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Antiseptics

&
Disinfectants
Presented By:
Mr. Kiran D. Baviskar,
Assist. Professor
Dept. of Pharmaceutics,

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Smt. Sharadchandrika Suresh Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda.
-:Introduction:-
Antimicrobial:- the substances derived from natural or
synthetic sources that kills or inhibit the growth of micro-
organism such as bacteria, fungi, protozoas

Germicides:- a group of drugs that are able to inhibit the


growth, development or leads to death of microorganisms in
the environment surrounding the patient or on the surface
of the body.
Specially agents which inhibits or kills microbes on
contact
They have low margin of safety
Non-systemic use
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Non selective Antimicrobial agents
Germicides

ANTISEPTICS DISINFECTANTS

ANTISEPTICS:- (Anti= against; septicas – emitting a fetid


smell)
Chemical substances which are used to destroy, inhibit
pathogenic bacteria (not the spores) on animate (living)
surface such as skin, eye, mucous membranes(as in mouth
washes).
1879- Lister- Father of ‘Antiseptic surgery’
They falls under “ Drug Control Agency of the Government”
DISINFECTANTS
• Chemical substances or germicides which are use to destroy
or inhibit the growth of pathogenic vegetative bacteria (not
their spores) on inanimate(non-living) surface such as
glassware's or surgical instruments.
e.g.- Formaldehyde, phenol, ethyl alcohol, soaps.

They falls under “Control of Environmental protection


agency of the Government”

They process “concentration dependent killing”


Antiseptics & Disinfectant are often added to easily
available every day utilities like soaps,toothpastes,mouth
wash, after saving lotion.
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-:Some ancillary terms:-
1.Sterilization:-
Definition:- freeing an article, a surface or a medium by
removing or killing all micro-organisms including
vegetative bacteria, Spores, fungi & viruses

usually sterilization is affected by autoclaving at 15lb


pressure of stream at 120oC for atleast 30 min
[It is the ultimate goal of any infection control protocol]
Other methods also include-
o Infra-red(IR)-radiation,
o Ultraviolet(UV)-radiation
o γ-radiation
2. Decontamination:-
Marketed destruction of viable pathogenic organisms to a
level that will allow a healthy person’s natural
defenses to prevent any infection.
e.g.- Decontamination of water

3.Sanitisation:- reduction In microbial load from an


inanimate surface to a level set forth by public health
Department of Environmental Agency
These levels are considered acceptable for the health of
the population
4. Pasteurisation:-
Process of heating milk or other liquids or semisolids for
about 30 min at 60-80oC which kills the non-
sporulating microorganism and prevents the growth of
food-borne pathogens for a specific period of time.

5.Preservation:-
To preserve the efficacy & to prevent the deterioration of
the drug formulation up to its expiry period.
A Preservatives may protect the drug from oxidation.
e.g.-Benzyl Alcohol(2%),Benzoic Acid & its salts (0.2%)

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-:IDEAL Antiseptics/Disinfectant:-
• High Efficacy:
– Broad spectrum / sporicidal / kill all forms
– Rapid onset / long duration action
– Cidal not static
– Active in presence of blood, pus,exudates and
excreta
– No Resistance
• Non Toxic:
– Non-irritating to tissues,should not delay healing.
– Non absorbable / No hypersensitivity
– Chemically stable.
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IDEAL ANTISEPTICS :
• Added Advantage:-
– Non-staining with agreeable color and odour
– Could be added to soaps
– Non corrosive.

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MECHANISM OF ACTION:
1. Oxidation of Bacterial protoplasm.
e.g.- KMn04, H202, Halogens
2.Denaturation of Bacterial Proteins & Enzyme
e.g.-Phenols, Chlorhexidine, Alcohol, Aldehyde
3.Detergent like action increasing permeability
of bacterial membrane
e.g.- Soaps,Cetrimide

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FACTORS MODIFYING ACTION
• TEMPERATURE AND pH.

