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Feb 21, 2019

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or descending order

• Searching for data is made easier

• Types of Sorting

– Internal Sorting

• Takes place in main memory

• Applied when small amount of data is to be sorted

– External Sorting

• Requires secondary memory

• Applied when large amount of data is to be sorted

Sorting Methods

Internal External

quick sort

selection sort

shell sort

Bubble sort – O(n2)

• It is called Bubble sort, because with each

iteration the smaller element in the list

bubbles up towards the first place, just like a

water bubble rises up to the water surface.

Void bubblesort(int a[], int n)

{for(i=0;i<n-1;i++)

{for(j=0;j<n-i-1;j++)

{ if(a[j]>a[j+1])

{ t=a[j];

a[j]=a[j+1];

a[j+1]=t; }}}}

Insertion sort - O(n2)

• Simple

• Efficient for small data compared to bubble

and selection

• Adaptive - reduces total number of steps if

given a partially sorted list, hence it increases

its efficiency.

• Stable - does not change the relative order of

elements with equal keys

• Best case – O(n)

void insertionsort (int a[], int n)

{for(i=1;i<=n-1;i++)

{ j=i;

x=a[i];

while(a[j-1]>x && j>0)

{ a[j]=a[j-1];

j=j-1; }

a[j]=x; }

}

Selection sort - O(n2)

• Simplest

void selectionsort (int elements[], int n)

{for (i=0;i<n-1; i++)

{min = i;

for (j = i+1;j<n; j++)

{if (elements[j] < elements[min])

min = j;}

temp = elements[i];

elements[i] = elements[min];

elements[min] = temp;}}

Shell Sort – O(n ) 2

• Diminishing increment sort

• Improved version of insertion sort

• Best Case – O(nlogn)

void shellsort(int a[], int n)

{

for(k=n/2;k>0;k=k/2)

{for(i=k;i<n;i++)

{tmp=a[i];

for(j=i;j>=k&&a[j-k]>tmp;j=j-k)

{a[j]=a[j-k];}

a[j]=tmp;}

}

}

Radix sort – External sort

• Non comparison sort

• Digit by digit sort

• Passes – i/p element with max no. of digits

• Θ(d(n+k))

– d – no. of digits

– n – no. of i/p elements

– k - no. of buckets

• Two classifications of radix sorts

– least significant digit (LSD) radix sorts (Sorting numbers)

– most significant digit (MSD) radix sorts (Sorting

alphabets)

Void radixsort(int a[], int n)

{largest=a[0];

for(i=0;i<n;i++)//finds largest no.

{ if(a[i]>largest)

largest=a[i];}

while(largest>0)//decides no.of passes

{nop++;

largest/=10;}

for(passno=0;passno<nop;passno++)

{for(k=0;k<10;k++)//bucket creation

{ buckcount[k]=0;

for(j=0;j<10;j++)

bucket[k][j]=0; }

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{ r=(a[i]/divisor)%10;//determines to which bucket element is to be added, initially divisor=1

bucket[r][buckcount[r]]=a[i];//elements added to respective buckets

buckcount[r]++; }

i=0;

for(k=0;k<10;k++)

{for(j=0;j<buckcount[k];j++)

a[i++]=bucket[k][j];}//elements in the bucket are copied to original array

divisor*=10;}}//keeps holds of decimal places.

Quick Sort – O(nlogn)

• Fastest among the sorting methods

• Example of Divide and conquer technique

• Chooses an element called pivot

– Randomly

– First element

– Median (widely used)

• Steps

1. Pivot =lef

2. i=lef+1

3. j=right

4. Increment i until an element>pivot is found

5. Decrement j until an element<pivot is found

6. If i<j, swap elements at i and j.

7. If i>=j, swap element at j and pivot.

void qsort(int lef, int right)

{if(lef<right) // initial values

{ i=lef+1;

j=right;

pivot=lef;

for(;;)

{

while(a[pivot]>=a[i]) //scanning to right for larger element than pivot

i=i+1;

while(a[pivot]<a[j]) //scanning to lef for smaller element than pivot

j=j-1;

if(i<j) //swapping elements of i & j

{ temp=a[i];

a[i]=a[j];

a[j]=temp; }

else

break; } //if i>=j for loop breaks

temp=a[pivot]; //swapping pivot and element at j

a[pivot]=a[j];

a[j]=temp;

qsort(lef,j-1); //repeating quick sort for lef half of array

qsort(j+1,right); //repeating quick sort for right part

}}

Heap Sort – O(nlogn)

• Delete min (descending)

• Delete max (ascending)

• Array interpreted as binary tree

• Two phases

– Phase 1 :

• structure property (tree construction)

• Heap order property

– Phase 2:sorting

void HeapSort(int a[])

{

int i,temp;

BuildMaxHeap(a);

for (i = heapSize; i > 0; i--)

{

temp = a[0];

a[0] = a[heapSize - 1];

a[heapSize - 1] = temp;

heapSize = heapSize - 1;

heapify(a, 0);

}

}

void heapify(int a[], int i)

{

int l = lef(i), great,temp;

int r = right(i);

if ( (a[l] > a[i]) && (l < heapSize))

{

great = l;

}

else

{

great = i;

}

if ( (a[r] > a[great]) && (r < heapSize))

{

great = r;

}

if (great != i)

{

temp = a[i];

a[i] = a[great];

a[great] = temp;

heapify(a, great);

}

}

void BuildMaxHeap(int a[])

{

int i;

for (i = (heapSize - 1) / 2; i >= 0; i--)

{

heapify(a, i);

}

}

Merge Sort – External Sort- O(nlogn)

//Routine for partitioning the array

void mergesort(int k[],int low,int high)

{

int mid,i;

if(low<high)

{

mid=(low+high)/2;

printf("\nCalling MS low & mid with low=%d mid=%d",low,mid);

mergesort(k,low,mid);

printf("\nCalling MS mid + 1 & high with mid+1=%d high=%d",mid+1,high);

mergesort(k,mid+1,high);

for(i=low;i<=high;i++)

{

printf("%d \t",k[i]);

}

printf("\nCalling Merge fn with low=%d mid=%d high=%d\n\n",low,mid,high);

merge(k,low,mid,high);

}

}

//Routine for arranging in sorted order

void merge(int k[],int low,int mid,int high)

{ int i,j,temp[20],h;

i=low;

j=mid+1;

h=low;

while(i<=mid && j<=high)

{ if(k[i]<=k[j])

{temp[h]=k[i];

i=i+1; }

else

{temp[h]=k[j];

j=j+1; }

h++; }

if(i>mid)

{ while(j<=high)

{ temp[h]=k[j];

j=j+1;

h=h+1; } }

else

{ while(i<=mid)

{ temp[h]=k[i];

i=i+1;

h=h+1; }}

for(i=low;i<=high;i++)

{ k[i]=temp[i];}

}

Searching – Linear search O(n)

• Linear search

void linearsearch(int a[], int x, int n)

{int flag=0;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

if(a[i]==x)

{ flag=1;

break;}}

if(flag==1)

print("\n The element is found at position %d\n",i+1);

else

print("\nElement notfound");

}

Binary Search

• Divide and Conquer technique

• Input elements should be in sorted order

Binary Search – O(logn)

{ low=0;

high=n-1;

mid= (low+high)/2;

while(low<high && a[mid]!=x)

{ if(x<a[mid])

high=mid-1;

if(x>a[mid])

low=mid+1;

mid=(low+high)/2;}

if(a[mid]==x)

print("Element found at position %d",mid+1);

else

print("Element not found");}

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