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1.

What celestial body was emphasized in


the movie, “Deep Impact”? Describe it.
2. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of space exploration?
3. What do you think are five (5) most
significant events happened during the
space exploration age?
4. Is there a need for humans need to
continue exploring the outer space? Why
or why not?
Spaceflight Timeline
 Identify significant
events and advances in
space exploration, and
 Explain the role of
technology in space
exploration.
 Why should humans explore the
space?
 Is it possible for humans to explore
places beyond the solar system?
 Will we ever reach other stars?
 What are the obstacles that we
should overcome before we can
make explorations to far places like
other galaxies?
Lights, action-reaction! =)

 Gunpowder and
Fireworks invented
in China 2 century
BCE.
 Gunpowder, a mixture
composing of: 75%
Potassium Nitrate
(KNO3), 15% Charcoal
(Carbon), and 10%
Sulfur, provides the
thrust for most
fireworks.
 Invented the liquid fuel Hey Mom look, I made a
rocket rocket! =)
 “Nell” Flew on March 16th,
1926
 “Father of Modern
Rocketry”
 Solid fuel: must have air to
combust. Once started, must
burn out
 Liquid fuel: some fuels can
react with no air. Engines
can be shut down and
restarted.
 German scientists led by
Herman Oberth and Werner Let’s blow
Von Braun picked Goddard’s them up!
brain to develop their own
rockets capable of space
travel.
 Hitler forced this research
group to develop a missile
that could carry a warhead
to Britain.
 1,100 V-2 rockets would
impact England in World
War II.
 Also during WWII, the
Germans pioneered the
first “practical” jet
engine. They would be
the only country to
successfully use jets
during the war.
 Shortly after the war, the U.S.
What? I broke
leads the way in developing
the speed of
high performance aircraft.
sound, ya’heard?
 Pilots and Engineers notice
terrible turbulence as planes
approach 760 miles per hour-
the speed of sound when
most crashed due to lack of
stability.
 Bell laboratories develops
the first aircraft, technically a
rocket plane” capable of
breaking the sound barrier.
 October 14th, 1947 test pilot,
Chuck Yeager, becomes the
first person to exceed the
sound barrier in the Bell X-1
Oct. 4, 1957. The Soviet Union launches a satellite into
space named Sputnik 1. It was a very simple device that
took measurements of the upper layer of the atmosphere
and sent information by radio signals down to the planet. It
orbits every hour-and-a-half before it re-entered the
atmosphere and burned up 3 months after launch.
For Russia’s glory and
might! =)
November 3, 1957: Sputnik 2 is launched, and everyone is
stunned to see that this spacecraft has a “pilot” on board—a
dog named Laika (pronounced lye-ee-kuh). The sad part was
that Laika was never going to be recovered—there was no
plan for the dog to ever land safely on Earth. It was thought
to be able to live 10 days in space, but may not have lasted
an hour when some of the life-support systems
malfunctioned. 
Warf,warf to the
outer space! =P
The Americans finally get in the act, on February 1, 1958.
Explorer 1 is the USA’s first launched satellite to orbit Earth.
It transmitted valuable new information about the protective
magnetic field around Earth. It orbited for 12 years before
crashing into the Ocean.

All hail, Americans! =)


America strikes again with Vanguard 1, launched on March
17, 1958. Here’s some impressive news: next to the Moon,
Vanguard 1 is the oldest object to orbit Earth. Yep, it’s still
out there! This is the first space technology to use solar
panels (instead of batteries that would run out after a few
months) to power its instruments, providing a near-never
ending supply of data to scientists.

Right:
It took
large,
powerful
rockets to
send any
of these
objects
into orbit.
On October 1, 1958, a famous American agency was
formed—NASA. NASA stands for National Aeronautics and
Space Administration. NASA had several goals—continue to
gather data about the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space,
test new technologies for launching rockets, and of course—
beat the Russians!