• PERIOD OF CONTACT WITH MICROBES.

• NATURE OF MICROBES INVOLVED.

• SIZE OF INNOCULUM

• PRESENCE OF BLOOD,PUS,OR ORGANIC


MATTER.
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General Uses of Antiseptics/ Disinfectants
• Asepsis before injections:-
• Surgical Uses:-
– Asepsis before surgery
– Scrubbing
– Sterilization of the surgical instruments
• Cuts, wounds & Lacerations
• Disinfection of Hospital premises
• Water purification & domestic disinfection

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CLASSIFICATION :-‘PHAARMA GOD’
• PHENOL DERIVATIVES:-
Phenol,Cresol,Hexylresorcinol,Hexachlorophene
• HALOGENS:-Iodine, Iodophores, Chlorine, Chlorophores
• ALCOHOLS:-ethanol , Isopropanol.
• ALDEHYDES:- Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde
• SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS:-
• QUATERNARY AMMONIUM (CATIONIC):-
Cetrimide, Benzalkonium chloride, Dequalinium chloride.
BIGUANIDE:- Chlorhexidine
• SOAPS:- OF sodium & Potassium

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• METALLIC SALTS:- Silver nitrate, Silver
sulfadiazine, Mild silver protein, Zinc sulfate,
Calamine, Zinc oxide.
• ACIDS:- Boric acid, Acetic acid
• GASES:- Ethylene oxide
• OXIDIZING AGENTS:- KMno4,Hydrogen peroxide,
Benzoyl peroxide

• DYES:- GENTIAN VIOLET, METHYLENE BLUE


BRILIANT GREEN, ACRIFLAVIN AND PROFLAVIN

• MISCELLANEOUS:- NITROFURAZONE 14
PHENOL DERIVATIVES:
• PHENOL (CARBOLIC ACID):-
• One of the earliest used Antiseptics & still the standard for
comparing other germicides.
• Weak agents Static at- 0.2% Bactericidal at >1%,
• Poor action bacterial spore
• Protoplasmic poison
MOA:- Denatured bacterial protein (irritant/toxic to tissues)
-Mild LA action- use as Antipruritic Preparation
USES: Disinfectant of Urine,faeces pus,sputum,antipruritic
preparation mouth wash.

Side effect:-Buccal, esophageal, gastric burns, scars/strictures


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CRESOL (METHYL PHENOL):-
• X3 potent than Phenol / less damage to tissues
• USES:- Disinfecting of utensils, Excreta, for washing
hands, irrigation of root canals.
CHLOROXYLENOL(DETTOL):-
• Non-corrosive, Non-irritating to intact skin, No stain,
4.8% commercial use “Dettol”(9% terpinol+13% Alcohol)
6.25%- Instruments
Cream & Soap,
Lubricating obstetric cream (1.4% ).
• USES:-
Surgical Antiseptics , skin cream, mouth wash, soaps, wounds
& cuts
• HEXACHLOROPHENE:
• POTENT CHLORINATED PHENOL
• Odourless, non staining, non irritant (+soaps)
• Sustained action
• Good- Gm+ve/ Poor- Gm-ve & spores
• USES:- ANTISEPTICS FOR SURGICAL SCRUB,
TOILET PRODUCTS & DEODRANTS, Skin infections
(Furunculosis/ Carbuncle), baby bath products (<2%).
• Side effect:- Neurotoxicity (Neonates)->2%- BAN.

