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 Air pollution is usually an environmental

problem that has been aggravated over the


years and has multiple causes; product of the
industrial life of the entire planet.

It is a special pollution, based on the
alteration of gases suspended in the
atmosphere. Each of the problems that
involve the atmosphere; They are leaving
sequels not only in the environment but also
in all its inhabitants, human beings; flora and
fauna equally.

Fossil fuels
 Industrial fireplaces
 Chemical industry
 Burning trash
 CFC Chlorofluorocarbons are substances
emitted by companies that create
refrigerants; aerosols and also other similar
applications that has taken place several
years ago.
 ABSTRACT
 The waste heat recovery by heat pipes is accepted as an
excellent way of saving energy and preventing global
warming. This article assesses the impact of the use of a
heat exchanger used as a heat recovery in the refrigeration
industry. Elements are evaluated from the point of view of
heat transfer, evaluating the quality of heat exchange
process. Is calculated increase in the efficiency of the
cooling system. The heated water is used in the steam
generation system of the industry. Is calculated fuel
consumption savings resulting from this warming. The
findings provide elements that show the enormous
potential of this technique in the refrigeration industry.
 Key words: waste heat recovery, Industrial refrigeration,
saving energy.
 The saving of energy carriers is one of the main sources of resources.
The taking of measures to reduce costs is a necessity and a
responsibility to be able to carry out the efficient use of the installed
capacities. Since the last decade, heat recovery in the area of ​industrial
refrigeration has become a scientific part of the work of many
companies in the world. This vision is due to the possibility of increasing
the energy efficiency through this way, considerably favoring the
condensation process of the refrigerant and having a considerable
reduction in water heating costs. There are reports of certain
investigations of the use of heat recovery in the area of ​industrial
refrigeration. Abass A. and Olajire P [1], perform a review of a group of
case studies in the brewing industry, where different techniques are
applied to promote energy saving and the reduction of environmental
impact. One of the exposed cases was the application of a heat recovery
in the refrigeration system in the Canadian Maritime brewery, for water
heating. The savings reported for this concept was in the order of $
45,000 / year. Other applications for the use of heat recovery [2]
indicate an increase in efficiency above 20% in some industrial
applications.

The heat recuperator that is evaluated in this research is designed from the
elements exposed by Professor Fernando Brossard at the International Conference
of the IIR "Natural Refrigerant" in Denmark in 1996 [5], which recommends the use
of heat recovery systems that allows to take advantage of the advantages of an
economic design, with a simple operation. Installed in the compressor discharge
of the high stage and before the condenser, this heat exchanger operates as a
heat recuperator, heating water and allowing the condensation of part of the
lubricant vapors that are discharged next to the ammonia, to be purged
periodically for its lower part. This article evaluates the proposed heat recovery, a
more compact heat exchanger and lower cost of construction and operation. This
evaluation takes into account elements of the operation of the equipment as a
heat exchanger, assessing the impact of heat recovery on the cooling system, as
well as elements of fuel savings in the steam generation of the industrial facility.
This evaluation will allow to put quantitative evidences on the application of this
technique in industrial facilities. The installed heat recovery has new features in its
construction and operation. Both flows circulate in countercurrent annular spaces,
with axial tangential entry to increase the time of permanence of the fluids and to
elevate the turbulence of their hydrodynamics (Fig. 2). There are no references in
the open scientific literature of the use in Cuba of this technology in double-stage
industrial refrigeration systems, which use ammonia as a refrigerant.

