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Wave guides

• A transmission line can be used to guide EM energy from one point


(generator) to another (load).
• A waveguide is another means of achieving the same goal.
• However, a waveguide differs from a transmission line in some respects,
although we may regard the latter as a special case of the former.
• In the first place, a transmission line can support only a transverse
electromagnetic (TEM) wave, whereas a waveguide can support many
possible field configurations.
• Second, at microwave frequencies (roughly 3-300 GHz), transmission lines
become inefficient due to skin effect and dielectric losses; waveguides are
used at that range of frequencies to obtain larger bandwidth and lower
signal attenuation.
• Moreover, a transmission line may operate from dc ( / = 0) to a very high
frequency; a waveguide can operate only above a certain frequency called
the cutoff frequency and therefore acts as a high-pass filter.
• Although a waveguide may assume any arbitrary but uniform cross
section, common waveguides are either rectangular or circular.
• NB: Skin effect is the phenomenon whereby field intensity in a conductor
rapidly decreases.
WAVE GUIDE
TRANSMISSION
 Wave guide is a structure that convey
electromagnetic waves between its end points or it
can be defined as structure that guide waves such
as electromagnetic waves and sound.
 In wave guide transmission there are two types
such as:
1. Rectangular wave guide
2. Circular wave guide
CONT..
RECTANGULAR WAVE GUIDE
 This are the one of early types of transmission line
which are available for various standard wave
guide band between 1GHz to above 220GHz
This wave guide is mostly used in components like
isolators, detectors, attenuator, couplers and slotted
lines.

Fig; rectangular wave guide.


CONT..
CIRCULAR WAVE GUIDE
 Cylindrical or circular wave guides are those that
maintain a uniform circular cross section along their
length.
 They are mostly in components such as isolators,
detectors, attenuator, couplers and slotted lines

Fig; circular wave guide


DISADVANTAGES OF WAVEGUIDE
• waveguide is not suitable to operate at low
frequencies
• It is very bulky
• Not flexible also not economical
PLANNER TRANSMISSION LINE
 Planar transmission lines are those transmission
line in which the conductors are essentially flat.
The conductors consist of flat strips, and there is
usually one or more ground planes parallel to the
flat surface of the conductors. Transmission lines
can be constructed in other formats such as wires
or coaxial cable. As well as interconnections, there
are a wide range of circuits that can be
implemented in transmission lines.
 These include filters, power dividers and
directional couplers impedance
matching networks, and choke circuits to
deliver biasing to active components
PLANNER TRANSMISSION LINE …

ADVANTAGE OF PLANNER TRANSMISSION LINE

• That they can be manufactured using the


same processes used to make printed
circuits and integrated circuits, particularly
through the photolithography process
STRIPLINE TRANSMISSION
• Strip lines are essentially modifications of the
two wire lines and coaxial lines. It consists of a
strip conductor centered between two parallel
ground planes with two equal slabs of a
dielectric, ferrite, or semiconductor medium
separating the center conductor from the ground
planes.
• Usually, the medium is a solid material, but in
some applications air is the actual dielectric used.
ADVANTAGE OF STRIP LINES

• The are :-
1. Good electromagnetic shielding
2. low attenuation losses, which make them
suitable for high-quality factor (Q).
3. low-interference

APPLICATION
• Blocking filters
Disadvantages of stripline
• It is complex structure and hence difficult as
well as expensive to fabricate.
• Width of stripline trace is smaller compare to
microstrip of same Z (Impedance) and H
(Height). Due to this, often it comes out of the
dielectric substrate if not handled properly.
• As the entire structure is in the middle, tuning
or troubleshooting is difficult.
MICROSTRIP LINE TRANSMISSION

• The micro strip line is transmission line


geometry with a single conductor trace on one
side of a dielectric substrate and a single ground
plane on the other side

APPLICATIONS
• Filters
• Hybrids
• High-Q resonators
Microstip cont..
• Advantages of microstrip line
• Smaller size
• Easy to fabricate
• Easy to troubleshoot

• Disadvantages of microstrip line


• Unwanted radiation in uncovered
microstrip based configuration
• Higher loss
• Poor isolation among adjacent lines
SLOTLINE
 The slot line consists of a narrow gap in the
conductive coating on one side of the dielectric
substrate as shown if figure below.
Slotline Advantages
• Higher order modes are possible to be
realized.
• Easy to fabricate and troubleshoot.
• Can be etched along with microstrip line on
same PCB.

Slotline Disadvantages
• Slotline is relatively lossy compare to other
lines.
• It can not be used for broadband circuit
designs
SLOTLINE CONT…
DISADVANTAGES
 Slot line is that its Q-factor is low (around 100), so
it is relatively loss.
 not usually applicable for broadband applications

APPLICTION
 Antennas
 Phase shifters
FIN TRANSMISSION LINE
 A fin line consists of a totally shielding rectangular
conducting box (like rectangular waveguide but
avoiding waveguide modes) with a dielectric
substrate fixed usually centrally, across two of its
faces.
 A metal circuit is deposited on one side of the
substrate and a slot pattern in this metal forms the
fin line circuit.
 Its illustration is shown in Fig. (1.1f). These lines
operate typically in the frequency range of 30 to
100 GHz.
CONT…
• The main characteristics of the fin line are broad
bandwidth, moderate attenuation, low
dispersion and compatibility with semiconductor
elements.
• Since the characteristic impedance range of the
fin line is from about 10 to 400 Ω, it is greater
than other printed transmission lines.
• Also, the fin line structure is easy to mate.
• Wavelength in fin line is longer than that in
micro strip.
APPLICATION
 Band pass filters
 Quadrature hybrids
 Transitions to waveguide
 Balanced mixer circuit

APPLICATION
COPLANNER WAVEGUIDE

• The coplanar waveguide (CPW) structure


consists of a center strip width with two parallel
ground planes equidistant from it on either
side, as shown in Fig. (1.1d). The center
conductor and ground planes are located in one
plane on the substrate surface.
Advantages of Coplanar Waveguide
• Low dispersion
• simple realisation due to etching on one side.
• broadband performance, as it does not need
via holes for shunt and series elements

Disadvantages of Coplanar
Waveguide(CPW)
• Fabrication of coplanar waveguide is costlier.
As gold ribbons are needed to suppress higher
order modes at every quarter wavelengths
• Relative thick substrates are needed.