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Seminar on Enhancement of Aviation Safety

Sari Pan Pacific Hotel, 18th March 2008

AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT
SURVEILLANCE - BROADCAST

by

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Presentation outline

ADS-B Concept & Techniques


Applications
Standardisation
ADS-B implementation in Indonesia

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ADS-B – Concept &
Techniques

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ADS-B Definition (ICAO OPLINK Panel)

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ADS - B Concept
Automatic
•No pilot input required
•No interrogation from Ground

Dependent
• The surveillance is dependent upon the data parameters
(position, speed,…) provided by the aircraft system (GNSS)

Surveillance
Broadcast •The Primary intent to perform surrounding traffic
surveillance (Aircraft position, altitude, velocity
-Identity vector, ...)
-Position (every
0.5 seconds)
-Altitude
-Velocity
ADS-B
-Status
Ground Station 5
Air Traffic Control
ADS-B vs Conventional
surveillance means
 Primary radar is an independent and non co-
operative means. It does not provide altitude,
identification...
 Secondary radar is independent (except for
altitude) and co-operative, but does not detect
non equipped aircraft.
 ADS-B is dependent and co-operative.

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ADS-B vs ADS-C
 ADS-B:
 Message is systematically sent

 Content is not fixed

 No designated recipient

 Equivalent to a real time surveillance means

 ADS-C :
 Messages are sent in the context of a contract

 Messages are sent to one known recipient

 Broader coverage

 Far from a real time surveillance means

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Airborne architecture – ADS-B Out

Navigation ADS-B Out


sensors

Data link
Messages
Baro Emission
generation
Altitude

Pilot input

 ADS-B Out architecture only allows to transmitting


messages for users having a receiving capability.
 Such architecture is sufficient for applications
improving current ATC services.
 It is already available on most commercial a/c.
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ADS-B out Architecture

 Current architecture relies


on the use of mode S
transponders available Antenna
through the Elementary
and Enhanced 1090MHz
Extended
Surveillance mandates. MCDU
Flight Id
Mode S squitters
Transponder
 Availability of such
equipment has allowed
mode S to be, de facto, RNAV/GNSS
System
the ADS-B data link.

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Airborne architecture : ADS-B In
Application

Data link

Report generation Reception


Application

Application ADS-B In

 This architecture allows air-air applications implementation,


named as ASAS applications.
 Such architecture is more expensive than ADS-B out as it
requires, according to the type of applications, traffic display
(CDTI), new alerting devices, potentially interface with
automatic pilot…
 Airbus and Boeing are currently specifying this kind of
architecture in order to provide package 1 capabilities on-
board. 13
Ground architecture
Application
Data link
Reception Report generation

Application

 According to the data-link used, ADS-B messages need


different processing in order to be translated into
reports that are sent to the ATC, in ASTERIX 21 format .
 Those reports can then be fused with other surveillance
information available in the environment (radar, multi-
lateration, ADS-C, flight plan…) before to be displayed to
the ATC Controller. 14
Ground Architecture
• As ADS-B directly provides, from on-board sensors, all
required parameters for surveillance purpose:
– A ground station can directly be connected to an
operational display, without any kind of processing.
– An ADS-B server may be required to fuse data from
several ground stations.
– A tracker may be required to merge ADS-B and radar data.

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MAATS
ADS-B ground station
Data-link

1090ES ?

VDL4 ?

UAT ? Ground station

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ADS-B data-links
 Three data-links are currently available:
 Mode S Extended Squitter (1090ES), recognised as
the ADS-B data-link by Eurocontrol, the FAA (for
commercial a/c), Australia but also ICAO for
interoperability purpose.
 VDL mode 4 mainly support by North European
states and Russia.
 Russia seems to change its mind and recognises
1090ES for commercial a/c and VDL mode 4 for
general aviation.
 UAT supported FAA for general aviation.

 Whatever the data-link, received data look the same for


both pilot and ATC controller. 17
1090 ES

CONTROL MODE S ADDRESS PARITY


(8) (24) (24)
56 BITS

Extended
SQUITTER MODE S ADS-B MESSAGE 112 BITS
CONTROL PARITY
ADDRESS (56 BITS)

 Extended squitter is an upgrade of the short squitter transmitted by


mode S transponder for TCAS acquisition.
 Two standards exist for Extended squitters:
 ED-102/DO-260 compatible with ICAO Annex 10 amdt 77
 Approved by Europe and US
 Existing equipment are compliant with this standard
 DO-260A potentially compatible with ICAO Annex 10 amdt 81
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 Not approved by Europe…
VDL Mode 4 - Standardisation

 VDLmode 4 has been developed, or at least is


supported by the Swedish Civil Aviation Authority
(LFV).

 Standardisation activities are covered by:


 AMCP (ICAO Panel), now ACP, which has
approved the applicable SARPs in November
2003.
 EUROCAE WG51
 Interim MOPS (dealing with the qualification of
this equipment) was delivered in 2001.
 Final version to be approved in 2005.

