metode aliran daya menggunakan hukum gauss seidel

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metode aliran daya menggunakan hukum gauss seidel

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You are on page 1of 32

Method

Power systems 4

Gumede

Lecture #7

1

Power Flow Solution

• In power engineering, the power flow study (also

known as load flow study) is an important tool

involving numerical analysis applied to a power

system. Unlike traditional circuit analysis, a power

flow study usually uses simplified notation such as a

one-line diagram and per-unit system, and focuses

on various forms of AC power (ie: reactive, real, and

apparent) rather than voltage and current. It analyses

the power systems in normal steady-state operation.

There is a number of software implementations of

power flow studies.

• The following four variables are associated with

each bus k - voltage magnitude Vk, phase angle

deltak, net real power Pk and reactive power Qk

supplied to the bus. 2

Power Flow Solution

The goal of a power flow study is to obtain complete voltage angle

and magnitude information for each bus in a power system for

specified load and generator real power and voltage conditions.

Once this information is known, real and reactive power flow on

each branch as well as generator reactive power output can be

analytically determined. Due to the nonlinear nature of this problem,

numerical methods are employed to obtain a solution that is within

an acceptable tolerance.

The solution to the power flow problem begins with identifying the

known and unknown variables in the system. The known and

unknown variables are dependent of the type of bus. A bus without

any generators connected to it is called a Load Bus. With one

exception, a bus with at least one generator connected to it is called

a Generator Bus. The exception is one arbitrarily-selected bus that

has a generator. This bus is referred to as the Slack Bus.

3

Power Flow Solution

Eg

Is

Zp

Z p Zg

4

Power Flow Solution

A load flow study is done on a power system to

ensure that:

losses.

•Bus voltage magnitudes remain close to rated

values

•Generation operates within specified real and

reactive power limits

•Transmission lines and transformers are not

overloaded.

IEEE 14 bus system used for study purposes. We would

like to calculate power flow using Matlab, DigSilent, PSSE

and other software tools. Both G-S and N-R methods can be

used.

5

Power Flow Solution

6

Power Flow Equation

The starting point of a load flow problem is a

single line diagram of the power system as

shown in previous figure, from which input

data for computer solutions can be obtained:

•Input data consists of bus data (P, Q, V)

•transmission line data and (Z, Y)

•transformer data. (Turns Ratio, Z%)

•Y bus formation is next

problem.

A)The Gauss-Seidel Method

B)The Newton -Raphson Method

C)Fast decoupled Method 7

Power Flow Equation

• Transmission lines are represented by their equivalent PI

models where impedance have been converted to per unit

admittance on a common MVA base.

8

Power Flow Equation

= yiiVi -yi1V1-yi2V2-...-yinVn

power flow problem results in a systems of algebraic non-linear

equations which must be solved by iterative techniques 9

Gauss-Seidel Equation

•Note k and k+1 are the iterations which are used for calculating

the value of Vi until the solution converges. It starts with k=0

10

Power Injections

11

Power Injections

• In power flow study, we are required to solve the set of non-

linear equations for two unknowns at each bus. Vi is solved

using the sequence and yij is in lower case and it is the actual

admittance in pu taken directly from the network

Voltage

Magnitude

at bus i

Real

Power

at bus i

Reactive

Power at

bus 12i

Gauss-Seidel Equation

Psch and Qsch are net real and reactive power expressed in pu. In

writing the KCL, current entering the bus i was assumed

positive. Thus, for bus where real and reactive powers are

injected into the bus, such as generator buses, Pisch and Qisch

have positive values. For load buses where real and reactive

powers are flowing away from the bus, Pisch and Qisch have

negative values.

the bus admittance matrix. Remember that the off-diagonal

elements of the matrix Ybus are given in uppercase, are Yij = -yij

and the diagonal elements Yii = ∑yij. Yii includes the admittance

to ground of the line charging susceptance and any other fixed

admittance to ground. The equations in previous page will now

change to :

13

Gauss-Seidel Equation

14

Gauss-Seidel Equation

slack bus depending on the reactive power demand whereas

the schedule voltage at the generator buses are somewhat

higher. The phase angles of load buses are below reference

angle in accordance with real power demand whereas the

phase angle of generator buses may be above the reference

value depending on amount of real power flowing into the bus.

15

Gauss-Seidel Equation

16

Gauss-Seidel Equation

Where ei(k+1) and fi(k+1) are the real and imaginary components of the

voltage Vi (k+1) in the iterative sequence.

The rate of convergence is increased by applying an acceleration factor

to the approximate solution obtained from each iteration.

( k 1)

Vi (V ( k ) ical V ( k ) i )

(k )

Vi

Where is acceleration factor. Its value depend upon the system.

