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Railway Engineering

Contents
1. Railway Transportation and its development
2. Traction-2
3. Permanent Way
4. Rails
5. Sleepers
6. Ballast
7. Rail fixtures and fasteners
8. Geometric Design of rail curves
9 . Points and crossings
10. Station and yards
11. Railway Signalling and Interlocking
12. Railway Track construction
RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

• Different modes of transport

• Development of Indian Railways

• Role of Indian Railways

• Organisation of Indian Railways

• Long term cooperate plans of Indian Railways

• Classification of railway lines in India


DIFFERENT MODES OF TRANSPORT

Mode of Transport Cost on Basic Suitability


Infrastructure
Rail Transport Heavy For carrying bulk commodities and
Expenditure large no. of passengers over long
distances
Road Transport Low Expenditure For carrying light commodities and
small no. of passengers over short
distances

Air Transport Heavy For carrying commodities and


Expenditure passengers to reach destinations in
a very short period of time

Water Transport Low Expenditure For carrying heavy and bulky


commodities over long distances
where there is no consideration of
time factor
DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN RAILWAYS
Year Progress
1831-33 First idea of a railway line between Chennai and Bangalore
1853 First railway line from Bombay to Thane opened for passenger traffic
consisting of steam engine and 4 coaches which traversed a distance
of 21 miles in 1.25 hrs
1850-68 First stage of development of IR classified as Early guarantee system
1871 Introduction of metre gauge
1881 First hill railway (Darjeeling Himalayan Railway; narrow gauge)
inaugurated
1905 Railway Board Established
1925 First railway line was electrified- Harbour Line (GIP)
1936 Air Conditioning was introduced in passenger coaches
1947 India became independent; due to partition of the country, railway lines
and assets divided between India and Pakistan
1950 Production of steam locomotives in chittranjan
1952 Establishment of
• Railway staff college, Vadodara
• Railway testing and research centre (RTRC),
• Integral Coach Factory, Madras
TYPES OF GAUGES IN INDIA
Broad Gauge

Meter Gauge
DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN RAILWAYS (Contd..)
Year Progress
1947-51 At the time of independence, there were 42 railway systems consisting
of 13 class I railways, 10 class II railways, and 19 class III railways.
Regrouping of railways was completed and six zones were formed,
namely, CR, ER, NR, NER, SR, WR
1955 Indian Railway Institute for Civil Engineering, Pune established
1957 Research Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO) was set up
Railway Protection Force (RPF) established
1969 Divisional System uniformly adopted in IR
1974 Rail India Technical and Economic Services (RITES) formed
1976 Indian Railway Construction Company (IRCON) formed
1984 First Metro Rail was introduced in Kolkata
1985 Computerized Passenger Reservation System introduced
1987 Rail Coach Factory (RCF) established at Kapurthala
1988 First Shatabdi Train introduced between New Delhi and Jhansi
1998 Konkan Railway system becomes fully operational on 26 January
2002 150th Year of IR
ROLE OF INDIAN RAILWAYS

 Plays a prime role in carrier of goods and passengers in Indian


subcontinent
 Integrate fragmented markets and simulate emergence of modern
market economy
 Connects industrial production centres with markets
 Facilitates industrial development by connecting sources of raw
material
 Promotes rapid agricultural growth as it links agricultural
production centres with distant markets
 Provides rapid, reliable, cost effective bulk transportation to
energy sector
 It links people with places, enabling large-scale, rapid, and low-
cost movement of people across the length and breadth of the
country
 A symbol of national integration and a strategic instrument for
enhancing defence preparedness
ORGANISATION OF INDIAN RAILWAYS

• The executive authority with the administration rests with the central
government
• The same authority has been delegated to the railway board

• The Indian railways is organised as follows


1. Railway Board
2. Research Design and Standards Organisation
3. Zonal Railways
4. Production Units
5. COFMOW
6. Divisions of Zonal Railways
ORGANISATION OF INDIAN RAILWAYS-
RAILWAY BOARD
 Responsibility of administration and management of IR rests with
railway board under overall supervision of ministry of Railways
 Exercises all the powers in respect of regulation, construction,
maintenance, and operation of railways

Railway Board

Chairman Financial Five Functional


Commissioner Members

Decisions on To sanction the


technical and railway
administrative expenditure
matters

Mechanical Staff Civil Electrical Traffic

Technical officers and Executive Directors To carry technical functions


ORGANISATION OF INDIAN RAILWAYS-
RESEARCH DESIGN AND STANDARDS ORGANISATION
 RDSO is headquartered at Lucknow

 Head of the organisation- Director General having a team of


specialists from different fields of railways.

 RDSO functions as a technical advisor and consultant to the


railway board, the zonal railways, and production units.

