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Human Resource Management


• This module aims to enable YOU- the student to:
• Be aware of changing trends in human resource management
and policies.
• Critique and evaluate the application of HR policies, systems and
procedures and their criticality for business success.
• Grasp the dynamics of personnel policies and industrial relations.
• Think critically in understanding people, productivity and
performance in organizations

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• Your learning journey is with me –

• Who am I ? George Bell

• l was a Principle Lecturer in HRM for over 30 years. I retired as full time Director for
Postgraduate Management programmes in the School of Business Computing and Information
Management [BCIM] at London South Bank University .My areas of learning and teaching
involved HRM and Organizational Behavior with responsibilities for postgraduate skills
development via action and problem-based learning.

• I now work for 6 UK Universities i.e. Warwick – Leicester- Portsmouth- Derby- Cardiff Business
School -London South Bank as a visiting academic /lecturer in HRM .I am an external examiner
on the International MBA for Glendower University in Wrexham Wales.

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Introduction

• How will we learn ?

• Textbook and set reading –

• Questions .

• Expectations of the course.

• Reflective themes

• Discussion in Seminars

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• In Appendix 1 of the MIP there are –Reflective Themes /debate topics.

• Assessments One Group/Team work, 360-degree feedback- Two Reflective Report

• Consider both assignment briefs how you will be marked and the

expectations from you as an undergraduate learner.

• Group assignment .in Appendix 2

• Groups of 4 for the assignment

• Choose a group of 4

• Choice a topic.

• All topics, must be distributed across the groups and covered twice or more.

• We need to collate group names and topic.

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Learning Objectives

1. Explain what human resource


management is and how it relates to the
management process.
2. Show with examples why human
resource management is important to all
managers.
3. Illustrate the human resources
responsibilities of line and staff (HR)
managers.
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The management process
• Working for any organization means that you and those
around you share common goals, which include an interest
in the growth and continuing development of the
organization.
• Some of those common goals include how work is
accomplished within the organization.
• You must always consider the elements of the
management process and how they relate to human
resource management. Different organisations will have
different contexts.
• Note that in organisations individuals generally work
together to achieve the common goals of an organization

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Human Resource Management
Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 1
Introduction to
Human Resource
Management

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What is HRM ?
• We need to start by understanding what Human Resource Management is and why it’s
important to all managers.

• We’ll see that human resource management activities such as hiring, training,
appraising, compensating, and developing employees are part of every manager’s job.

• We’ll see that human resource management is also a separate function.

• To understand what human resource management is, we need to understand

• the trends shaping human resource management,

• human resource management today,

• the nature of the new human resource manager.

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I.
Explain what human resource
management is and how it
relates to the management
process.

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What Is Human Resource
Management? (1 of 2)
• The Management Process
– Planning
– Organizing
– Staffing
– Leading

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What is HRM?
• –To understand what human resource management is, it’s
useful to start with what managers do.
• Most writers agree that managing involves performing five basic
functions:
• planning,
• organizing,
• staffing,
• leading,
• and controlling.
• These functions in total represent the management process

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What do managers do?
• Planning – involves establishing goals and standards;
developing rules and procedures; developing plans and
forecasts.
• Organizing – involves giving each subordinate a specific
task; establishing departments;
• delegating authority to subordinates;
• establishing channels of authority and communication;
• coordinating the work of subordinates.

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What do managers do?
• Staffing – involves determining what type of people should
be hired; recruiting prospective employees;selecting
employees; setting performance standards;compensating
employees; evaluating performance; counseling
employees; training and developing employees.
• Leading – involves getting others to get the job done;
maintaining morale, motivating subordinates.
• Controlling – involves setting standards such as sales
quotas, quality standards, or production levels; checking to
see how actual performance compares with these
standards; taking corrective action as needed.

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What Is Human Resource
Management? (2 of 2)
The topics we’ll discuss should therefore provide
you with the concepts and techniques every
manager needs to perform the “people” or
personnel aspects of management.

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Concepts and techniques
Conducting job analyses (determining the nature of each
employee’s job).
Planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates.
Selecting job candidates.
Orienting and training new employees.
Managing wages and salaries (compensating employees).
Providing incentives and benefits.

