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Moment of Inertia

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The moment of inertia measures the resistance to a

change in rotation.

• Change in rotation from torque

• Moment of inertia I = mr2 for a single mass

masses at a distance from the axis of rotation.

N

I mi ri 2

i 1

Two Spheres

A spun baton has a moment

of inertia due to each

separate mass.

m m

r

If it spins around one end,

only the far mass counts.

• I = m(2r)2 = 4mr2

Mass at a Radius

Extended objects can be The total moment of inertia is

treated as a sum of small

I (Dm)r

2

masses.

Each mass element

A straight rod (M) is a set of contributes

identical masses Dm. Dm ( M / L)Dr

I ( M / L) r 2 Dr

distance r to r+Dr

The sum becomes an

integral

length L L

I ( M / L) r 2 dr

0

Rigid Body Rotation

The moments of inertia for many shapes can found

by integration.

• Solid cylinder: I = (1/2) MR2

• Solid sphere: I = (2/5) MR2

Point and Ring

The point mass, ring and The rod and rectangular

hollow cylinder all have the plate also have the same

same moment of inertia. moment of inertia.

away from the axis. the axis is the same.

M

R M R M

M length R length R

axis

Playground Ride

A child of 180 N sits at the Assume the merry-go-round

edge of a merry-go-round is a disk.

with radius 2.0 m and mass • Id = (1/2)Mr2 = 320 kg m2

160 kg. Treat the child as a point

What is the moment of mass.

inertia, including the child? • W = mg, m = W/g = 18 kg.

• Ic = mr2 = 72 kg m2

M the sum.

r

• I = Id + Ic = 390 kg m2

Parallel Axis Theorem

Some objects don’t rotate The moment of inertia for a

about the axis at the center rod about its center of mass:

of mass.

h = R/2

M

The moment of inertia

depends on the distance

axis

between axes.

(1 / 3) MR 2 I CM M ( R / 2) 2

I I CM Mh 2

I CM (1 / 3) MR 2 (1 / 4) MR 2

I CM (1 / 12) MR 2

Perpendicular Axis Theorem

For flat objects the rotational

Iy = (1/12) Ma2

moment of inertia of the axes

in the plane is related to the

moment of inertia

perpendicular to the plane.

Ix = (1/12) Mb2 b

M

a

Iz Ix Iy

Spinning Coin

What is the moment of The moment of inertia of a

inertia of a coin of mass M spinning disk perpendicular

and radius R spinning on to the plane is known.

one edge? • Id = (1/2) MR2

in the plane.

R The perpendicular axis

M M theorem links these.

R

• Id = Ie + Ie = (1/2) MR2

• Ie = (1/4) MR2

Id Ie

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