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ORAL

COMMUNICATION IN
CONTEXT
NATURE AND ELEMENTS
OF COMMUNICATION
NATURE OF COMMUNICATION
• Communication is a process.
• It occurs between two or more people (the speaker and the
receiver).
• It can be expressed through written or spoken words, actions
(nonverbal), or both spoken words and nonverbal actions at the
same time.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
1. SPEAKER - the source of information or message.
2. MESSAGE - the information, ideas, or thoughts conveyed by the speaker in words or in actions.
3. ENCODING - the process of converting the message into words, actions, or other forms that the
speaker understands.
4. CHANNEL - the medium or the means in which the encoded message is conveyed.
5. DECODING - the process of interpreting the encoded message of the speaker by the receiver.
6. RECEIVER - the recipient of the message, or someone who decodes the message.
7. FEEDBACK - the reactions, responses, or information provided by the receiver.
8. CONTEXT - the environment where communication takes place.
9. BARRIER - the factors that affect the flow of communication.
MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

1. SHANNON-WEAVER MODEL
 Introduced by Claude Elwood Shannon and Warren Weaver
 Mother of all communication models (1949)
 Depicts communication as a linear or one-way process
 Criticized for missing one essential element which is feedback.
MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

2. TRANSACTION MODEL
 the exchange of messages between sender and receiver where each take turns to send
or receive messages.
MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

3. SCHRAMM MODEL
 Designed by Wibur Scharmm (one of the founding fathers of mass communication.
 The user’s field of experience guides decoding. If there is no commonality in the sender’s
and receiver’s field of experience, then communication does not take place. The extent to
which the signal is correctly decoded depends on the extent of the overlap of the two
fields of experience.
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
1. CONTROL -functions to control behavior.
2. SOCIAL INTERACTION -allows individuals to interact with
others.
3. MOTIVATION -motivates or encourages people to
live better.
4. EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION -facilitates people’s expression of
their feelings.
5. INFORMATION DISSEMINATION -functions to convey information.
FEATURES OF AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
1. Completeness -Effective communications are complete, i.e. the receiver gets all
the information he needs to process the message and take
action.
2. Conciseness -Conciseness is about keeping your message to a point. This is
more about the content of your message rather than its length.
3. Consideration -Effective communication takes into account the receiver’s
background and points of view. If your message hits a nerve or
sounds as disrespectful, the emotional reaction of the receiver
might affect the perception of your message.
4. Concreteness -A concrete message is specific, tangible, vivid. It’s supported by
facts and figures for enhanced credibility.
FEATURES OF AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
5. Courtesy -Courtesy and consideration complement each other in effective
communications. Courtesy means respecting the receiver’s
culture, values and beliefs
6. Clearness -The clearer your message, the easier it gets for the receiver to
decode it according to your original intent.
7. Correctness -Correct grammar and syntax vouch for increased effectiveness
and credibility of your message. Formal errors might affect the
clarity of your message, trigger ambiguity and raise doubts. They
might also have a negative impact on the overall perception of
the message, which could be seen as sloppy or negligent.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
1. EMOTIONAL BARRIER
2. USE OF JARGON
3. LACK OF CONFIDENCE
4. NOISY ENVIRONMENT
VERBAL COMMUNICATION
1. APPROPRIATENESS -language that you use should be appropriate to
the environment or occasion.
2. BREVITY -use simple yet powerful words. Avoid Fillers.
3. CLARITY -it is essential for you to clearly state your message and
express your ideas and feelings.
4. ETHICS -Words should be carefully chosen in consideration of
the gender, roles, ethnicity, preferences and status of the
person or people you are talking to.
5. VIVIDNESS -you are encouraged to find ways to charm your
audience through the use of vivid words.
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
• Kinesics - body movements and gestures regarded as a form of nonverbal communication.
• Proxemics - deals with the amount of space that people feel it necessary to set between themselves and others.
• Haptics - the perception of objects by touch and proprioception, especially as involved in nonverbal
communication.
• Olfactory - relating to the sense of smell.
• Gustatory - concerned with tasting or the sense of taste.
• Chronemics - the study of the role of time in communication.
• Paralinguistics - meta-communication that may modify meaning, give nuanced meaning, or convey emotion, such
as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation.
• Appearance - the way that someone or something looks.
INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
• This happens when individuals interact, negotiate, and create
meanings while bringing in their varied cultural backgrounds.
• This pertains to communication among people from different
nationalities.
• Communication that is influenced by different ethnicities,
religion, and sexual orientations.
THE DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL OF INTERCULTURAL
Stage 1: DENIAL. The individual does not recognize cultural differences.

Stage 2: DEFENSE. The individual starts to recognize cultural differences and is


intimidated by them, resulting in either a superior view on own
culture or an unjustified high regard for the new one.
Stage 3: MINIMIZATION. Although individuals see cultural differences, they bank
more on the universality of the ideas rather than on
cultural differences of ideas rather than on cultural
differences.
THE DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL OF INTERCULTURAL
Stage 4: ACCEPTANCE. The individual begins to appreciate important cultural
differences in behaviors and eventually in values.
Stage 5: ADAPTATION. The individual is very open to world views when
accepting new perspective.
Stage 6. INTEGRATION. Individuals starts to go beyond their own cultures and
see themselves and their actions based on multifarious
cultural viewpoints.
STRATEGIES IN VARIOUS
SPEECH SITUATIONS
TYPES OF SPEECH CONTEXT
1. INTRAPERSONAL -This refers to communication that centers on
one person where the speaker acts both as the sender
and the receiver of the message.
2. INTERPERSONAL -This refers to communication between among people
and establishes personal relationship between and
among them
 Dyad Communication -occurs between two people
 Small Group -involves at least three but not more than twelve
people engaging in a face-to-face interaction to achieve a
desired goal.
TYPES OF SPEECH CONTEXT
3. PUBLIC -requires you to deliver or send the message
can be driven by informational or persuasive
purposes.