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Concepts and techniques
Appraising performance.
Communicating (interviewing, counseling, disciplining).
Training employees, and developing managers.
Building employee relations and engagement.

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Why Is Human Resource Management
Important to All Managers?
• To Avoid Personnel Mistakes
• To Improve Profits and Performance
• You May Spend Some Time as an HR Manager
• HR for Small Business – you may end up as your
own human resource manager

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Why is HRM important to ALL managers ?
Because of the following:
1.To Avoid Personnel Mistakes – managers don’t want to
make personnel mistakes, such as not having employees
doing their best, hiring the wrong person for the job,
experiencing high turnover, having to be in court due to
discriminatory actions, being cited for unsafe practices,
letting a lack of training undermined department
effectiveness, or committing any unfair labor practices.

2. To Improving Profits and Performance – to help ensure


that you get results—through people.
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Why is HRM important to all managers ?
3.You May Spend Some Time as an HR Manager –
4. HR for Small Business – you may well end up as your
own human resource manager. For example more than half
of the people working in the United States work for small
firms. Small businesses as a group also account for most
of the 600,000 or so new businesses created every year

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Line and Staff Aspects of Human
Resource Management
• Authority is the right to make decisions, to direct
the work of others, and to give orders.
• Managers usually distinguish between line
authority and staff authority.

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Line and Staff Managers
• Line authority
gives you the right
to issue orders
• Staff authority
gives you the right
to advise others in
the organization

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Line and staff managers ?
• When the vice president of sales tells her sales director to
“get the sales presentation ready by Tuesday,” she is
exercising her line authority.
• Staff authority gives a manager the right to advise other
managers or employees. It creates an advisory
relationship.
• When the human resource manager suggests that the
plant manager use a particular selection test, he or she is
exercising staff authority.

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Line and staff mangers
• In popular usage, people tend to associate line managers
with managing departments (like sales or production)that
are crucial for the company’s survival.
• Staff managers generally run departments that are
advisory or supportive, like purchasing and human
resource management.

• Human resource managers are usually staff managers.


They assist and advise line managers in areas like
recruiting, hiring, and compensation.

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Line Manager’s HR Management
Responsibilities (1 of 3)
• Placing the right
person in the right job
• Starting new
employees in the
organization
(orientation)

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Line Manager’s HR Management
Responsibilities (2 of 3)
• Training employees for jobs that are new to them
• Improving the job performance of each person
• Gaining creative cooperation and developing
smooth working relationships
• Interpreting the company policies and procedures

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Line Manager’s HR Management
Responsibilities (3 of 3)
• Controlling labor cost
• Developing the abilities of each person
• Creating and maintaining departmental morale
• Protecting employees’ health and physical
conditions

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Small and large organisations
• In small organizations, line managers may carry out all
these personnel duties unassisted.

• But as the organization grows, line managers usually need


the assistance, specialized knowledge, and advice of a
separate human resource staff.
• In larger firms, the human resource department provides
such specialized assistance.

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HRM Roles
• Examples of typical HRM jobs include:
• ● Recruiters. Search for qualified job applicants.
• ● Equal employment opportunity (EEO) coordinators.
Investigate and resolve EEO grievances,examine
organizational practices for potential violations, and compile
and submit EEO reports.
• ● Job analysts. Collect and examine information about jobs
to prepare job descriptions.

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HRM Roles
• Compensation managers. Develop compensation plans and
handle the employee benefits program.
• ● Training specialists. Plan, organize, and direct training
activities.
• ● Labor relations specialists. Advise management on all
aspects of union-management relations.
• At the other extreme, the human resource team for a small
manufacturer may contain just
• five or six (or fewer) staff, and have an organization similar to
that in Figure 1-1. There is generally about one human
resource employee per 100 company employees.

