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RETAINING WALL

NAMA DOSEN

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER

2 OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this topic, student will be able to:

• Identify Loading type.

• Identify critical section for shear and moment.

• Calculate the shear and moment forces.

• Calculate the required reinforcement.

• Draw reinforcement detailing.

3 Retaining Walls Types

• Gravity Wall

• Cantilever Wall

• Counterfort Wall

• Buttress Wall

• Other Types of Wall

4 Lateral Earth Pressures

Here will discussed briefly, please see soil mechanics for indepth analysis

of loads acting on retaining wall.

resistance, and γ e is the unit weight of the earth.

Please consult soil mechanics for additional surcharge load, layered soil,

and presence of water in backfill.

5 Proportioning Cantilever Retaining Walls

From past experiences, the drawing bellow provide the rule-of-thumb for

proportioning cantilever retaining wall for quick dimensioning that pass

all test.

6 Design Procedure

Once the approximate size of the wall has been established, the stem,

toe, and heel can be designed in detail. Each of these parts will be

designed individually as a cantilever sticking out of a central mass.

Stem:

The values of shear and moment at the base of the stem resulting from

lateral earth pressures are computed and used to determine the stem

thickness and necessary reinforcing.

Because the lateral pressures are considered to be live load forces, a

load factor of 1.6 is used.

In addition to main reinforcement, temperature and shrinkage reinforcing

must be provided. In Section 14.3 of the SNI/ACI Code, a minimum value

of horizontal reinforcing equal to ρhorz = 0.0025, of the area of the wall, bt,

is required as well as a minimum amount of vertical reinforcing (ρvert =

0.0015).

7 Minimum Reinforcement

Based on SNI/ACI 14.3, Minimum wall reinforcement :

8 SAFETY FACTOR

Factor of Safety Against Overturning:

Moments are taken about the toe of the unfactored overturning and

righting forces. Traditionally, it has been felt that the safety factor

against overturning should be at least equal to 2. In making these

calculations, backfill on the toe is usually neglected because it may

very well be eroded.

Factor of Safety Against Sliding:

Consideration of sliding for retaining walls is a most important topic

because a very large percentage of retaining wall failures occur because

of sliding. To calculate the factor of safety against sliding, the estimated

sliding resistance (equal to the coefficient of friction for concrete on soil

times the resultant vertical force, µRv ) is divided by the total horizontal

force. The passive pressure against the wall is neglected, and the

unfactored loads are used.

9 HEEL DESIGN

The major force applied to the heel of a retaining wall is the downward

weight of the backfill behind the wall.

The value of Vu is determined at the face of the stem because of the

downward loads.

Because the load here consists of soil and concrete, a load factor of 1.2

is used for making the calculations.

10 TOE DESIGN

The toe is assumed to be a beam cantilevered from the front face of the

stem. The loads it must support include the weight of the cantilever slab

and the upward soil pressure beneath. Usually any earth fill on top of the

toe is neglected.

Because toe pressure is primarily caused by the lateral force H, a load

factor of 1.6 is used for the calculations.

The maximum moment for design is taken at the face of the stem,

whereas the maximum shear for design is assumed to occur at a

distance d from the face of the stem.

11 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

Design a cantilever retaining wall, which is required to support a bank of

earth 4.0 m high above the ground level on the toe side of the wall.

Consider the surcharge pressure of 40 kN/m2 (due to the construction of a

building).

ground level with a safe bearing capacity of 160 kN/m2 .

Further assume the backfill to comprise granular soil with a unit weight of

16 kN/m3 and an angle of shearing resistance of 30◦ . Assume the

coefficient of friction between soil and concrete to be 0.5.

Solution:

Data Given :

12 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

Preliminary proportions:

Thickness of footing ≈ 0.08(h + hs) = 0.08 ·(5.25 + 2.5) = 0.62 m

Stem thickness of 650 mm at the base, 200 mm at the top.

