You are on page 1of 10

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia Defined


 The moment of inertia measures the resistance to a
change in rotation.
• Change in rotation from torque
• Moment of inertia I = mr2 for a single mass

 The total moment of inertia is due to the sum of


masses at a distance from the axis of rotation.
N
I   mi ri 2
i 1
Two Spheres
 A spun baton has a moment
of inertia due to each
 separate mass.

• I = mr2 + mr2 = 2mr2


m m
r
 If it spins around one end,
only the far mass counts.

• I = m(2r)2 = 4mr2
Mass at a Radius
 Extended objects can be  The total moment of inertia is
treated as a sum of small
I   (Dm)r
2
masses.
 Each mass element
 A straight rod (M) is a set of contributes
identical masses Dm. Dm  ( M / L)Dr
I  ( M / L) r 2 Dr
distance r to r+Dr
 The sum becomes an
integral
length L L
I  ( M / L)  r 2 dr
0

axis I  ( M / L)( L3 / 3)  (1 / 3) ML2


Rigid Body Rotation
 The moments of inertia for many shapes can found
by integration.

• Ring or hollow cylinder: I = MR2


• Solid cylinder: I = (1/2) MR2

• Hollow sphere: I = (2/3) MR2


• Solid sphere: I = (2/5) MR2
Point and Ring
 The point mass, ring and  The rod and rectangular
hollow cylinder all have the plate also have the same
same moment of inertia. moment of inertia.

• I = MR2 • I = (1/3) MR2

 All the mass is equally far  The distribution of mass from


away from the axis. the axis is the same.

M
R M R M
M length R length R
axis
Playground Ride
 A child of 180 N sits at the  Assume the merry-go-round
edge of a merry-go-round is a disk.
with radius 2.0 m and mass • Id = (1/2)Mr2 = 320 kg m2
160 kg.  Treat the child as a point
 What is the moment of mass.
inertia, including the child? • W = mg, m = W/g = 18 kg.
• Ic = mr2 = 72 kg m2

m  The total moment of inertia is


M the sum.
r
• I = Id + Ic = 390 kg m2
Parallel Axis Theorem
 Some objects don’t rotate  The moment of inertia for a
about the axis at the center rod about its center of mass:
of mass.
h = R/2
M
 The moment of inertia
depends on the distance
axis
between axes.
(1 / 3) MR 2  I CM  M ( R / 2) 2
I  I CM  Mh 2
I CM  (1 / 3) MR 2  (1 / 4) MR 2
I CM  (1 / 12) MR 2
Perpendicular Axis Theorem
 For flat objects the rotational
Iy = (1/12) Ma2
moment of inertia of the axes
in the plane is related to the
moment of inertia
perpendicular to the plane.
Ix = (1/12) Mb2 b

M
a
Iz  Ix  Iy

Iz = (1/12) M(a2 + b2)


Spinning Coin
 What is the moment of  The moment of inertia of a
inertia of a coin of mass M spinning disk perpendicular
and radius R spinning on to the plane is known.
one edge? • Id = (1/2) MR2

 The disk has two equal axes


in the plane.
R  The perpendicular axis
M M theorem links these.
R
• Id = Ie + Ie = (1/2) MR2
• Ie = (1/4) MR2
Id Ie

next