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The Human Resources Department

FIGURE 1-1 Human Resource Department Organization Chart Showing Typical HR


Job Titles
Source: “Human Resource Development Organization Chart Showing Typical HR Job Titles,”
www.co.pinellas.fl.us/persnl/pdf/orgchart.pdf. Courtesy of Pinellas County Human Resources. Reprinted
with permission.
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New Approaches To Organizing HR
• Reorganizing the HR function of how it is
organized and delivers HR services
– Shared Services (Transactional) HR teams
– Corporate HR teams
– Embedded HR teams
– Centers of expertise

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Changes in HRM functions and services
• Many employers are changing how they organize their
human resource functions.
Most plan to use technology to institute more “shared
services” (or “transactional”) arrangements.
These establish centralized HR units whose employees are
shared by all the companies’ departments to obtain advice on
matters such as discipline problems.
• You may also find specialized corporate HR teams within a
company.
• These assist top management in top-level issues such as
developing the personnel aspects of the company’s long-
term strategic plan.

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Changes
• Embedded HR teams is another approach that has HR
generalists (also known as “relationship managers” or “HR
business partners”) assigned to functional departments like
sales and production.
• They provide the selection and other assistance the
departments need.
• In addition, Centers of expertise are basically specialized
HR consulting firms within the company.

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II.
Trends Shaping Human
Resource Management

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Trends in Human Resource
Management
• Workforce Demographics and Diversity Trends
• Trends in How People Work
• Improving Performance at Work: HR as a Profit
Center
• Globalization Trends
• Economic Trends
• Technology Trends

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Trends shaping HRM
• Trends are occurring in the environment of human resource management
that are changing how employers get their human resource management
tasks done. These trends include workforce trends, trends in how people
work, technological trends, and globalization and economic trends:

• Demographic and Workforce Trends. The composition of the


workforce will continue to change over the next few years;
specifically, it will continue to become more diverse with more
women, minority group members, and older workers in the
workforce.
• Trends in How People Work. At the same time, work has
shifted from manufacturing jobs to service jobs in North
America and Western Europe.
• Today over two-thirds of the U.S. workforce is employed in
producing and delivering services, not products.
• Example of this is on demand workers like Uber.
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Trends
• Globalization. Refers to companies extending their sales,
ownership, and/or manufacturing to new markets abroad.
• For example, Toyota builds Camrys in Kentucky, while Apple
assembles iPhones in China. Free-trade areas—
agreements that reduce tariffs and barriers among trading
partners—further encourage international trade. NAFTA (the
North American Free Trade Agreement) and the EU
(European Union) are examples.

• Economic Trends. Although globalization supported a


growing global economy, the past 10 or so years were
difficult economically for the USA .
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More on HR Technology Trends
• There are 5 main types of digital technologies
driving HR professionals to automation:
– Social Media
– Mobile Applications
– Gaming
– Cloud Computing
– Data Analytics (as known as Talent Analytics)

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Social media
• Employers increasingly use social media—tools such as
Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn (rather than, say, as many
employment agencies) —to recruit new employees.
• Employers use new mobile applications, for instance, to
monitor employee location and to provide digital photos at
the facility clock-in location to identify workers.
• Employers use gaming, new training applications, and
websites such as Knack, Gild, and True Office enable
employers to inject gaming features into training,
performance appraisal, and recruiting.

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Cloud Computing
• Employers use cloud computing which enable employers
to monitor and report on things like a team’s goal
attainment and to provide real-time evaluative feedback.

• Employers also use data analytics, also called talent


analytics, which use statistical techniques, algorithms, and
problem-solving to identify relationships among data for the
purpose of solving particular problems (such as what the
ideal candidate’s traits are, or how can I tell in advance
which of my best employees is likely to quit?)

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Todays HRM
• As the challenges continue for today – so does
important aspects of Human Resource
Management.

• Let take a look at today’s Human Resource


Management.

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III.
Today’s New Human Resource
Management

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Today’s New Human Resource
Management
• A Brief History of Personnel/Human Resource
Management
• Distributed HR and the New Human Resource
Management
• Trends Shaping HR: Digital and Social Media

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Distributed HR and the New Human
Resource Management
• More and more human resource management tasks are
now being redistributed from a central HR department to
the company’s employees and line managers, thanks to
digital technologies like mobile phones and social media.
• Some experts say that if current trends continue, many
aspects of HR and talent management will become “fully
embedded in how work gets done throughout an
organization [distributed], thereby becoming an everyday
part of doing business.”