How do this thing work?


Wow, Russia has really been winning the “space race” so far.
This is a big blow to the American scientists—Russia sends
the first man into outer space…a guy named Yuri Gregarin.
On April 12, 1961, Vostok 1 blasts off and Yuri returns nearly
2 hours later after completing one orbit and parachuting from
a few miles off the ground. Dang!

Oh baby, this is really it! =)


America strikes back, sending its first astronaut, Alan
Shepard, into space. The mission is called Mercury Freedom
7. It lasted only 16 minutes and didn’t actually go in complete
orbit around Earth.  Shepard was still hailed as a hero, and
he later became the 5th person to walk on the moon. It stung
American scientists, though, that they lost the race to send a
person into space by less than one month. Boo.

Still made it! =)

Epic fail! =(
Vostok 6 blasted off in Russia on June 16, 1963. On board
was the first woman in space, so the Russians beat us again.
Her name was Valentia Tereshkova, and she recorded data
about the atmosphere for 3 days before returning safely to
Earth.

Femme fatale in space! =)


Here go the Russians again. Not happy with just going into
space, on the mission Voskhod 2, they actually let one of
their cosmonauts leave the space ship! Alexei Leonov left
the spaceship (attached to it by a tether cord) and stayed out
in space foraround 12 minutes. Cool. Except that his space
suit inflated (due to outer space being a vacuum) and he
almost wasn’t able to make it back inside the ship. Brave
Alexei.

Dang, I’m so tough!


President Kennedy issued the challenge in 1962 that America
NEEDED to go to the moon because it would be so hard to do
so. And less than a decade later, we did. Nobody else has
managed this feat. America just jumped way ahead of Russia
in the space race. On July 20, 1969, the Apollo 11 mission
lands on the moon, and Neil Armstrong utters the famous
words, “one small step for a man, one giant leap for
mankind.” USA! USA! USA!
This is freakin’ awesome!
Let’s do the moonwalk! =)
If you’ve seen the movie Apollo 13 starring Tom Hanks and
Kevin Bacon, you know that it’s a story of American
brainpower and creativity overcoming horrible odds. After
an oxygen tank explodes on the way to the Moon, the crew
of Apollo 13 and NASA scientists in Houston are forced to
abandon the plan to land on the Moon and instead just get
the men home without killing them. Through days of hard
work, they succeed.

NASA to Houston. Roger? We’re okay folks! =)


The next Apollo mission, Apollo 14, lands on January 31,
1971 in the exact spot that Apollo 13 was supposed to
explore. Alan Shepard leads this expedition, where millions
of viewers watched on television as the astronauts played
golf and threw javelins on the moon. Faith in NASA is
restored.

Let’s go to the mood and back.

Let’s play here on the Moon.


NASA scientists had envisioned a permanent space station, and in 1973,
Skylab began a 12-year experiment to see how practical the idea was.
Skylab used large solar panels to provide electricity for itself, and allowed
other spacecraft to float near it and “dock.” This allowed crew members
to enter Skylab and leave when they needed to. Three such dockings
occurred. The Skylab experiment ended, but provided valuable
information about the realism of life in space.

A docking pod, where crew


fromanother space flight
could enter
Skylab.
July 1975 – The final Apollo mission was a good one. After
nearly 20 years of outdoing each other, America and Russia
agree to do a mission together. The Space Race is pretty
much done at this point—we can be friends now. Apollo 18
and the Soviet ship Soyuz 19 fly into space and dock with
each other—allowing the American and Russian
crew members to meet in space. Cool.

BFFs!
Finally, a space craft you recognize easily. On August 12,
1978, the Enterprise is the first space shuttle to be tested.
Carried on the back of a much larger plane, the Enterprise
“let go” and glided to a safe landing. Now NASA was
confident that the shuttles could do missions on their own
and perform a rolling landing.

Look Mom, I’m flying! Mom?


What? Noooo!