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ADS-B Medium : UAT
 UAT selected by FAA Alaska Region for large scale trial
(100-200 installations in Western Alaska)
 Three potential bands, suitable for UAT, :

 VHF: 108-118 MHz

 L-band: 960-1215 MHz

 C-band: 5000-5250 MHz

 960-1215 MHz has current usage most compatible with


UAT operation (966 is used in the US).

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ADS-B message
• ADS-B message content is described in RTCA: DO-242A
• RFG which standardises package 1 applications will provide an
agreed international standard.
• For the moment, major ADS-B data are:
– Time stamp
– Identification as:
• Call Sign or registration
• ICAO 24-bit address
– Aircraft category
– Aircraft size (length and width)
– Position (from a/c reference point)
> Lat/Long WGS 84
> Barometric altitude
– Velocity Vector (Ground speed, Vertical speed, Heading)
– Emergency messages (medical urgency. Loss of fuel ….)
– Quality Indicator (NIC/NAC/SIL or NUC) 24
Aircraft position quality indicators
• All broadcasting aircraft provides a quality indicator attached to the
position:
– NUC (Navigation Uncertainty Category) or
– NIC (Navigation Integrity Category) /NAC (Navigation Accuracy
Category) /SIL (Surveillance Integrity Limit
Accuracy containment - 95%
• NUC =
– Integrity containment radius or
– Under very rare conditions, Accuracy
containment radius.
• NIC = Integrity containment radius
• NAC = Accuracy containment radius
• SIL = Probability to be outside the Integrity
containment radius, without detection.
Integrity containment

Accuracy : The difference between the estimated and actual aircraft position
Integrity : A measure of the trust which can be placed in the correctness of
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the information supplied by the total system
NUC values

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Bad quality examples

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Good quality example

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ADS-B– Applications

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ADS-B Capabilities
Air-Air
• Improved Separation Standards Air-ground
• Improved Low-Visibility Approaches • Surveillance Coverage in Radar / Non-Radar Airspace
• Enhanced See and Avoid
• Enhanced Operations for En Route
Air-to-Air

Ground-ground Ground-Air
• Improved Navigation on Taxiways • Weather and SSR Traffic to the Cockpit
• Enhanced Controller Management of • Affordable Reduction of Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT)
Surface Traffic

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• Ground Applications
– ATC Surveillance ATC in non radar area (ADS-B-NRA);
– ATC Surveillance in En route area (ADS-B-ACC);
– ATC Surveillance in Terminal area (ADS-B-TMA);
• Both have been merged and renamed ADS-B-RAD
– Airport Surface Surveillance (ADS-B-APT);
– Aircraft derived data for ground tools (ADS-B-ADD).

• Airborne Applications (ASAS)


– Enhanced traffic situational awareness on the airport surface (ATSA-
SURF);
– Enhanced traffic situational awareness during flight operations (ATSA-
AIRB);
– Enhanced visual acquisition for see & avoid (ATSA-S&A);
– Enhanced successive visual approaches(ATSA-SVA)

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Standardisation

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• OPLINK :
– "ADS-B Concept of Use"
– Update of PANS-ATM doc. 4444 " Procedures for Air Navigation
services" and doc. 9694 "Manual of Air Traffic Services Data-Link
Applications“

• SASP :
– Main SASP activity regarding ADS-B applications is the definition
of applicable separation standard for en route (5NM) and approach
(3NM?)

• SCRSP is responsible, amongst other tasks, to update Annex 10


Chapter 4 Amendments 77&81 which specify 1090ES
– Amendment 77 was approved in 2001
– Amendment 81 was finalised in 2004 and includes new decoding
techniques, NIC/NAC/SIL aspects…

• ACP (former AMCP ) standardises the two other ADS-B data-links:


– VDL mode 4: Technical Manual was finalised in November 2003
– UAT: Technical manual is currently finalised and should be released
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in 2005 or 2006.
ADS-B
Implementation
in Indonesia

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CURRENT ADS-B
CURRENT ADS-B
COVERAGE
COVERAGE

Natuna

Sorong

Makassar/
Jakarta Malino

Merauke

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Kupang
Antenna Installation

Malino Sorong Natuna 38


The Sites – with Radio Coverage Simulation

NATUNA
SORONG

MAKASSAR
JAKARTA

Predicted Radio Coverage at FL 300


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(As a test-bed, the Jakarta site coverage is hypothetical)
Sorong and Makassar

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Natuna

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System Connection Scheme
Natuna Island Malino Sorong Kupang Merauke

VSAT Links

Ethernet Switch Ethernet Switch

Future JAATS RCMS MAATS RCMS


Jakarta Tower MAATS Centre

This scheme depicts the initial layout. As additional ADS-B ground stations
are added, the communications facilities will be expanded accordingly.
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JAKARTA – ADS-B FOR TEST BED

ADS-B Test Bed that currently


installed at 23rd floor Karya Building,
Ministry of Transportation, in the
next will be develop to be a Remote
Control for all of ADS-B Ground
Station.
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ADS-B
Installation
Planning

B.Aceh

Tarakan
Galela

G. Sitoli
Biak
Pangkalan
Bun
Palu

Timika
T. Perahu
Alor
Cilacap Saumlaki
Kintamani

Waingapu
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Thank You

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