atmosphere and with access
to hot air.
Maceration – softening of the tissues when in a fluid
medium. Absence of putrefactive microorganisms.
15. As provided by Rule 131, Sec 5, Rules of Court, a
person is presumed dead after _____.
A. 4 years
B. 5 years
C. 6 years
D. 7 years

4 years – On board of a vessel lost during sea voyage.

Members of police and armed forces who took part in a war.
16. In the presumption of survivorship from the probabilities
resulting to strength and age of the sexes. If both is under
the age of 15, _____ is presumed to have survived.
A. Older
B. Younger
C. Either
D. Neither

Both is above 60 = Survivor is the Younger

Under 15 vs Over 60 = Survivor is Older
Both be over 15 and under 60, sexes are different = Survivor is
the Male
Under 15 or 60 = Survivor is the Older
17. What do you call the external examination of the corpse
without incision but blood and body fluid maybe
A. Autopsy
B. Crime Scene investigation
C. Post mortem examination
D. Medicolegal/Official autopsy
18. As to classification of violent death, this is called
reckless imprudence, negligence, lack of skill or
A. Accidental death
B. Negligent death
C. Suicidal death
D. Parricidal death
19. This is the deliberate and painless acceleration of death
of a person usually suffering from an incurable or
distressing disease.
A. Death
B. Violent death
C. Euthanasia
D. Murder
20. A kind of euthanasia where means to shorten the life of
the victim WITH OR WITHOUT CONSENT is done.
A. Active euthanasia
B. Passive euthanasia
C. Orothanasia
D. Dysthanasia

Passive euthanasia – no means to accelerate death, but it’s

the natural cause of the disease to cause the death.
Orothanasia – incurable ill person is allowed to die without
operation or treatment
Dysthanasia – an attempt to extend the life of a person
21. The following are ways of performing Euthanasia,
A. Administration of lethal dose or poison
B. Injection of air into the blood stream
C. Depriving the child of nutrition
D. Removal of patient
F. Application of electric current
G. Failure to perform tracheotomy
H. Failure to perform transfusion
I. Over dose of sedatives
22. Heat may produce burn on skin, strong light produces
sore eyes or blindness, change in atmospheric pressure
is hypobarism, electrical energy and chemical energy is
burn. Cold produces _____.
A. Shock
B. Burns
C. Skin disease
D. Frostbite
23. Any break in the natural continuity of any tissue
produced by physical violence.
A. Wound
B. Mortal wound
C. Non-mortal wound
D. Your wound
24. A sharp edged instrument produces _____ wound.
A. Punctured
B. Incised
C. Stab
D. Mortal
Punctured – sharp pointed
Stab – sharp pointed and sharp edged
Mortal – causes death
25. An injury as to depth of wound can be superficial (only
layers) and deep (beyond the layers of skin). So it can be
penetrating and perforating. What do you mean by the
A. With entrance, no exit wound
B. With entrance and exit
C. With exit only
D. With an entrance and two exits

Penetrating – no exit
Perforating – with entrance and exit
26. Its is the circumscribed extravasation of the blood
underneath the mucous membrane.
A. Petechiae
B. Contusion
C. Hematoma
D. Kurad
Contusion (Black eye) – effusion of blood into the tissue
underneath the skin. Application of BLUNT instrument.
Hematoma (Bukol) – blood cyst, blood tumor
27. This is a form of hematoma only that extent of
extravasation of blood is wider but thinner.
A. Petecchiae
B. Hematoma
C. Ecchymosis
D. Open wound
28. Lets go to pen wounds. These are wounds which
appear to be scratches, graze, impression mark and
friction marks.
A. Stab
B. Lacerated
C. Abrasion
D. Incised


Lacerated – tear, rupture, stretch (BLUNT instrument)
Incised – knife, razor, bolo (SHARP EDGED)
29. There is no vital reaction of the skin to the wound
received, no evidence of profuse hemorrhage, the
injuries are considered _____.
A. Ante-mortem
B. Post-mortem
C. Souvenir bullet
D. Bullet embolism
30. What do you call the act of looping or cutting of any part
of the living body of a person?
A. Injuring
B. Mutilating
C. Cutting
D. Beheading
31. It is the so-called miner’s cramps, fireman’s crams and
stoker’ cramps because of involuntary contraction of
muscles and due to dehydration and excessive loss of
chlorides by sweating.
A. Heat cramps
B. Heat exhaustion
C. Heat stroke
D. None of the above
Heat exhaustion – heart failure caused by heat and
precipitated by warm clothing.
Heat stroke – direct exposure to sun, ill ventilated places
with dry and high temperature.
32. On the medicolegal aspects of sex crimes, VIRGINITY is
sometimes the issue specially on the victim of sexual attack.
What do you call a person whose body is pure and had no
sexual intercourse, although her mind and heart is impure.
A. Virtuous female
B. Moral virgin
C. Physical virgin
D. Marunong mag imagine