The range of 1.3 – 1.7 is found to be satisfactory for typical systems.

The updated voltages immediately replace the previous voltage in the

solution of the subsequent equations.

The process is continues until changes in the real and imaginary

components of the bus voltages between successive iterations are

( k 1)

within a specified accuracy i.e. ei e( k ) i

( k 1)

fi f (k )i

For the power mismatch to be reasonably small and acceptable, a very

tight tolerance must be specified on both components of the voltage.

A voltage accuracy in the range of 0.00001 to 0.00005 pu is used. 17

BUS ADMITTANCE MATRIX

After the iterative solution of bus voltages, the next step is the

computation of the line flows and line losses.

18

Solution

Admittance y12 = 1/z12 = 1/(0.02 + 0.04) = 10- j20, y13 = 10-j30 and

y23 = 16-j32

generators connected to them whereas bus1 is assumed to

be a slack bus.

The loads at bus2 is P + jQ =-( 2.566 + j1.102)pu and bus 3 is -

(1.386 + j0.452) pu. Negative means power is drawn from a

bus as opposed to be injected into a bus i.e. Gen bus.

We start from initial estimate of V2(0) = 1+j0 and V3(0) = 1+j0, (0)

means iteration 0 (zero) initial estimate.

jQ2 jQ2

sch sch sch sch

P2 P2

y V y23V3 Y12V1( 0) Y23V3

( 0) ( 0) ( 0)

*(0 ) 12 1 *(0 )

V2 V2

(1)

V2

y12 y23 Y22

19

Solution

V2(1)= 0.9825 – j0.0310

jQ3 jQ3

sch sch sch sch

P3 P3

y V y23V2 Y13V3( 0) Y23V2

(0) (1) (0)

*(0 ) 13 1 *(0 )

V3 V3

(1)

V3

y13 y23 Y33

Now we go to second iteration:

Substitute previous values of V2 and V3 from iteration 1

between the current magnitude value and phase of the voltage at

bus 2 is within the accuracy of 0.00005. the same applies for V3.

20

Solution

Here is the solution to the problem starting with V2 at iteration1

21

Solution

22

Solution

23

Solution

S31 = V3I*31 = (1.0 –j0.05 (-2.0-j1.0) = -2.05 – j0.9 pu

= -205MW – j90Mvar

S23 = V2I23* = (0.98 –j0.06)(-0.656 – j0.432) = -0.656-j0.432 pu

=-656MW – j432Mvar

S32=V3I*32 = (1 – j0.05)(0.64 + j0.48) = 0.664 + j0.448 pu

=66.4 MW + j44.8Mvar

Line Losses

SL12 = S12 = S21 = 8.5MW + j17.0 Mvar

SL12 = S13 + S31 = 5.0 MW + j15.0 Mvar

SL23 = S21+S32 = 0.8MW + j1.6Mvar

24

Bus 1 Bus2

256.6MW

84Mvar 67Mvar

110.2Mvar

210MW 65.6MW

105Mvar 43.2Mvar

189Mvar

66.4Mvar

43.2Mvar

205MW

90Mvar

Bus3

138.6MW 45.2Mvar 25

Example G-S

Example 2.

If the same network, is used bus 3 is now changed to generator bus.

Bus 1 is taken as a slack bus with voltage adjusted to 1.05 pu. At

bus 3, P injected to the bus is 200MW and the voltage magnitude is

|V3| = 1.04. In bus 2 the power drawn from the bus is 400MW and

250MVAR respectively and 100MVA base is used. Obtain a power

flow solution using G-S method. Calculate Q3, angle at bus3, V2 and

finally P1 and Q1.

Generator. If that happens, the bus is converted to a load bus. The

generator can operate within the limits as it is not possible to keep

on generating power.

26

Solution

27

Solution

28

Solution

30

Solution

31

fb = linedata(:,1);% From bus number ...

tb = linedata(:,2);% To bus number...

r = linedata(:,3);% Resistance, R...

x = linedata(:,4);% Reactance, X...

b = linedata(:,5);% Ground Admittance, B/2...

z = r + i*x;% Z matrix...

y = 1./z;% To get inverse of each element...

nbus = max(max(fb),max(tb));% no. of buses...

nbranch= length(fb);% no. of branches...

ybus = zeros(nbus,nbus);% Initialise YBus...

% Formation of Off Diagonal Elements...

for k=1:nbranchybus(fb(k),tb(k)) = -y(k);

ybus(tb(k),fb(k)) = ybus(fb(k),tb(k));

end

% Formation of Diagonal Elements....

for m=1:nbus

for n=1:nbranch

if fb(n) == m | tb(n) == mybus(m,m) = ybus(m,m) + y(n) + b(n);

end

end

end

ybus

32

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