The fundamental dimensions of the equipment designed together with the measurements of
its exploitation are of vital importance for its evaluation. The outer and inner diameter of the
annulus through which the water flows has measures of 0.057 m, 0.050 m respectively. The
outside diameter of the blind tube corresponding to the design was 0.042 m, leaving the inside
diameter of the anulus through which the ammonia circulates in 0.068 m. The heat exchange
length was 2.7 m. The water temperature measurements at the inlet (Te H2O) and outlet (Ts
H2O) and the ammonia at the inlet (Te NH3) and outlet (Ts NH3), were carried out by means of
a digital thermometer Electro-Term Model SRH77A a range -40 ºC to 200 ºC, with an
appreciation of 0.01 ºC. The water flow measurement (mH2O) was made by the gauging
method, using a graduated container in milliliters and a stopwatch. To carry out the pressure
measurements in the system, we use the manometers installed in the industry. Based on a
Fluke 337A Model 321 hook ammeter and a Fluke 430 series II network analyzer, it was
possible to determine the voltage (V) and the amperage per phase of the motors installed in
the compressors (Ip) and the power factor (cosφ). ). The NTU-effectiveness method is used to
evaluate the equipment. This method was first developed in detail by Kays M. and London A. in
1955 [10], and is based on determining the amount of heat transferred, with respect to the
maximum amount of heat possible to transfer during the given process. In this evaluation, the
stable operation of the refrigeration system was considered, executing the data collection in
the periods of stable operation and starting from the same refrigeration load, starting from the
variation of the water flow of the exchanger. This variation of the flow causes a rearrangement
of the parameters of the cooling system, so it was necessary before each measurement taking,
to observe a reasonable interval of time to achieve stability again in the system.
 The results obtained show that the performance of the installed heat recovery unit
is operating with adequate rates of effectiveness (67%), with an efficiency higher
than 35%, for 68.9 ºC of water outlet temperature. In the evaluated water flow
interval, the thermal operating parameters of the heat exchange system are at
suitable levels. The incidence of the temperature of the water at the outlet in the
quality of the heat transfer process, makes necessary a balance between the
thermal level at which the water is required and the efficiency of the heat recovery,
to guarantee an adequate functioning of the system from the thermal point of
view. The commissioning of the heat recovery allows the increase of the efficiency
of the double compression stage (COP) cooling system by 0.43, compared to its
operation without the heat recovery system. This was caused by the reduction of
the condensation pressure and the lower consumption of the electric motors of
the compressors of the refrigeration system. This allows the saving of resources
and the more stable operation of the cooling system. The saving of the fuel used
in the heating of water for the steam generation accounted for after the start-up
of the heat recovery unit was approximately 0.2 kg / h taking into account the
water flows used in the installation. This constitutes a very important element
since it makes possible the reduction of the cost associated to the production of
the industry and the elevation of the industrial efficiency. The rates of thermal
utilization (0.15 kW Thermal / kW refrigeration), and of reduction in the discharge
temperature (7.5 ºC / bar), are comparatively higher than those reported in the
literature, which makes it possible to recommend their use in refrigeration
facilities. industrial
 1. Abass, A. y Olajire, P, "The brewing industry and environmental challenges". Journal of Cleaner Production. Corrected Proof. In
Press. 2012 p. 1-21. ISSN 0959-6526.
 2. Öhman, H. "Implementation and evaluation of a low temperature waste heat recovery power cycle using NH3 in an Organic Rankine
Cycle". Energy, 2012 vol. 48, p. 227-232, ISSN 0360-5442.
 3. Srimuang, W. y Amatachaya, P. "A review of the applications of heat pipe heat exchangers for heat recovery". Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2012. vol. 16, p. 4303-4315. ISSN 1364-0321
 4. Jianhua, Z., Heli, Z., Ying, L. et al. "Generalized predictive control applied in waste heat recovery power plants".Applied Energy, 2013.
vol. 102, p. 320-326, ISSN 0306-2619.
 5. Brossard, L. F. "The correct use of ammonia in tropical countries". En: Proceeding Application for Natural Refrigerats, Dinamarca, 1996,
ISBN 2903633916.
 6. Kumar, D. M. y Singru, P. M. "Use of C-factor for monitoring of fouling in a shell and tube heat exchanger".Energy. 2011. vol. 36, p.