Moral virgin – don’t know the nature of sexual life. Didn’t

experience sexual relations. Children below puberty.
Physical virgin – woman who reach maturity and is conscious of
the nature of sexual life but has not experienced sexual
33. In a decision in the case of US v Alvarez, 1
Phil. 242, the presumption of virginity includes
one below.
A. The woman is single
B. Unmarried and of good reputation
C. Woman with age of below puberty
D. All of these.
34. The kind of virginity where hymen is
A. Moral virginity
B. Physical virginity
C. True physical virginity
D. False physical virginity
Moral virginity – children below puberty age
Physical virginity – reached physical maturity but didn’t
experience sexual intercourse.
False physical virginity – hymen is unruptured, orifice is
elastic to admit 2 or 3 fingers.
35. On the medicolegal aspects of sex crimes, this refers to
the status of a woman who permits any form of sexual
liberties as long as they abstain from rupturing the hymen
by sexual act.
A. Moral virginity
B. Demi-virginity
C. Physical virginity
D. False physical virginity
36. On breasts, what breast that contains contour lines
which are not straight but form part of half circle or half of
A. Conical breast
B. Hemispherical breast
C. Infantile/Flat breast
D. Pendulous breast
Conical breast – similar to a cone.
Infantile/Flat breast – shows no definite shape. Breast is
slightly elevated.
Pendulous breast – skin of breast is loos and can swing.
NOTE: Breast condition is not reliable means of bass of
37. What is the V-shape appearance of the two
labia unite posteriously?
A. Fourchette
B. Perineum
C. Parurient
D. Some of these

Parturient - refers to breastfeeding mothers

38. What do you call the rupture of hymen?
A. Defloration
B. Juxtaposition
C. Collation
D. Surrender
39. Can sexual intercourse cause death?
A. Yes
B. No
C. True
D. False

Death of the male partner – natural cause, during

masturbation, defensive act of the victim.
Death of the female partner – oral sex, cunnilingus,
suffocation, sadist, infection(AIDS), hemorrhage.
Death of both partners – presence of carbon
monoxide or the homicide suicide pact.
40. This is one of the universal crimes. As a general rule,
committed by one against opposite sex.
A. Rape
B. Murder
C. Homicide
D. Sexual assault
41. Under Article 266-A of RPC, it provides the following,
A. Through force or intimidation
B. Victim is deprived of reason
C. By fraudulent machination/abuse of authority

Under 12 – Statutory rape

Art 266-B RPC – Insertion of any object into any opening or
orifice of the victim constitutes rape.
43. Generally, can a woman be raped while she is on her
natural sleep?
A. Yes, but improbable
B. No, impossible
C. Yes
D. No

To a Virgin – its very difficult to happen

To a woman who has given birth or a woman who has
several sexual intercourse is possible.
44. The corpus delicti for the crime of rape is _____.
A. Victim
B. Sperm
C. Loss of virginity
D. Medicolegal report stating that sexual assault was
45. The law of the Philippines on Population control. It
states that abortion is an unacceptable practice.
A. PD 78
B. PD 79
C. PD 80
D. PD 89
46. What do you call the civil status of the child in relation to
his/her mother or father.
A. Paternity
B. Filiation
C. Infanticide
D. Incest

Paternity – father to his child begotten him

47. The interval between the termination of labor (delivery)
to the complete return of the reproductive organ in its
normal pregnant state-last from 6-8 weeks. What do you
call this process?
A. Pregnancy
B. Delivery
C. Puerperium
D. Abortion
48. Fingerprints of two persons can be similar.
Can DNA profile of two persons can be identical?
A. Yes
B. No
C. Probably
D. Possibly
49. is an unplanned drop in the pressure of a
sealed system, such as an aircraft cabin, and
typically results from human error, material
fatigue, engineering failure, or impact, causing a
pressure vessel to vent into its lower-pressure
surroundings or fail to pressurize at all.
A. Barotrauma
B. Mutilation
C. Shock wave
D. Decompression
50. Is physical damage to body tissues caused by
a difference in pressure between a gas space
inside, or in contact with the body, and the
A. Barotrauma
B. Mutilation
C. Shock wave
D. Decompression
Q and A
Presented by


Faculty of Ph.D Crim, M.S.Crim, B.S.Crim & B.F.Sci
Program Head, Forensic Science
University of Baguio