You are on page 1of 27

Oil and Gas Separation in

horizontal separator
Presented By
ABDUL HASEEB
SEPARATION PROCESS
Separation processes are basically of two types

• Component separation
• Phase separation

Here we are concerned with a phase


separation process. In phase separation, two or
more phases are separated because the force
acting on one phase differs from the force acting
on the other phase.
SEPARATION PROCESS

• The reasons for using vapor-liquid separator


include

• To recover valuable product.


• To improve product purity.
TYPES OF GAS LIQUID SEPARATOR

There are three types of gas-liquid


separators
Vertical Gas-Liquid Separators
Horizontal Gas-Liquid Separators
Knock-Out Drums
VERTICAL GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
• In vertical gas-liquid separators the gas-liquid
mixture is separated by gravity and impaction.
The mixture enters the separator about
midway where a splash plate deflects the
stream downward. Major portion of the liquid
flows downward, and the vapor, containing
liquid drops, flows upward. As the vapor rises,
large drops settle to the bottom of the
separator by gravity.
VERTICAL SEPARATOR
VERTICAL SEPARATOR
• Mainly useful for offshore wells because of
limited space.

• Can handle foamy or sluggish fluid.

• Difficult to repair and clean.


HORIZONTAL GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
• A vessel, with its cylindrical axes parallel to
the ground, that is used to separate oil and
gas from the produced stream.

• The horizontal separator can be a two-phase


or three-phase separator.
HORIZONTAL GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR
• The vertical and horizontal vapor liquid
separators have the same design equations
and have similar design calculations.
Therefore the only parameter on which one
can be selected for any required separation is
for checking the value of L/D ratio. If L/D ratio
is greater than 5, then horizontal separators
are used.
HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
• Mainly used in onshore fields because they
occupy large area.

• Can handle high flow rates.

• Easy to clean and maintain.

• Can handle foamy fluids,muds,slugs.


KNOCK-OUT DRUMS

• These are used when the liquid content


of the incoming stream is very low.
FACTORS AFFECTING SEPERATION
EFFICIENCY
• Inlet velocity of the fluid.

• Distance between the inlet and the diverter


plate in a horizontal oil-gas separator used in
oil industry.

• Discharge pressure of the fluid.


EFFICIENCY
• Ratio of the liquid flow rate separated from
the gas stream and the liquid flow rate in the
feed entering the separator, multiplied by 100

• Efficiency = ( QL,out / QL,feed)* 100 %


STANDARD DESIGN STEPS
Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate
Calculate the liquid volumetric flow rate
Calculate the vertical terminal vapor velocity
 Calculate the hold up volume
Calculate surge volume
Calculate the diameter
Calculate cross- sectional area
Calculate low liquid level height
Calculate low liquid area
Calculate minimum length
Calculate the liquid dropout time
Calculate actual vapor velocity
Calculate minimum length required for vapor-
liquid disengagement
Calculate the thickness of shell and head
Calculate surface area
DESIGN STEPS
Step 1:
Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate

Step 2:
Calculate the liquid volumetric flow rate

=
• Step 16:
Calculate surface area = πDL
REFERENCES
• [1] Sauder M.,and GG Brown Ind. Eng.
Chem., 20(1), 98(1934).
• [2] Gas Processors Suppliers Association,
“Engineering Data Book,” 10th edition,
Vol, 1, Chapter 7(1987).
• [3] Otto H. York Company Inc., “Mist
Eliminator is gas Treatment Plants and Refineries” Engineering Parsippany, NJ.
• [4] Perry Robert H, and Cecil H, Chilton,
Eds., Chemical Engineers ‘Handbook,”
5th edition, chapter 2, p, 2-6(1973)
• [5] Carpentier, P,I , Important Parameters For Cost Effective Separator Design,
Shell Oil Company, Head office
• [6] GPSA Engineering Data Book, 12th Edition, Chapter 7, pp 1-18
• [7] T. Ukil and M. Thomas, “Reduce Gas entrainment in Liquid lines,”
Chemical Engineering, June-2011.pp 42-44
• [8] L. L. Simpson, Chemical Engineering, 1960, pp 191
• [9] S. M. Borghei, “Partial Reduction of Vortex in vertical intake pipe,”
Scientiairanica, vol. 17, issue 2.