2899-2904. ISSN 0360-5442.
 7. Wu, S. Y., Yuan, X. F., Li, Y. R. et al. "Exergy transfer effectiveness on heat exchanger for finite pressure drop".Energy. 2007. vol. 32, p.
2110-2120. ISSN 0360-5442
 8. Cabezas-Gómeza, L., Aparecido, H. N., Sáiz-Jabardoc, J. M. et al. "Analysis of a new cross flow heat exchanger flow arrangement -
Extension to several rows". International Journal of Thermal Sciences. 2012. vol. 55, p 122-132. ISSN 1290-0729.
 9. Wong, J. Aparato intercambiador de calor. Cuba. Oficina Cubana de la Propiedad Industrial, OCPI. CU 23035 A1.2005, No.91/93, 2005.
 10. Kays, W. N. y London, A. L. Compact Heat Exchangers. 3rd ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1984. p.133-139. ISBN 0070334188.
 11. Lienhard IV, J. H. y Lienhard, J. H. A Heat Transfer Textbook. 4th ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Phlogiston Press, 2011. p. 120-
126. ISBN 0026044526
 12. Lindon, C. T. Heat Transfer. 3rd ed. New York, USA: Prendice Hall, 1993, p. 674-685. ISBN 10: 0133827488.
 13. Jarnagin, R. E. Recovery From Air Conditioning Units. Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. EES-
26. 2006. [Consultado el: 10 de octubre de 2012]. Disponible
en: http://www.wec.ufl.edu/extension/gc/harmony/documents/eh126.pdf.
 14. Reindl, D. T. "Heat Recovery in industrial Refrigeration". Ashrae Journal. 2007. vol. 49. p. 22-29. ISSN 0001-2491.
 15. Stinson, G. E., Studman, C. J. y Warburton, D. J. "A dairy refrigeration heat recovery unit and its effects on refrigeration
operation". Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research. 1987. vol. 36. p. 275-285. ISSN 2239-6268.
 16. Mihail-Dan, N. S. "A method of improving the effectiveness of a mechanical vapour compression process and of its applications in
refrigeration". International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2011. vol. 54. p. 1752-1762.
 1. Abass, A. y Olajire, P, "The brewing industry and environmental challenges". Journal of Cleaner Production. Corrected Proof. In Press.
2012 p. 1-21. ISSN 0959-6526.
 2. Öhman, H. "Implementation and evaluation of a low temperature waste heat recovery power cycle using NH3 in an Organic Rankine
Cycle". Energy, 2012 vol. 48, p. 227-232, ISSN 0360-5442.
 3. Srimuang, W. y Amatachaya, P. "A review of the applications of heat pipe heat exchangers for heat recovery". Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2012. vol. 16, p. 4303-4315. ISSN 1364-0321
 4. Jianhua, Z., Heli, Z., Ying, L. et al. "Generalized predictive control applied in waste heat recovery power plants".Applied Energy, 2013.
vol. 102, p. 320-326, ISSN 0306-2619.
 5. Brossard, L. F. "The correct use of ammonia in tropical countries". En: Proceeding Application for Natural Refrigerats, Dinamarca, 1996,
ISBN 2903633916.
 6. Kumar, D. M. y Singru, P. M. "Use of C-factor for monitoring of fouling in a shell and tube heat exchanger".Energy. 2011. vol. 36, p.
2899-2904. ISSN 0360-5442.
 7. Wu, S. Y., Yuan, X. F., Li, Y. R. et al. "Exergy transfer effectiveness on heat exchanger for finite pressure drop".Energy. 2007. vol. 32, p.
2110-2120. ISSN 0360-5442
 8. Cabezas-Gómeza, L., Aparecido, H. N., Sáiz-Jabardoc, J. M. et al. "Analysis of a new cross flow heat exchanger flow arrangement -
Extension to several rows". International Journal of Thermal Sciences. 2012. vol. 55, p 122-132. ISSN 1290-0729.
 9. Wong, J. Aparato intercambiador de calor. Cuba. Oficina Cubana de la Propiedad Industrial, OCPI. CU 23035 A1.2005, No.91/93, 2005.
 10. Kays, W. N. y London, A. L. Compact Heat Exchangers. 3rd ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1984. p.133-139. ISBN 0070334188.
 11. Lienhard IV, J. H. y Lienhard, J. H. A Heat Transfer Textbook. 4th ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Phlogiston Press, 2011. p. 120-
126. ISBN 0026044526
 12. Lindon, C. T. Heat Transfer. 3rd ed. New York, USA: Prendice Hall, 1993, p. 674-685. ISBN 10: 0133827488.
 13. Jarnagin, R. E. Recovery From Air Conditioning Units. Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. EES-
26. 2006. [Consultado el: 10 de octubre de 2012]. Disponible
en: http://www.wec.ufl.edu/extension/gc/harmony/documents/eh126.pdf.
 14. Reindl, D. T. "Heat Recovery in industrial Refrigeration". Ashrae Journal. 2007. vol. 49. p. 22-29. ISSN 0001-2491.
 15. Stinson, G. E., Studman, C. J. y Warburton, D. J. "A dairy refrigeration heat recovery unit and its effects on refrigeration
operation". Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research. 1987. vol. 36. p. 275-285. ISSN 2239-6268.
 16. Mihail-Dan, N. S. "A method of improving the effectiveness of a mechanical vapour compression process and of its applications in
refrigeration". International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2011. vol. 54. p. 1752-1762. ISSN 0017-9310.