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EUKARYOTES

Eukaryotic kingdom

eukaryotes

Myxomycetes Fungi Plantae Animalia

Both groups have some plant & animal


characteristics
Differences between plant & animal
Typical animal Typical plant
Nutrition
Locomotion
Sensitivity
Excretion
Osmoregulation
Growth
Surface area to
volume ratio
Cell structure
Classification of fungi
Modern scheme Traditional scheme
• Kingdom: Fungi • Kingdom: plantae
• Division: • Division: fungi
– Chytridiomycota • Class:
– Oomycota – Chytridiomycota
– Zygomycota – Oomycota
– Ascomycota – Zygomycota
– Basidiomycota – Ascomycota
– Deuteromycota (Fungi – Basidiomycota
imperfecti) – Fungi imperfecti
Characteristic of fungi
• General characteristics:
– Heterotrophic  lack of chlorophyll  require
C organic
– Absorptive nutrition absorb nutrients
directly from outside their bodies
– based on the ways to obtain their nutrients:
• Saprophytes
• Parasites
• Symbiosis
• Rigid cell wall containing chitin, except
Oomycota cellulose
• Body usually a mycelium, a network fine
tubular filament called hyphae
• Stored carbohydrate  glycogen
• Reproduces: spore
• Non-motile
Fungal saprophytes
• Produces 3 main classes of digestive
enzymes
– Carbohydrases
– Lipases
– Proteases
Fungal saprophytes (cont)
• Usually produce large number of light &
resistant spores  ease dispersal to other
food source Rhizopus, Mucor,
Penicillium, Agaricus, Aspergillus
• Economic importance: Saccharomyces,
Penicillium
Penicillium

Form green & blue mold


On substrates such as soil, damp leather, bread, decaying fruit
Aspergillus flavus
Fungal parasites

• Facultative or obligate  more commonly


attack plants than animals
• Obligate parasites
– Do not normally kill their hosts and live
saphrophycally off the dead remains
– Peronospora parasitica
• Facultative parasites
– May grown on variety of hosts/substrate
– Phytophthora infestans
• Plant as host: hyphae penetrate through
– stomata
– The epidermis
– Wound
• Inside the plant  hyphae normally ramify
between cells. Sometimes produce pectinase
 cause soft rot of the tissue (facultative
parasites)
• The fungus may be systemic (spread
throughout the host) or it may be confined
to a small part of the host
• Facultative parasites  produce pectinase
• Obligate parasites  posses specialized
penetration & absorption devices 
haustoria
• Haustoria  modified hypha which can
penetrate cell without breaking the plasma
membranes & w/o killing the host
• Haustoria  rarely produce by facultative
parasites
Peronospora parasitica

Infected leaf
Phytophthora infestans

Leaf infected by
Symbiosis
• 2 important of symbiotic union:
– Lichens:
• Symbiotic association between fungi & algae
• Fungus: Ascomycote or Basidiomycote
• Algae: green or blue green alga
• Alga  photosynthesis
• Fungus  absorb water & mineral salts, converse
water
– Mycorrhizae
• Symbiotic association between fungi & plant roots
– Mycorrhizae
• Symbiotic association between fungi & plant roots
– 2 kinds mycorrhizae:
• Ectotrophic mycorrhiza: fungus form a sheath
around the center of the root
• Endotrophic mycorrhiza: fungus penetrate the host
tissue
Division Oomycota
• Sexual reproduction by oogamy, involving fusion
of an oosphere (female gamete) with a male
gamete to produce an oospore
• Asexual reproduction : zoospores produced in
sporangia
• Non-septate hyphae
• E.g.;
– Phytophtora infestans (facultative parasites) potato
blight
– Peronospora (obligate parasites)  downy mildews of
crucifers
Division Zygomycota
• Sexual reproduction: conjugation fusion
of 2 gametangia to produce a zygospore
• Asexual reproduction: conidia or sporangia
containing spore (conidiospores or
sporangiospores).
• Non-septate hyphae and large, well
developed, branching mycelium
• Eg:
– Rhizopus stolonifer
– Mucor
Rhizopus stolonifer
Sexual reproduction in Rhizopus stolonifer
Division Ascomycota
• Sexual reproduction: ascospores  inside
an ascus
• Asexual reproduction: conidia
conidiospores
• Septate hyphae
• E.g.:
– Saprophytes: Penicillium, Aspergillus,
Saccharomyces
– Parasites: Erysiphe (powdery mildew in barley)
Penicillium Aspergillus
Division Basiodiomycota
• Sexual reproduction: basidiospores
• Asexual reproduction: not common
• Septate hyphae
• E.g.: Agaricus campestris
Deuteromycota
Chytridiomycota
Many fungi are very useful to humans:
• yeasts-- baking (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and
brewing (S. carlsbergensis)
• antibiotics--e.g:
– penicillin (Penicillium chrysogenum & P. notatum)
– Griseofulvin (P. griseofulvum)
– Fumagillin (Aspergillus fumigatus)
• many organic acids are commercially produced with
fungi-- e.g. citric acid in Coke is produced by an
Aspergillus niger
• certain “stinky” cheeses-- e.g. blue cheese, Roquefort
(P. roqueforti) and Camembert (P. camemberti)
• New food source as SCP  Candida
• Tape  Amylomyces rouxii
Many fungi are harmful to human
interests:
• can cause human disease, either directly or
through their toxins  Trichophyton spp 
skin infection
• can cause diseases of plants : Phytophthora
infestans  potato blight)
• Can cause disease of animals: Aspergillus
fumigatus aspergillosis in birds
• cause rot: Monilinia fructigena brown rot
in peach, plum
• Ergot: Claviceps purpurea