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Phenol Derivatives (contd.)
• Triclosan:-uses- Liquid soaps, Dentifrices, mouth wash
• Thymol:-
– Antiseptic / mild LA effect
– Uses- cough drops / Dentifrices / Acne / mouth wash
• Resorcinol- less potent than Phenol
• Uses- Antiseptic (ringworm, acne, ), keratolytic &
antipruritic effect (Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Eczema,
Psoriasis
• Hexylresorcinol- mouthwash

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Contains are
menthol,
thymol,
methyl salicylate, and
eucalyptol

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OXIDIZING AGENTS:-
• POTASSIUM PERMAGNATE:-
• HIGHLY WATER SOLUBLE.
• Nascent [O]-OXIDIZES BACTERIAL PROTOPLASM.
USES:- 1:4000-1:10,000 SOLN (CONDY’S LOTION)-
– Antiseptic(Mouthwash/GARGLING/DOUCHING, IRRIGATING
CAVITIES/ wounds/ Atheletes foot (1%)
– Domestic use-DISINFECTION OF utensils/ vegetables/ fruits/
purification of WATER (ponds/ wells)
– GASTRIC LAVAGE (in alkaloidal poisoning)
– Styptic (5%)
• Side effect:- BURNS,BLISTERING /stain / Rusting /
sensitve to light.

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OXIDIZING AGENTS:
H2O2 – Adv.-
– Non-toxic/ colorless/ odourless
– Effective against anaerobic bacteria
• Demerits-
– Weak antiseptic
– To be kept in dark bottles
• Uses-
– Dental use- Mouthwash (3%)- dilute with water- stomatitis/ cavity
preparation
– Bleaching agent (for teeth stains)- 30% H2O2+ glycerine+ pumice
– Surgical use (3-6%)- wound cleaning / slough remove
– Removal of ear wax
– Deodorant
– Styptic (25-30%)
• BENZOYL PEROXIDE:-
• Liberate 02,killsAnerobic,microaerophilic bacteria
Keratolytic & comedolytic properties-(To remove
warts and other lesions in which the epidermis
produces excess skin)
• USES:-ACNE (2.5-10% cream), ANTISEPTICS.
ADVERSE EFFECTS:-
Burning,
stinging sensation,
localized erythmia,
dryness of skin,
SCALING EDEMA.
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HALOGENS:-
Chlorine & Cl-
IODINE & I- releasing releasing agents:
agents:
• Rapid action
• Rapid action
• Broad spectrum
• Broad spectrum
• readily inactivated by
• Not readily inactivated
organic matter
by organic matter
• MICROBICIDAL
• MICROBICIDAL
AGENT,
AGENT, IODINATES CHLORINATES AND
AND OXIDIZES
OXIDIZES
MICROBIAL MICROBIAL
PROTOPLASM
PROTOPLASM
HALOGENS:-
• IODINE:
USES: (1:20,000 , SOLN KILL VEGETATIVE FORM- ANTISEPTIC
USES)
1.TINCTURE IODINE (2.5% IN ALCOHOL)
2.MANDL’S THROAT PAINT (1.25% IN POT .IODIDE) FOR
SORE THROAT.
3.COUNTER IRRITANT
4. WATER PURIFICATION.
ADRs: CORROSIVE,BURNS,BLISTERS, RASHES, stain,
irritant, less duration of action
• To be kept in dark colored bottles.

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IODOPHORES:-
• SOLUBLE COMPLEX OF IODINE.
• Slow RELEASE of FREE IODINE
• NON-IRRITATING,NONTOXIC,Non staining
• USES:- POVIDONE IODINE (POLYVINYL
PYRROLIDONE Iodine)-
– FOR BOILS,FURUNCULOSIS,BURNS,OTITIS
EXTERNA, ULCER,VAGINITIS,SURGICAL
SCRUBBING,DISINFECTION OF ENDOSCOPIC
INSTRUMENTS, Tinea infections (5%- cream, solution,
Ointment
– Dental uses- Mouth wash/ Gargle (2%)
– Analgesic (Iodine (4%) creams- analgesics}