4. MASS COMMUNICATION -This refers to communication that takes place


through television, radio, newspapers,
magazines, books, billboards, internet, and
other types of media.
TYPES OF SPEECH STYLE
1. INTIMATE -This style is private. Which occurs between or among close
family members or individuals. The language should not be
shared in public.
2. CASUAL -Common among peers and friends. (Use of
Jargon/slang/vernacular)
3. CONSULTATIVE -Professional or mutually acceptable language is a must in this
style.
4. FORMAL -Used in formal setting. This is a one-way speech style.
5. FROZEN -Content remains unchanged.
SPEECH ACTS
SPEECH ACTS
It is an utterance that a speaker makes to achieve an intended effect.
Some functions which are carried out using speech acts are offering an
apology, greeting, request, complaint, invitation, compliment, or refusal.
THREE TYPES OF SPEECH ACTS
1. LOCUTIONARY ACT -is the actual act of uttering.

2. ILLOCUTIONARY ACT -is the social function of what is said.

3. PERLOCUTIONARY ACT -is the resulting act of what is said.


CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH ACT
1. ASSERTIVE -the speaker expresses belief about the truth of a
proposition.
2. DIRECTIVE -the speaker tries to make the addressee perform an
action.
3. COMMISSIVE -commits the speaker to doing something in the future.
4. EXPRESSIVE -the speaker expresses his/her feelings or emotional
reaction.
5. DECLARATION -brings change in the external situation.
COMMUNICATIVE
STRATEGIES
TYPES OF COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES
1. NOMINATION -A speaker carries out nomination to collaboratively and
productively establish a topic.
2. RESTRICTION -Refers to any limitation you may have as a speaker.
3. TURN-TAKING -Pertains to the process by which people decide who takes the
conversational flow.
4. TOPIC CONTROL-Covers how procedural formality or informality affects
development of topic in conversation.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES
5. TOPIC SHIFTING -involves moving from one topic to another.
6. REPAIR -how speaker address the problem in speaking, listening, and
comprehending.
7. TERMINATION -refers to the conversation participant’s close initiating
expressions that end a topic conversation.
FUNDAMENTALS OF
PUBLIC SPEAKING
THE SPEECH WRITING PROCESS
1. CONDUCTING AN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
-looking into the profile of your target audience.
 DEMOGRAPHY -age range, male-female ratio, educational background and
affiliations of degree taken, nationality, economic status, academic
or corporate designation.
 SITUATION -time, venue, occasion, and size
 PSYCHOLOGY -values, beliefs, attitudes, preferences, cultural and racial
ideologies, and needs
THE SPEECH WRITING PROCESS
2. DETERMINING PURPOSE OF THE SPEECH
 INFORMATIVE SPEECH -provides audience with a clear understanding of the
concept or idea presented by the speaker.
 ENTERTAINMENT SPEECH-provide audience with amusement.
 PERSUASIVE SPEECH -provides the audience with well-argued ideas that can
influence their own beliefs and decisions.
3. SELECTING A TOPIC
-focal point of your speech.
THE SPEECH WRITING PROCESS
4. NARROWING DOWN A TOPIC -making your main idea more specific and
focused.
5. DATA GATHERING -is the stage where you collect ideas,
information, sources, and references relevant
or related to your specific topics.
6. WRITING PATTERNS -structure that will help you organize the ideas
related to your topic.
 BIOGRAPHICAL, CATEGORICAL, CAUSAL, CHRONOLOGICAL,
COMPARISON-CONTRAST, PROBLEM-SOLUTION
THE SPEECH WRITING PROCESS
7. PREPARING AN OUTLINE -hierarchical list the shows the relationship of
your ideas.
8. BODY OF THE SPEECH -provides explanations, examples, or any details
that can help you deliver your purpose and
explain the main idea of your speech.
9. INTRODUCTION -the foundation of speech. Get the attention of
the audience.
10. CONCLUSION -restates main idea of your speech.
11. EDITING/REVISING -involves correcting errors in mechanics.
12. REHEARSING -practice speech.
PRINCIPLES OF
SPEECH DELIVERY
TYPES OF SPEECH ACCORDING TO PURPOSE
1. INFORMATIVE SPEECH -provides audience with a clear understanding of the
concept or idea presented by the speaker.

2. ENTERTAINMENT SPEECH-provide audience with amusement.

3. PERSUASIVE SPEECH -provides the audience with well-argued ideas that can
influence their own beliefs and decisions.
TYPES OF SPEECH ACCORDING TO DELIVERY
1. EXTEMPORANEOUS
 speaking with limited preparation
 Guided with notes or outline
 Delivered conversationally

2. IMPROMPTU
 Speaking without advanced preparation
 Unrehearsed speech
 Spoken conversationally
TYPES OF SPEECH ACCORDING TO DELIVERY
3. MANUSCRIPT
 Speaking with advanced preparation
 Planned and rehearsed speech
 Reading aloud a written message

4. MEMORIZED
 Speaking with advanced preparation
 Planned and rehearsed speech
 Reciting a written message word-for-word from memory