 Advisor to public and private undertakings involved in design and


standardisation of IR
ZONAL RAILWAYS

 IR is divided into 16 zones – territorial jurisdiction varies from


2300 to 7000 route km
 Zonal railways are responsible for business, management, and
planning in their respective areas.
 Zonal railways are administered by General Manager assisted by
additional GMs and HoDs of different disciplines
Zone HQ Zone HQ
CR Mumbai NWR Jaipur
ER Kolkata SR Chennai
ECR Hajipur SCR Secunderabad
ECoR Bhubaneshwar SER Kolkata
NR Delhi SECR Bilaspur
NCR Allahabad SWR Hubli
NER Gorakhpur WR Mumbai
NFR Maligaon WCR Jabalpur
ORGANISATION OF INDIAN RAILWAYS-
PRODUCTION UNITS
Unit HQ Production
Chittranajan Chittranjan Electric Locomotives
Locomotive works
Diesel Locomotive Varanasi Diesel Locomotives
Works
Integral Coach Chennai Coaches
Factory
Diesel Components Patiala Diesel Components
works
Rail Coach Factory Kapurthala Coaches
Wheel and Axle Plant Bangalore Wheels and axles
Electric
Locomotive

Wheel and
Axles

Diesel
Locomotive
Wagons

Steam
Coaches Locomotive
ORGANISATION OF INDIAN RAILWAYS-
CENTRAL ORGANISATION FOR MODERISATION OF WORKSHOPS
(COFMOW)

 Set up in 1979
 IR Workshops’ are 100 years old
 A specialised agency to implement the various workshop
modernisation programs of IR
 Provides consultancy and engineering inputs for technology up-
gradation, efficiency improvement, machinery selection and
procurement
 Helps in training of personnel in operation and maintenance of
manufacturing infrastructure
 Actively involved in conversion of metre gauge rolling stock
repair workshops to broad gauge repair shops by identifying
compatible machinery and plants.
ORGANISATION OF INDIAN RAILWAYS-
DIVISIONS

 Zonal railways work in divisional system

 Each railway is divided into three to six divisions

 Presently, there are about 67 divisions

 Each division has 700 to 1000 km route in its territory

 Headed by divisional railway manager


LONG TERM CORPORATE PLAN OF IR
A long term perspective/plan is necessary

Due to,

 Rapid technological changes

 Faster economic growth

 Enhanced expectation of people

A corporate plan gives a idea about the objectives to be achieved and


strategies to be followed.

 First corporate plan- 1976-1989

 Second corporate plan- 1985-2000

 Third corporate plan- 2001-2012


LONG TERM CORPORATE PLAN OF IR (Contd..)

Salient features of third corporate plan

 Core value: Customer above everything else; valuing the


customer and providing them safety, security, punctuality, and
reliability.

 Core purpose: To provide cost-effective rail and integrated


intermodal/ multimodal transportation/logistics services with
state-of-the-art, eco-friendly technology (including information
technology) while maintaining the financial viability of the
system.

 The annual fund requirement for the corporate plan at 2000–2001


prices is estimated at about Rs 170,000 million.
CLASSIFICATION OF RAILWAY LINES IN INDIA
 Classified on the basis of importance of route, traffic carried and
maximum permissible speed on route
1. Broad Gauge Routes
2. Meter Gauge Routes

Type of BG Routes Max. Permissible Travel Routes


Speed (kmph)
New Delhi - Howrah
New Delhi - Mumbai
Group A Lines 160 New Delhi - Chennai
Howrah- Mumbai

Allahabad- Bhusaval
Group B Lines 130 Kharagpur- Vijaywada
Delhi-Kalka, etc
Suburban Sections of
Group C Lines - Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi

Group D and D Spl


100 -
Lines
Group E and E Spl Other Sections and Branch
- lines
Lines
CLASSIFICATION OF RAILWAY LINES IN INDIA

Type of MG Routes Speed (kmph) Traffic Density


Group Q Lines >75 >2.5 GMT
Group R1 Lines 75 >5 GMT
Group R2 Lines 75 2.5 – 5 GMT
Group R3 Lines 75 1.5- 2.5 GMT
Group S Lines <75 <1.5 GMT

GMT = Gross Million tonnes per km per annum


UNDERTAKINGS UNDER MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS

• Rail India Technical and Economic Services Limited (RITES)


• Indian Railways Construction Company Limited (IRCON)
• Indian Railway Finance Corporation (IRFC)
• Container Corporation of India Ltd (CONCOR)
• Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd
• Indian Railway Catering and Tourism corporation Ltd (IRCTC)
• RailTel Corporation of India Ltd
• Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd (RVNL)
• Pipavan Railway Corporation Limited (PRCL)
• Centre for Railway Information Systems (CRIS)
• Indian Railway Welfare Organisation (IRWO)
SUMMARY OF RAILWAY STATISTICS AS OF 2013-2014
Item Unit 2013-2014
Broad Gauge km 58177
Meter Gauge km 5344
Narrow Gauge km 2297
All Gauges km 65808
No of passengers
(‘000) 8397057
originating
Steam Locomotive Nos. 43
Diesel Locomotive Nos. 5633
Electric Locomotive Nos. 4823
Passenger Coaches Nos. 50194
Wagons Nos. 241573
Net Goods Carried (‘000) Tonne 1058811
Railway Employees Nos. 1334115

*http://www.mospi.gov.in/statistical-year-book-india/2016/188