Put vertical reaction R at the footing base is in line with the front

face of the stem, the length of the heel slab (inclusive of stem

thickness)

L = 1.5X = 1.5 ·2.6 = 3.9 m

13 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

Preliminary proportions:

14 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

Stability against overturning

15 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

resultant vertical reaction R = W = 366.8 kN (per m length of wall)

distance of R from heel: LR = (MW + Mo)/R

LR = (525.5 + 312.4)/366.8 = 2.284 m

eccentricity e = LR − L/2 = 2.284 − 3.9/2 = 0.334 m (< L/6 = 0.65)

indicating that the resultant lies well inside the middle thirdof the

base.

16 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

Stability against sliding:

• Sliding force = Pa = 143.5 kN (per m length of wall)

• Resisting force (ignoring passive pressure)

F = µR = 0.5 × 366.8 = 183.4 > Pa (Ok).

through passive resistance.

• Required Pp = 1.40 × 143.5 − 0.9 × 183.4 = 35.8 kN (per m length of wall)

• Providing a shear key 300 mm × 400 mm at 1.6 m from toe

h2 = 0.95 + 0.3 + 1.6 tan 30◦ = 2.17m

Pp = 3 × 16(2.172 − 0.952)/2 = 91.4kN

17 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

18 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

toe slab are as shown Self-weight loading =

25 × 0.62 = 15.5 kN/m2

kN/m2 to 94.7 kN/m2 , as shown

D16mm bars, d = 620 − 75 − 8 = 537 mm

Design shear force (at d = 537 mm from the front face of the stem) and the

design moment at the face of the stem are given by:

Vu ≈ 1.6 × (126.9 + 94.7)/2 × (1.3 − 0.537) = 135.3 kN/m(width)

Mu = 1.6 × [(94.7 × 1.32 /2) + (126.9 − 94.7) × 0.5 × 1.32 × 2/3]

= 157.1 kN.m/m(width)

19 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

use D16 bar (As = 201.06mm2) spacing required

s = 201.06 1000/1546.56 = 130mm (D16-130mm).

The bars should extend by at least a distance Ld = 40.0 16 = 640

mm beyond the front face of the stem, on both sides.

20 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

• Height of cantilever above base h = 5.250 − 0.62 = 4.63 m

• Assuming a clear cover of 50 mm and D20 bars,

d (at the base) = 650 - 50 - 10 = 590 mm

• Maximum design moment

21 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

22 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

• Curtailment of bars: The curtailment of the bars may be done in two

stages (at one-third and two-third heights of the stem above the base)

as shown in Figure. It can be verified that the curtailment satisfies the

Code requirements.

• Temperature and Shrinkage reinforcement

Provide two-thirds of the (horizontal) bars near the front face (which is

exposed to weather and the remaining one-third near the rear face.

For the lowermost one- third height of the stem above base,

Ast = (0.0018 × 1000 × 650). 2/3 = 780 mm2/m

100 mm.

Provide ∅ 10 @ 100 c/c near front face and ∅ 10 @ 200 c/c near rear

face in the lowermost one-third height of the wall ; ∅ 10 @ 200 c/c near

front face and ∅ 10 @ 400 c/c in the middle one-third height; and ∅ 10

@ 300 c/c near front face and ∅ 10 @ 600 c/c near the rear

face in the top one-third height of the wall.

Also provide nominal bars ∅ 10 bars @ 300 c/c vertically near the front

face.

23 Example: Retaining wall with surcharge load

24 Home Work

Design a cantilever wall to retain earth with a backfill sloped at 20◦ to the

horizontal. The top of the wall is 5.5 m above the ground level, and the

foundation depth may be taken as 1.2 m below ground level, with a safe

bearing capacity of 120 kN/m2 . Assume that the backfill has a unit

weight of 17 kN/m2 and an angle of shearing resistance of 35◦ .

Further, assume a coefficient of friction between soil and concrete,

µ = 0.55. Use fc′ = 20 MPa for concrete and fy = 400 MPa for steel.

REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENT II

SUMBER UTAMA ----

THANK YOU

NAMA DOSEN

INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER

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