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• CHLORINE:-
• HIGHLY REACTIVE
• POTENT GERMICIDE
• USES: DISINFECTION OF URBAN WATER SUPPLIES
(Cl 2 gas- 0.2- 0.4ppm)
• CHLOROPHORES:-
• COMPOUND RELEASES hypochlorous.
• TYPES:-1.CHLORONATED LIME (BLEACHING
POWDER)
• USES:
• Disinfection of drinking water,
• Swimming pool
• Sanitizer
• Tooth stains removal 26
2.SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE SOLN:-
USES:(4-6%) DISINFECTANT IN DAIRIES FOR MILK CANS, Lab
disinfectant, Biohazard Spill management,
EQUIPMENTS,ANTISEPTIC,ROOT CANAL THERAPY, also used
as Bleaching agent in dentistry
• 3.DAKIN SOLN: DILUTE SOD. HYPOCHLORITE BUFFERED
WITH BORIC ACID.
• 4.EUSOL: (chlorinated lime 1.25%+Boric acid).
• USES:-
Dissolving pus,
Blood clots,
Necrotic matter,
Clean infected wound,

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-:QUATERNARY AMMONIUM
(CATIONIC ANTISEPTICS):-
• Detergents,Cidal to bacteria, Fungal &viruses, non
irritating, mild keratolytic.
• USES:- Sanitizer, Antiseptics, Disinfectant for surgical
instrument, gloves.
• CETRIMIDE:-
• soapy powder with faint ,fishy odors
• wound clearing from dirt ,skin disinfectant,
• Anti-plaque agent,
• As antiseptics, Surgical instruments, utensil

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• Cetyl pyridinium Chloride- mouth wash, antiplaque agent,
Lozenges
• Benzalkonium Chloride- storage of sterile surgical
instruments
• SOAPS:-
• Anionic detergents, weak Antiseptics
• Sod. Or Pot. Salts of large chain fatty acids
• Emulsifying agents.
• Affective against-gm+Ve
• USED FOR CLEANSING ACTION
• Sodium Lauryl sulphate.

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-:CHLOROHEXIDINE:-
• Cationic biguanide which highly Powerful, on-irritating, colorless,
odorless antiseptics
• Spectrum of activity:-
Active against gm+ve bacteria
Moderately active against –gm-ve bacteria

MOA:- Disrupt bacterial membrane.


• Effective in the presence of pus, blood, organic matter.
• Exhibits residual activity after repeated use
• Savlon liquid antiseptics:- Chlorhexidine gluconate 1.5% +
cetrimide 3% exhibits enhanced efficacy
• Formulation available:- lotion,
Cream,
Washes, Aqueous solution 30
(Savlon is a combination
of Chlorhexidine gluconate
& cetrimide)

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USES:-
Bath, Neonatal bath, surgical scrub,
Dental use-
mouthwash including candidiasis (0.1-0.2% mouth wash)
Aqueous solution In mouth wash-↓dental plaque accumulation
Obstetrics (1% cream) & skin antiseptics & clearing of
wounds(0.05% aqueous solution)
Preoperative clearing of skin(0.5% solution in 70% alcohol)
Anti-plaque agent(prevent periodic disease)
In catheterisation & cystoscopy- gel (0.25%
chlorhexidine+xylocaine)
Disinfection of hydrophilic contact lenses-0.002-0.005%
chlorhexidine

Side effects:- Yellow brown stain, Altered taste, mucosal soreness


-:ALCOHOLS:-
MOA- ppts bacterial proteins /cidal
• ETHANOL:
• EFFECTIVE ANTISEPTIC on skin (not on muc.
Membrane) / rapid action
• CLEANSING AGENT AT 40-90% CONC.
• ADRs: BURNING SENSATION,INJURY, irritant on
Muc. membranes.
• Uses- wounds/ cuts, degerming of skin before injections
(Isopropyl alcohol)

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ALDEHYDES:

• MOA- DENATURES BACTERIAL PROTEINS.


• PROTOPLASMIC POISON.
• FORMALDEHYDE (Formalin): slow antiseptic,
broad spectrum, sporicidal
• USES:
Disinfection of surgical instruments (2-8%),
Preservation of dead tissue samples (4% aqueous
Solution),
fumigation, urinary antiseptic (Methenamine)
• ADRs: ECZEMATOID REACTIONS, irritates,No oral
use.

