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“Victory smiles upon those

who anticipate the


changes in the character
of war, not upon those
who wait to adapt
themselves after the
changes occur.”

Giulio Douhet
A Legendary Air Power
Theorist
BIOGRAPHY

 Born 30 May 1869 in Caserta, Italy

 Commissioned in Italian Army into the


Infantry in 1888

 Commander Italy’s First Aviation in


1912 at Turin

 Court-martialed in 1916

 Back to service in 1918 and retired


in 1921

 Father of Strategic Airpower

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AIM

To Analyze General Giulio Douhet’s Air Power theories


and the Validity in Present and future War

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SEQUENCE

 Assumptions and Postulation


 Factors Guiding Assumptions
 Comparison Amongst AP Theorists
 Validities in Present Warfare
 Validation in UC warfare
 Validities in Future Warfare
 Conclusion

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ASSUMPTIONS
 Airpower is Inherently Offensive; the Bombers will
Always Get Through

 Civil Morale is Fragile. The Effect of Bombing on


Morale is more than the Physical Effects

 The Hegemony of the Defensive Form of Ground


Warfare is Permanent
 All Wars Would be Total Wars

 Command of The Air Meant Victory

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POSTULATIONS

 Air Power Psychological Effect outweighed Materials


Effects

 Air Power to be Used in Strategic Role

 The Essence of Airpower is the Offensive. The only


Defense is a Good Offense

 Attacks would not require great accuracy

 Armies became superfluous

(Cont) 6
POSTULATIONS

 Air Force Should be Independent Force

 Targeting

Industry

Transport Infrastructure
Communication

Government

The Will of The People

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FACTORS GUIDING
ASSUMPTION
The Bomber will Always Get Through

 Difficulties to Target Small


Aircraft

 Standard of AAA

 No concept of RADAR

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FACTORS GUIDING
ASSUMPTION
Civilian Moral Is Unstable

 German Attack by Gotha &


Zeppelin over London

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FACTORS GUIDING
ASSUMPTION
All Future Wars will
be Total Wars

 Experience in WW-I

 Tactics of Wining War

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FACTORS GUIDING
ASSUMPTION
Control of the Air is the
Primary goal

 Ability of Aircraft to strike Deep


Inside Enemy Territory

 Ability to Deliver Weapon

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COMPARISON AMONGST
THEORISTS

Hugh Trenchard William Billy Mitchell John A Warden

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COMPARISON AMONGST
THEORISTS
Bombers Would Always get Through

All the Theorists Have Similar Ideas Regarding


Bombers

(Cont) 13
COMPARISON AMONGST
THEORISTS
Civilian Moral is Fragile

All the Theorists Have Similar Ideas

Douhet Advocated Direct Attack to the Civilian

Trnchard did not opine for direct attack

Mitchel & Warden is Concerned with Less


Casualties

(Cont) 14
COMPARISON AMONGST
THEORISTS

The Offensive is The Stronger Form of War

All the Theorists Have Similar Ideas

Trenchard Opined to Keep Army And Navy for


Supporting Role

Mitchel considered Surface Forces to be


vulnerable

(Cont) 15
COMPARISON AMONGST
THEORISTS
Future War will be Total war

All the Theorists Have Similar Ideas Except


Warden

Warden Opined that Total War is not Likely to


Occur

(Cont) 16
COMPARISON AMONGST
THEORISTS
Air Superiority is Prerequisite for
all Military Operations
All the Theorists Have Similar Ideas but Means
were Different

Mitchell Emphasized on Persuit Theory

Douhet Believed Attack on Air Field, Aircraft on


Ground & Attack on Aircraft Industry

Warden Opined on SEAD Missions

(Cont) 17
COMPARISON AMONGST
THEORISTS
Targeting
DOUHET MITCHEL WARDEN

Industrial Infrastructure Industry Leadership

Civilian Morale Infrastructure Organic Essential

Transportation Agriculture Infrastructure

Communication Communications Population

Key buildings Military

Mitchel strongly opposed direct


attack on civilians 18
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VALIDATION IN PRESENT
WARFARE
Bombers would always Get Through

 Douhet Proposed : An independent Air Force composed


primarily of long-range load-carrying bombers.

 Operation Sea Lion : To neutralize the RAF in the air


and on the ground to gain control of the Air.

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VALIDATION IN PRESENT
WARFARE
Offensive is the Stronger form of War

 Most of War Started with offensive


action

 Six Days War : The Israelis


employed almost all her air assets
for this Offensive air campaign.

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VALIDATION IN PRESENT
WARFARE
Civilian Morale is Fragile
 Linebacker II

 Britain

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VALIDATION IN UNCONVENTIONAL
WARFARE
 Total War

 Difficulties in Targeting

 Centre of Gravity – People

 Public Opinion

 Vietnam War

 Operation Iraqi Freedom

Assumptions not valid 24


VALIDATION IN FUTURE WARFARE

Some are universal

Years of experience

Technology and nature of warfare

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CONCLUSION

 Douhet’s Assumptions and postulations

 Valid in Conventional War Against Industrial


Country & not Valid in unconventional War

 This pioneer died in 1930

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QUESTIONS…

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