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A Brief History of Personnel/Human
Resource Management
• “Personnel management” is not new.

• It dates back to the 1800’s, By 1900, employers set up the first “hiring offices,”
training programs, and factory schools.

• Personnel management had begun.

• In these early firms, personnel managers took over hiring and firing from
supervisors, ran the payroll departments, and administered benefits plans.

• New union laws were added in the 1930s, equal employment laws came along
in the 1960s that made employers more reliant on personnel management to
avoid discrimination claims.

• Now today, a new human resource management is emerging.

• We’ll look at this next.

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Trends Shaping HR: Digital and social
media tools

• Digital and social media tools are changing how people


look for jobs, and how companies recruit, retain, pay, and
train employees.
• In doing so, they’ve transformed the practice of human
resource management, and created, in a sense, a new
human resource management.

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A Quick Summary

FIGURE 1-4
What Trends Mean
for Human Resource
Management

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A Quick Summary
• ● One big consequence of globalized competition,
economic, and demographic trends, and the shift to high-
tech and service jobs is the growing emphasis by
employers on getting the best from their “human capital,” in
other words, from their workers’ knowledge, education,
training, skills, and expertise.
• This means, among other things, using human resource
methods to improve employee performance and
engagement.

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Figure 1-4 illustrates
● Thanks to digital devices and social media, employers are
shifting (distributing) more HR tasks from central human
resource departments to employees and line managers.
● This gives many line managers more human resource
management responsibilities.
● And it means that many human resource managers can
refocus their efforts from day-to-day activities like interviewing
candidates to broader, strategic efforts, such as formulating
plans for boosting employee performance and engagement.

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HR and Strategy
Strategic Human Resource Management
• Strategic human resource management –
means formulating and executing human resource
policies and practices that produce the employee
competencies and behaviors that the company
needs to achieve its strategic aims.

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HR and Performance
The Human Resource Manager is expected to
spearhead employee performance.
Three Levers can be applied to do so:
1. Department Lever
2. Employee Cost Lever
3. Strategic Results Lever

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3 Levers
• Employers also expect their human resource
manager/“people experts” to spearhead employee
performance-improvement efforts.
• Here they can apply three levers.
1. The HR department lever. The HR manager ensures
that the human resource management function is delivering
services efficiently.
For example, this might include outsourcing certain HR
activities such as benefits management, and using
technology to deliver its services more cost-effectively.

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3 Levers
• 2. The Employee costs lever. For example, the human
resource manager takes a prominent role in advising top
management about the company’s staffing levels, and in
setting and controlling the firm’s compensation, incentives,
and benefits policies.

• 3. The strategic results lever. Here the HR manager puts


in place the policies and practices that produce the
employee competencies and skills the company needs to
achieve its strategic goals.

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HR and Evidence Based Management
• Evidence-based human resource
management – is the use of data, facts,
analytics, scientific rigor, critical evaluation, and
critically evaluated research/case studies to
support human resource management proposals,
decisions, practices, and conclusions.

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Evidence based HRM
• Put simply, evidence-based human resource management means
using the best-available evidence in making decisions about the
human resource management practices you are focusing on.
• The evidence may come from the following:

• actual measurements (such as, how did the trainees like


this program?)
• existing data (such as, what happened to company profits
after we installed this training program?)
• research studies (such as, what does the research
literature conclude about the best way to ensure that
trainees remember what they learn?)
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High Performance Work Systems
• Sometimes, companies translate their findings into what
management gurus call high-performance work
systems, which are “sets of human resource management
practices that together produce superior employee
performance.”

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HR and Adding Value
• Adding value – means helping the firm and its
employees improve in a measurable way as a
result of the human resources manager’s actions.

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Adding Value
• The bottom line is that today’s employers want their human
resource managers to add value by boosting profits and
performance.

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HR and Performance and
Sustainability
• It is about measuring companies in terms of
maximizing profits but also on their environmental
and social performance as well.

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HR and Employee Engagement
• Employee engagement – refers to being
psychologically involved in, connected to, and
committed to getting one’s job done.

