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# REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENT II

RETAINING WALL
NAMA DOSEN

## Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER
2 OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this topic, student will be able to:
• Identify critical section for shear and moment.
• Calculate the shear and moment forces.
• Calculate the required reinforcement.
• Draw reinforcement detailing.
3 Retaining Walls Types

• Gravity Wall
• Cantilever Wall
• Counterfort Wall
• Buttress Wall
• Other Types of Wall
4 Lateral Earth Pressures
Here will discussed briefly, please see soil mechanics for indepth analysis
of loads acting on retaining wall.

## where θ is the angle of inclination of the backfill, φ is the angle of shearing

resistance, and γ e is the unit weight of the earth.
and presence of water in backfill.
5 Proportioning Cantilever Retaining Walls
From past experiences, the drawing bellow provide the rule-of-thumb for
proportioning cantilever retaining wall for quick dimensioning that pass
all test.
6 Design Procedure
Once the approximate size of the wall has been established, the stem,
toe, and heel can be designed in detail. Each of these parts will be
designed individually as a cantilever sticking out of a central mass.
Stem:
The values of shear and moment at the base of the stem resulting from
lateral earth pressures are computed and used to determine the stem
thickness and necessary reinforcing.
Because the lateral pressures are considered to be live load forces, a
load factor of 1.6 is used.
In addition to main reinforcement, temperature and shrinkage reinforcing
must be provided. In Section 14.3 of the SNI/ACI Code, a minimum value
of horizontal reinforcing equal to ρhorz = 0.0025, of the area of the wall, bt,
is required as well as a minimum amount of vertical reinforcing (ρvert =
0.0015).
7 Minimum Reinforcement
Based on SNI/ACI 14.3, Minimum wall reinforcement :
8 SAFETY FACTOR
Factor of Safety Against Overturning:
Moments are taken about the toe of the unfactored overturning and
righting forces. Traditionally, it has been felt that the safety factor
against overturning should be at least equal to 2. In making these
calculations, backfill on the toe is usually neglected because it may
very well be eroded.
Factor of Safety Against Sliding:
Consideration of sliding for retaining walls is a most important topic
because a very large percentage of retaining wall failures occur because
of sliding. To calculate the factor of safety against sliding, the estimated
sliding resistance (equal to the coefficient of friction for concrete on soil
times the resultant vertical force, µRv ) is divided by the total horizontal
force. The passive pressure against the wall is neglected, and the
9 HEEL DESIGN
The major force applied to the heel of a retaining wall is the downward
weight of the backfill behind the wall.
The value of Vu is determined at the face of the stem because of the
Because the load here consists of soil and concrete, a load factor of 1.2
is used for making the calculations.
10 TOE DESIGN
The toe is assumed to be a beam cantilevered from the front face of the
stem. The loads it must support include the weight of the cantilever slab
and the upward soil pressure beneath. Usually any earth fill on top of the
toe is neglected.
Because toe pressure is primarily caused by the lateral force H, a load
factor of 1.6 is used for the calculations.
The maximum moment for design is taken at the face of the stem,
whereas the maximum shear for design is assumed to occur at a
distance d from the face of the stem.
11 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
Design a cantilever retaining wall, which is required to support a bank of
earth 4.0 m high above the ground level on the toe side of the wall.
Consider the surcharge pressure of 40 kN/m2 (due to the construction of a
building).

## Assume good soil for foundation at a depth of 1.25 m below the

ground level with a safe bearing capacity of 160 kN/m2 .

Further assume the backfill to comprise granular soil with a unit weight of
16 kN/m3 and an angle of shearing resistance of 30◦ . Assume the
coefficient of friction between soil and concrete to be 0.5.
Solution:
Data Given :
12 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
Preliminary proportions:
Thickness of footing ≈ 0.08(h + hs) = 0.08 ·(5.25 + 2.5) = 0.62 m
Stem thickness of 650 mm at the base, 200 mm at the top.
Put vertical reaction R at the footing base is in line with the front
face of the stem, the length of the heel slab (inclusive of stem
thickness)

## Assuming a triangular soil pressure

L = 1.5X = 1.5 ·2.6 = 3.9 m
13 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
Preliminary proportions:
14 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
Stability against overturning
15 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