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ALDEHYDES:
• GLUTARALDEHYDE:
Sterilizing agents
Less irritating
Less pungent ,
Broad spectrum ,not inactivated by Bio fluids,
Activated at alkaline pH.
• USES:
1. Cold sterilization- Disinfection of surgical instruments ,
Endoscopes (to be kept for 12 hrs)
2. Hospital disinfectant of premises / OTs

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Acids:-
• BORIC ACID:-
• Bacteriostatic & Weak antiseptics ,
• Non irritating
• USES:-
• Irritating eyes (4%),
• Mouth washes
• Boroglycerin paint (30%)- stomatitis ,Glossitis
2.CUTS AND ABRASION (10%),
3.PRICKLY HEAT POWDERS,EAR
DROPS,IRRIGATING BLADDER.
• ADRs:- vomiting ,Abdominal pain Diarrhoea, visual
& kidney damage 36
• ACETIC ACID:- Oldest antiseptic,
BACTERICIDAL – FOR BURN
DRESSING(>5%),
effective against Pseudomonas.

• Salicylic acid- Bacteriostatic, Keratolytic (>25%),


Fungicidal (3%- Whitfield Oint.)

• Benzoic acid- Fungistatic (6%- Whitfield Oint.)

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METALLIC SALTS:-
Mercury compounds:-
• Bacterioststics & Poor antiseptics
• Low TI
• INACTIVATES SH-ENZYMES.
• 1.AMMONIUM MERCURY:
• 5-10% ointments, dermatophytosis
• Anal purities

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• 2.PHENYL MERCURIC NITRATE:
USES: IN TINEA REMEDIES,ANORECTAL
PREPARATIONS, OTIC, OCULAR
PREPARATIONS & PRESERVATIVES.

MERBROMIN (Mercurochrome):
• BRIGHT RED, ORGANIC MERCURIAL.
• NON-IRRITATING & LESS TOXIC.
• USES: 1-2% FOR EYES AND SKIN
antiseptic.
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SILVER COMOUNDS :
• ASTRINGENT & CAUSTIC.
• REACT WITH -SH,-COOH,-PO4,-NH2 PROTEINS.
• SILVER NITRATE (slow Ag release)
• RAPIDILY KILLS MICROBES.
• USES: Opthalmia Neonatarum (1% soln.) SOLN.,
APTHOUS ULCER
• Demerits: black discoloration of tissues
SILVER SULFADIAZINE:
• No black discoloration.
• USES: AS OINTMENT IN BURNS / effective in
Pseudomonas inf..
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ZINC SALTS:
• ASTRINGENT & MILD ANTISEPTICS.

• 1.ZINC SULFATE: WATER SOLUBLE.


• USES: EYE & EAR DROPS, Mouth wash,
EYE WASH, FOR ACNE AND IMPETIGO,
Lotiocalamine (Zno + Calamine), Anti Perspirants.

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DYES:
• Complex organic substances derived from coal tar
• Gentian violet (crystal violet):
• Rosaniline dye.
• Active against staphylococci,gram +ve bacteria, fungi.
• Uses: alcoholic soln (0.5%) for furunculosis, bed sores,
chronic ulcers,infective eczema, thrush, ringworm.
• Demerits- poor efficacy against Gm-ve & in the
presence of pus, blue stain on skin

Briliant green :-rosaniline dye.

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• Acridine Dyes: Acriflavin and Proflavin:
• Orange-yellow acridine dyes
• Active against gram + ve bacteria &gonococci.
• Sensitive to light & lose efficacy
• Effective in alk. pH
• Non irritant.
• Uses: chronic ulcers,wounds, burn dressings, Triple dye
lotion-gentian violet 0.25%+briliant green 0.25%+
acriflavin 0.1% for burns. Dressing in umbilical stump in
neonates.
• Demerits- to be stored in amber coloured bottles

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