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Engaged Employees
• Engaged employees “experience a high level of
connectivity with their work tasks,” and therefore work hard
to accomplish their task-related goals.

• Employee engagement is important because it drives


performance.

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IV.
The New Human Resource
Manager

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What does it take to be a New Human
Resource Manager today?
Recently, the SHRM Body of Competency and Knowledge itemized the
competencies, skills, and knowledge and expertise human resource managers
need.
• The HR Manager should be able to exhibit:

• ● Leadership & Navigation – the ability to direct and contribute


to initiatives and processes within the organization.
• ● Ethical Practice –the ability to integrate core values, integrity,
and accountability throughout all organizational and business
practices.
• ● Business Acumen – the ability to understand and apply
information with which to contribute to the organization’s
strategic plan.
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The HR Manager should be able to exhibit:
• ● Relationship Management – the ability to manage
interactions to provide service and to support the organization.
• ● Consultation – the ability to provide guidance to
organizational stakeholders.
• ● Critical Evaluation – the ability to interpret information with
which to make business decisions and recommendations.
• ● Global & Cultural Effectiveness – the ability to value and
consider the perspectives and backgrounds of all parties.
• ● Communication – the ability to effectively exchange
information with stakeholders.

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The New Human Resource Manager
The Society of Human Resource Management
(SHRM) has a new “competency model” called the
SHRM Body of Competency and Knowledge that
itemizes what a New HR Manager needs
• What should they be able to exhibit?
• What basic functional areas of HR should they
have command?

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Functional Areas
• SHRM also says HR managers must have command of the basic
functional areas of HR as follows:

• ● Functional Area #1: Talent Acquisition & Retention


• ● Functional Area #2: Employee Engagement
• ● Functional Area #3: Learning & Development
• ● Functional Area #4: Total Rewards
• ● Functional Area #5: Structure of the HR Function
• ● Functional Area #6: Organizational Effectiveness &
Development

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Functional Areas
• ● Functional Area #7: Workforce Management

• ● Functional Area #8: Employee Relations

• ● Functional Area #9: Technology & Data

• ● Functional Area #10: HR in the Global Context

• ● Functional Area #11: Diversity & Inclusion

• ● Functional Area #12: Risk Management

• ● Functional Area #13: Corporate Social Responsibility

• ● Functional Area #14: U.S. Employment Law & Regulations

• ● Functional Area #15: Business & HR Strategy

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The Skills of the New HR Manager
HR managers can't
just be good at
traditional personnel
tasks like hiring and
training, but must
"speak the CFO's
language" by
defending human
resource plans in
measurable terms.

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HR and the Manager’s Skills
• The aim should be to help every manager develop the skills
he or she needs to carry out the human resource management-
related aspects of his or her job, such as recruiting, selecting,
training, appraising, and incentivizing employees, and providing
them with a safe and fulfilling work environment.
• HR and Ethics Ethics refer to the standards someone uses to
decide what his or her conduct should be.
• HR Manager Certification Many human resource managers
use certification to demonstrate their mastery of contemporary
human resource management knowledge and competencies.

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HR and the Manager’s Human Resource
Philosophy
• Technical expertise is important, but at the end of the day,
people’s actions are always based in part on the basic
assumptions they make.
• There’s no doubt that you will bring to your job an initial
philosophy based on your experiences, education, values,
assumptions, and background. In any case, no manager
should manage others without first understanding the
personnel philosophy that is driving his or her actions.
• One of the things molding your own philosophy is that of
your organization’s top management.

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Human Resource Manager
Certification
• HRCI Certifications
– PHR – Professional in Human Resources
– SPHR – Senior Professional in Human Resources
• SHRM now has its own competency and
knowledge based testing

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V.
The Plan of this Book.

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The Basic Themes and Features
Themes and features are used to highlight
particularly important issues and provide continuity
from chapter to chapter.

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Improving Performance
IMPROVING PERFORMANCE: HR TOOLS FOR LINE MANAGERS AND
ENTREPRENURS.
• These features highlight actual tools and practices any manager can use to
improve performance at work.
• IMPROVING PERFORMANCE: HR AS A PROFIT CENTER. We’ve seen
that employers need human resource management practices that add
value.
• These show actual examples of how human resource management
practices add measurable value—by reducing costs or boosting revenues.
• IMPROVING PERFORMANCE: HR PRACTICES AROUND THE GLOBE.
These features highlight how actual companies around the globe use
effective HR practices to improve their teams’ and companies’ performance.