## Soil pressures at footing base:

resultant vertical reaction R = W = 366.8 kN (per m length of wall)
distance of R from heel: LR = (MW + Mo)/R
LR = (525.5 + 312.4)/366.8 = 2.284 m
eccentricity e = LR − L/2 = 2.284 − 3.9/2 = 0.334 m (< L/6 = 0.65)
indicating that the resultant lies well inside the middle thirdof the
base.
16 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
Stability against sliding:
• Sliding force = Pa = 143.5 kN (per m length of wall)
• Resisting force (ignoring passive pressure)
F = µR = 0.5 × 366.8 = 183.4 > Pa (Ok).

## • Hence, a shear key needs to be provided to generate the balance force

through passive resistance.
• Required Pp = 1.40 × 143.5 − 0.9 × 183.4 = 35.8 kN (per m length of wall)
• Providing a shear key 300 mm × 400 mm at 1.6 m from toe
h2 = 0.95 + 0.3 + 1.6 tan 30◦ = 2.17m
Pp = 3 × 16(2.172 − 0.952)/2 = 91.4kN
17 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
18 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

## The loads considered for the design of the

25 × 0.62 = 15.5 kN/m2

## The net upward pressure varies from 126.9

kN/m2 to 94.7 kN/m2 , as shown

## Assuming a clear cover of 75 mm and

D16mm bars, d = 620 − 75 − 8 = 537 mm

Design shear force (at d = 537 mm from the front face of the stem) and the
design moment at the face of the stem are given by:
Vu ≈ 1.6 × (126.9 + 94.7)/2 × (1.3 − 0.537) = 135.3 kN/m(width)
Mu = 1.6 × [(94.7 × 1.32 /2) + (126.9 − 94.7) × 0.5 × 1.32 × 2/3]
= 157.1 kN.m/m(width)
19 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

## As = ρbd = 0.00288 1000 537 = 1546.56mm2/m

use D16 bar (As = 201.06mm2) spacing required
s = 201.06 1000/1546.56 = 130mm (D16-130mm).
The bars should extend by at least a distance Ld = 40.0 16 = 640
mm beyond the front face of the stem, on both sides.
20 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
• Height of cantilever above base h = 5.250 − 0.62 = 4.63 m
• Assuming a clear cover of 50 mm and D20 bars,
d (at the base) = 650 - 50 - 10 = 590 mm
• Maximum design moment
21 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
22 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
• Curtailment of bars: The curtailment of the bars may be done in two
stages (at one-third and two-third heights of the stem above the base)
as shown in Figure. It can be verified that the curtailment satisfies the
Code requirements.
• Temperature and Shrinkage reinforcement
Provide two-thirds of the (horizontal) bars near the front face (which is
exposed to weather and the remaining one-third near the rear face.
For the lowermost one- third height of the stem above base,
Ast = (0.0018 × 1000 × 650). 2/3 = 780 mm2/m

## Using ∅ 10 bars, spacing required = 78.5 × 1000 / 780 = 100.69 mm ≈

100 mm.
Provide ∅ 10 @ 100 c/c near front face and ∅ 10 @ 200 c/c near rear
face in the lowermost one-third height of the wall ; ∅ 10 @ 200 c/c near
front face and ∅ 10 @ 400 c/c in the middle one-third height; and ∅ 10
@ 300 c/c near front face and ∅ 10 @ 600 c/c near the rear
face in the top one-third height of the wall.
Also provide nominal bars ∅ 10 bars @ 300 c/c vertically near the front
face.
23 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load
24 Home Work
Design a cantilever wall to retain earth with a backfill sloped at 20◦ to the
horizontal. The top of the wall is 5.5 m above the ground level, and the
foundation depth may be taken as 1.2 m below ground level, with a safe
bearing capacity of 120 kN/m2 . Assume that the backfill has a unit
weight of 17 kN/m2 and an angle of shearing resistance of 35◦ .
Further, assume a coefficient of friction between soil and concrete,
µ = 0.55. Use fc′ = 20 MPa for concrete and fy = 400 MPa for steel.
REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENT II
SUMBER UTAMA ----

THANK YOU
NAMA DOSEN

## Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER