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ETT 05104

Signal Processing, Transmission and

8 Credits
Office : 008
• Identify transmission line techniques.
• Describe wave propagation.
• Explain the elements of Radio receiver.
• Explain the basics of mobile communications
• Describe the basics of Digital Signal Processing

Continuous of Assessment 40%

End of Semester Examination 60%

• Leon W. Coach Li (1992) Modern Communication
Systems Principles and Applications, 1st Edition,
Prentice Hall
• Dennis Roddy and John Coolen (1992) Electronic
communications, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall
• J.E. Flood, (1995) Telecommunications Switching,
Traffic and Networks”, Prentice Hall.
• Elements-of-electromagnetics-by-matthew-n-o-
Time Table


TUESDAY 18:15 – 20:30 A002 HV






In its simplest form, a transmission line is a pair of conductors linking
together two electrical systems, components, or devices.
Otherwise stated, transmission line conducts electrical signals from a
source component (Sinusoidal signal, Digital pulse or any signal
waveform) to a load component.
However, In an electronic system, the delivery of power requires the
connection of two wires between the source and the load. At low
frequencies, power is considered to be delivered to the load through the
In the microwave frequency region, power is considered to be
in electric and magnetic fields that are guided from place to place by
some physical structure. Any physical structure that will guide an
electromagnetic wave place to place is also called a Transmission Line.
• End of two wire transmission line connected to a source
called input end generation
• The other end of is called output end or receiving end or
load end
• Input impedance Zin=Ein/In from electrical circuit.
• Output impedance Zout= Eout/Iout at the end .
• If an infinitely long transmission line could be used ,then
ratio of Voltage to current to any point in the transmission
line would be a particular value of impedance called
Characteristic Impendence.
Types of Transmission Lines
1. Two wire line
2. Coaxial cable
3. Waveguide
 Rectangular
 Circular
4. Planar Transmission Lines
 Strip line
 Microstrip line
 Slot line
 Fin line
 Coplanar Waveguide
 Coplanar slot line
• Each line has certain characteristic impedance value, current-carrying capacity and
physical shape designed to meet a particular requirement.
Two Wire Open Line Two-wire ribbon-type lines.
Two Wire Open
• Also called twin lead or two wire ribbon cable
• Usually spaced from ¼ to 6 inches apart
• Used as the transmission line from antenna to receiver or
antenna to transmitter
• The end connected to the source is called the generator
or input end
• The end connected to the load is the load or output end.
• Used for power lines, rural telephone and telegraphy line
Advantages and disadvantages
• Advantage-Simple to construct
• Disadvantage- High radiation losses and
electrical noise pickups
Two wire Ribbon
• Connect Tv receiving antenna to a home
television set.
• Low –Loss dielectrics
• Dielectrics spices is air
Twisted Pair
• Two insulated wires twisted to form a flexible
line without the use of spacers.
• It is not used for high frequencies because of
the high losses that occur in the insulation
• Wet lines increase losses dramatically
Applications of Twisted pairs

 Telephone network

Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop), also

called the end office. From the end office to Central Office

(CO) class 4 ànd CO class 1 via Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

 Within buildings

To private branch exchange (PBX)

 For local area networks (LAN)

10Mbps or 100Mbps

Possible to rev up to 1Gbps – Gigabit Ethernet

Twisted Pair - Pros and Cons
• Cheap
• Easy to work with
• Can use as digital or analog

• Limited bandwidth/data rate
– Generally 1Mhz and 100Mbps
• Short range 2km for digital, 5km for analog.
Shielded Pair
• Consists of parallel conductors separated from each
other and surrounded by a solid dielectric.
• Conductors are contained within a copper braid tubing
that acts like a shield
• Assembly is covered by a rubber coating for protection
from elements and mechanical damage
Shielded Pair
• Principal advantage conductors are balanced
to ground.
– The capacitance between the cables is uniform
throughout the line
– Copper braid shield isolates the conductors from
external noise
– Also braids prevents the signal from radiation and
interfering with other systems
Coaxial Cable
• Coaxial cable consists of two concentric conductors separated
by a dielectric.
• The outer conductor may be a copper or aluminum tube or
wire braid and the inner conductor may be a wire or small
tube, depending on the type of coax.
• The dielectric may be air, plastic or ceramic
• There are two types
I. Rigid or air
II. Flexible or solid coaxial line
• Electrical configuration of both is the same
• Chief advantage of this line is its ability to
minimize the radiation losses
• The electric and magnetic fields do not extend
outward from the outer conductor
• The fields are confined to the space between
the two conductors
• Noise pick up is also prevented
• Expensive to construct
• Must be kept dry to prevent excessive leakage
between the two conductors, although
leakage can be reduced by backfilling the
cable with inert gas
• Excessive high frequency losses limit the
length of line used
Coaxial Cable Applications
• Television distribution
– Cable TV
• Long distance telephone transmission
– Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously
• Short distance computer systems links
Such as Local area networks