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Improving Performance
• IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH HRIS. These
features highlight how managers use human resource
technology to improve performance
• DIVERSITY COUNTS. These features provide insights and
guidelines for managing a diverse workforce.
• TRENDS SHAPING HR: DIGITAL AND SOCIAL MEDIA. These
features emphasize how digital and high-tech trends are
shaping Human Resource Management.
• IMPROVING PERFORMANCE: THE STRATEGIC CONTEXT.
These features provide insight for understanding how the
employer’s human resource management policies and practices
produce the employee skills and performance the company
needs to achieve its strategic aims.
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Practical Tools for Every Manager
• Human resource management is the responsibility
of every manager—not just those in human
resources.
• Managers use HR techniques to improve
performance, productivity, and profitability

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Chapter Contents Overview
There are 5 parts to this book

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Part 1: Introduction
• Chapter 1 – Introduction to Human Resource
Management
• Chapter 2 – Equal Opportunity and the Law
• Chapter 3 – Human Resource Strategy and
Analysis

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Part 2: Recruitment, Placement, and
Talent Management
• Chapter 4 – Job Analysis and the Talent
Management Process
• Chapter 5 – Personnel Planning and Recruiting
• Chapter 6 – Employee Testing and Selection
• Chapter 7 – Interviewing Candidates

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Part 3: Training and Development
• Chapter 8 – Training and Developing Employees
• Chapter 9 – Performance Management and
Appraisal
• Chapter 10 – Managing Careers and Retention

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Part 4: Compensation
• Chapter 11 – Establishing Strategic Pay Plans
• Chapter 12 – Pay for Performance and Financial
Incentives
• Chapter 13 – Benefits and Services

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Part 5: Enrichment Topics in Human
Resource Management
• Chapter 14 – Building Positive Employee Relation
• Chapter 15 – Labor Relations and Collective
Bargaining
• Chapter 16 – Safety, Health, and Risk
Management
• Chapter 17 – Managing Global Human Resources
• Chapter 18 – Managing Human Resources in
Small and Entrepreneurial Firms

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The Topics are Interrelated
• Human Resource Management 15th edition
chapter topics are interrelated.
• The themes and features highlighted throughout
the book also provides a continuity from chapter to
chapter.

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Chapter 1 Review

What you should now know….

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What you need to reflect upon ?
1.Explain what human resource management is and how it is
related to the management process.
2.Briefly discuss and illustrate each of the important trends
influencing human resources management.
3.List and briefly describe “distributed HR” and other
important aspects of human management today.
4.List at least four important human resources manager
competencies.
5.Understand the plan of the set book.

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Good old lessons in teamwork
from an age-old fable

The Tortoise
And
The Hare

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Once upon a time a tortoise and a
hare had an argument about who
was faster.
That’s not true.
The fastest runner is
me!

I’m the fastest


runner.

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They decided to settle
the argument with a race.
They agreed on a route Fine!
and started off the race.

Ok, let’s have


a race.

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The hare shot ahead and ran briskly for
some time. Then seeing that he was far
ahead of the tortoise, he thought he'd sit
under a tree for some time and relax
before continuing the race.
Poor guy! Even if I
take a nap, he
could not catch up
with me.

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He sat under the tree and soon fell asleep.

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The tortoise plodding on overtook
him and soon finished the race,
emerging as the undisputed champ.

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The hare woke up and realized that he'd
lost the race.

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The moral of the story is that slow and steady
wins the race.

This is the version of the story that we've all


grown up with.

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The story continues …

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The hare was disappointed
at losing the race and he
did some soul-searching.
He realized that he'd lost Why did
the race only because he I lose
had been overconfident, the race?
careless and lax. If he had
not taken things for granted,
there's no way the tortoise
could have beaten him.

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So he challenged the
tortoise to another race.
The tortoise agreed. Ok.

Can we have
another race?