Follow my lead, son!


It was just a matter of time (a few years later) when NASA
would actually send one of the new space shuttles into space
for a real mission. In 1981, the Columbia blasted off
with the help of booster rockets, then landed on an Air Force
base in California after 2 days in space.

See you in a
while
Earthlings!
Yet another space shuttle, the Challenger, blasts off
on April 4, 1983. Part of the 5-daymission involved a
four hour spacewalk where 2 of the crew members
performed repairs of the shuttle. Nice work,
gentlemen.

It’s HAMMER time! =)

80s haircuts. Cool.


About a billion years after the Soviet Union sent Valentia
Tereshkova as the first woman in space, America finally
sends its own female astronaut. Her name is Sally Ride,
and she performs numerous missions afterward and
becomes a hero to many!

Let, Sally ride! =)


August 30, 1984…the space shuttle Discovery successfully
carries 3 communications satellites into space, a first for a
shuttle mission. NASA keeps trying new techniques
to address old problems with great success. Americans are
cocky at this point, as it seems like NASA can achieve any
goal it wants.

I see
you
Earth!
=)

Let’s groove here in the outer space!


There were 4 space shuttles in service—Discovery,
Challenger, Columbia, Enterprise, and Atlantis. On October 3,
1985, Atlantis joins the squad as the fifth (and final) shuttle
to be launched into space. Atlantis carries some secret
defense satellites into space
(maybe to spy on our old friends, the Soviet Union?)
Whoa. Hold the phone. Tap the brakes. What just
happened? Was that supposed to happen? On January 28,
1986, the shuttle Challenger lifted off, as planned. Kids all
over America were gathered around televisions to watch the
event live as it happened, and teachers were ready to do a
space lesson right afterward. It all changed as 73seconds
later, the shuttle blew up in mid-air, killing the crew and
shocking the world. 

Clapping and cheering here…

Stunned
silence
just a
minute
later
In 1992, a new space shuttle, Endeavour, was launched into
space. It was built as a better replacement to Challenger,
which exploded 6 years prior. After its July 5 launch, three
crewmen space walked to grab a satellite that wasn’t
responding to commands properly. After the longest space
walk ever, the satellite was repaired and sent back into orbit.
Endeavour is scheduled to be retired in 2010 after
performing one last space mission.
Dude, where’s my car? I just parked it There’s no parking lot in here in outer
just beside our space ship. space. Dumb!
Oh no, not again. On February 1, 2003, people in the Dallas/Ft. Worth area
felt a thud slam through their neighborhoods. The shuttle Columbia,
returning from a long, successful space flight, was cruising through the
atmosphere preparing to land in Florida. Days before, during the launch
of the shuttle, a piece of foam damaged the heat shield on one wing of the
shuttle. It didn’t become a problem until the shuttle entered our
atmosphere going around twenty times the speed of sound. The heat
from friction with the air burst through the weak wing, and debris from the
shuttle flying apart was found in several states! All 7 crew members died.
Brave troupe!
NASA had two MAJOR incidents that shook America’s confidence in the
space program. The explosions of Challenger and Columbia slowed
down how often we went into space. Fortunately, one of the big
achievements that happened after the Columbia disaster was
the successful launching of the Hubble Space Telescope by the shuttle
Discovery in 1990. This telescope has given us incredible images of
events and objects far distant in 1991 the universe. Good job,
Discovery.

One of the thousands of awesome images taken


by the H.S.T.
Another crowning achievement for modern scientists is a project worked
on mainly by five nations—a space station appropriately named the
International Space Station. Construction began in 1998 and is
scheduled to be finished sometime in 2011. Shuttles fly crew and
equipment to the space station frequently, where scientists stay for
weeks at a time doing experiments in outer space. The I.S.S. is big
enough to see without a telescope if you catch it at the right time of year
at night. Pretty neat that it’s up there.

Dude, where
can I pee here?