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FISHER'S EXACT

TEST
FISHER'S EXACT TEST
 a statistical significance test used in the analysis
of contingency tables.
 a statistical test used to determine if there are
nonrandom associations between
two categorical/nominal variables.
 provide a basic picture of the interrelation
between two variables and can help find
interactions between them
 Reject null hypothesis if the value of
Probability(P) is small, usually smaller than 0.05
Nominal variable

a c a+c
Nominal
variable

b d b+d

a+b c+d N
 p= ( ( a + b ) ! ( c + d ) ! ( a + c ) ! ( b + d ) ! ) / a ! b ! c ! d ! N !
 1. For all possible tables (with the
observed marginal counts), calculate
the relevant hypergeometric
probability.
 2. Use that probability as a statistic.
 3. P-value (for Fisher’s exact test):
→ The sum of the probabilities
for all tables having a probability equal
to or smaller than that observed.
Assumptions
 It is assumed that the value of the first person or
the unit of items that are being sampled do not
get affected by the value of the second person or
the other unit of item being sampled. This
assumption of the Fisher Exact test would be
violated if the data is pooled or united.
 In the Fisher Exact test, mutual exclusivity within
the observations is assumed. In other words, the
given case should fall in only one cell in the table.
The dichotomous level of measurement of the
variables is assumed.
Assumptions
 It is assumed that the value of the first person or the unit
of items that are being sampled do not get affected by
the value of the second person or the other unit of item
being sampled. This assumption of the Fisher Exact test
would be violated if the data is pooled or united.
 In the Fisher Exact test, mutual exclusivity within the
observations is assumed. In other words, the given case
should fall in only one cell in the table.
The dichotomous level of measurement of the variables is
assumed.
EXAMPLE
 The data in table 1 come from an RCT
comparing intramuscular magnesium
injections with placebo for the
treatment of chronic fatigue
syndrome.3 Of the 15 patients who had
the intra-muscular magnesium
injections 12 felt better (80 per cent)
whereas, of the 17 on placebo, only
three felt better (18 per cent).
 Results of the study to examine whether intra-muscular magnesium is better
than placebo for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.†
NOTE:
Probability
P = (a+b)! (c+d)! (a+c)! (b+d)!
N! a! b! c! d!