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This time, the hare went all
out and ran without stopping
from start to finish. He won
by several miles.

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The moral of the story?

Fast and consistent will always beat the slow and


steady. If you have two people in your organization,
one slow, methodical and reliable, and the other fast
and still reliable at what he does, the fast and reliable
chap will consistently climb the organizational ladder
faster than the slow, methodical chap.

It's good to be slow and steady; but it's better to be


fast and reliable.
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But the story doesn't end here …

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The tortoise did some thinking
this time, and realized that there's
no way he can beat the hare in a
race the way it was currently
formatted. How can
I can
win the
hare?

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He thought for a while,
and then challenged
the hare to another race, Can we have another race?
but on a slightly This time we’ll go
different route. through a different route.
The hare agreed.

Sure!

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They started off. In keeping with
his self-made commitment to be
consistently fast, the hare took off
and ran at top speed until he came
to a broad river. The finishing
line was a couple of kilometers Goal
on the other side of the river.

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The hare sat there wondering what
to do. In the meantime the tortoise
trundled along, got into the river,
swam to the opposite bank,
continued walking and finished the
race.

What
should I
do?

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The moral of the story?

First identify your core competency and then change the


playing field to suit your core competency.

In an organization, if you are a good speaker, make sure you


create opportunities to give presentations that enable the senior
management to notice you.

If your strength is analysis, make sure you do some sort of


research, make a report and send it upstairs.

Working to your strengths will not only get you noticed, but will
also create opportunities for growth and advancement.
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The story still hasn't ended …

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The hare and the tortoise, by
this time, had become pretty
good friends and they did some
thinking together. Both realized
that the last race could have
been run much better.

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So they decided to do the
last race again, but to run Great! I think we
as a team this time. could do it much
better, if we two
help each other.

Hi, buddy. How


about doing our last
race again?

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They started off, and this time the
hare carried the tortoise till the
riverbank.

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There, the tortoise took over and
swam across with the hare on his
back.

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On the opposite bank, the hare
again carried the tortoise and they
reached the finishing line together.
They both felt a greater sense of
satisfaction than they'd felt earlier.

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The moral of the story?

It's good to be individually brilliant and to have


strong core competencies; but unless you're able to
work in a team and harness each other's core
competencies, you'll always perform below par
because there will always be situations at which
you'll do poorly and someone else does well.

Teamwork is mainly about situational leadership,


letting the person with the relevant core competency
for a situation take leadership.

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There are more lessons to be learnt from this story.

Note that neither the hare nor the tortoise gave up after failures.
The hare decided to work harder and put in more effort after his
failure. The tortoise changed his strategy because he was already
working as hard as he could.

In life, when faced with failure, sometimes it is appropriate to


work harder and put in more effort. Sometimes it is appropriate
to change strategy and try something different. And sometimes it
is appropriate to do both.

The hare and the tortoise also learnt another vital lesson. When
we stop competing against a rival and instead start competing
against the situation, we perform far better.
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When Roberto Goizueta took over as CEO of Coca-Cola in
the 1980s, he was faced with intense competition from Pepsi
that was eating into Coke's growth. His executives were
Pepsi-focused and intent on increasing market share 0.1 per
cent a time.

Roberto decided to stop competing against Pepsi and instead


compete against the situation of 0.1 per cent growth.

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He asked his executives what was the average fluid intake of
an American per day? The answer was 14 ounces. What was
Coke's share of that? Two ounces. Roberto said Coke needed
a larger share of that market. The competition wasn't Pepsi. It
was the water, tea, coffee, milk and fruit juices that went into
the remaining 12 ounces. The public should reach for a Coke
whenever they felt like drinking something.

To this end, Coke put up vending machines at every street


corner. Sales took a quantum jump and Pepsi has never quite
caught up since.

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To sum up, the story of the hare and tortoise
teaches us many things:
Never give up when faced with failure
Fast and consistent will always beat slow and
steady
Work to your competencies
Compete against the situation, not against a
rival.
Pooling resources and working as a team will
always beat individual performers
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Let’s go and build stronger teams!

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Reflective Theme 1

• ‘Why is HR Management important to all managers ?’

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