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21 July 2008
• Virtualization Technology evolution • VMMs
– Hybrid virtualization – Open Virtualization Format Specification – Virtual Machine Interface
• Usages evolution
Intel® Virtualization Technology Evolution
•Assists for IO sharing: • PCI IOV compliant devs • VMDq: Multi-context IO VT-c • End-point DMA translation caching • IO virtualization assists
Vector 3: IO Device Focus
Core support for IO robustness & performance via VT-d DMA remapping Close basic processor VT-x/i “virtualization holes” in Intel® 64 & Itanium CPUs Simpler and more secure VMM through use of hardware VT support Richer/faster: Intel VT FlexPriority, VT-x2/i2 FlexMigration EPT, VPID, ECRR, APIC-V Better IO/CPU perf and functionality via hardware-mediated access to memory
Vector 2: Chipset Focus Vector 1: Processor Focus
Interrupt filtering & remapping VT-d extensions to VT-d2 track PCI-SIG IOV Perf improvements for interrupt VT-x3/i3 intensive env, faster VM boot Richer IO-device functionality and IO resource sharing
VMM Software Evolution
Software-only VMMs Binary translation Paravirtualization Device emulations
VMM software evolution over time with hardware support
All timeframes, dates, and products are subject to change without further notification
.Intel’s Next Ecosystem of Virtualization Innovation Challenge •Deliver scalable performance for Intel multi-core servers Solution •Designed for Multi-Core Processors Industry Efforts •Optimize I/O bottlenecks •Flexibility and Dynamic Load Balancing for Virtualization •Simplify network connectivity to the SAN •Unified Networking for Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery in Virtual Infrastructure *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
0 4.5 … 6.0 LAN 0.0 2.0 VM2 vNIC … VMn vNIC VMM Layer 2 Software Switch Throughput (Rx) 8.Gigabit Virtualization Evolution: Next Generation Usage Models Through Virtualization Innovation Today’s Networking What’s Coming VM1 vNIC Wire Speed Rx Side Performance With VMDq on Intel® 82598 10 Gigabit Ethernet Controller 10.2 9.0 NIC w/ VMDq Layer 2 Sorter MAC/PHY 4.0 9.0 w/o VMDq w/ MNDq w/ VMDq JF* Source: Intel .
7300 85% EPT. FlexPriorit y Quad-Core Intel® Xeon® Processors Intel Xeon 5100. and products are subject to change without further notification . and architectural enhancements to improve efficiency in virtualized environments All timeframes.Virtualization Performance Robust Tick Tock Roadmap 100% Virtualization SW Overhead 100% Virtualization SW Overhead 85% 100% Virtualization SW Overhead Intel® VTx. VMDq2 85% VMDq Intel® VT-d 70% 70% 70% 55% 45nm Intel® Core™ uArchitecture (Penryn) 55% 45nm Next generation Intel uArchitecture (Nehalem) 55% 2006 / 2007 2007 / 2008 2008 / 2009 Roadmap will continue to deliver higher raw performance (Moore’s Law). VPID. 5300. dates.
Intel virtualization in embedded devices All timeframes. and products are subject to change without further notification . dates.
toasters. … – Some can afford very small amount of memory (e. dates. …. PDAs/MIDs. Devices • VM in KVM (along with Qemu) means “PC” – Legacy devices. monitor. …. keyboard.g. interrupt controllers.PC vs. PCI devices. mouse. and apps to “PC” is not straightforward All timeframes. ACPI/BIOS. etc. and products are subject to change without further notification . timers. 128MB) • And various operating systems and apps have been developed for those • Porting such (legacy) OS. • There are various devices or computers that are not compatible with PC – Network routers. drivers. robots. ….
it’s independent of H/W • Scalability & Consolidation – Legacy operating systems often support UP only – Multiple instances of VMs • Reliability & Protection – Tolerate and isolate fatal errors in legacy OS guest and software to avoid system crash – Sandboxing All timeframes. dates. and products are subject to change without further notification .Benefits of Using Virtualization for Embedded Systems • Portability & Maintainability – Provides simplified and uniformed VM to minimizing porting and maintenance efforts – Once virtualized.
front-end devices (or virtio) – Start from protected (or 64-bit) mode with paging enabled.g. no real mode. dates. and products are subject to change without further notification . abstracted (PV) devices • Timer.What’s Mini-VM and Why? • Bare minimum and simple VM – CPU(s). eliminating burden of paravirtualizingCPU • Low virtualization overheads – Use hybrid virtualization (PV + H/W-assisted virtualization) – Real-time (e. direct paging mode) Check at the Mini-VM project… All timeframes. No BIOS • Protected execution environment by H/W – Run under H/W-assisted virtualization – Allow Ring-0 operations. memory.
etc.Hybrid virtualization • Use hardware-assisted virtualization – The cost of VM exit/entry will be even lower in the future – Cost of VMCALL is lower than other VM exits • Use para-virtualization on focused areas – Starting from hardware-assisted full-virtualization • Easier to share the kernel binary with the native – Reduce paravirtual operations significantly • The kernel regains the native CPU features lost in software only para-virtualization – – – – – Fast system calls Global pages Paging-based protection (U/S). LDT. IDT. etc. • Standard exceptions/interrupts . cli/sti. TSS. Privileged instructions GDT.
Focus areas for hybrid virtualization • Timer • Scheduling – Idle handling • Interrupt controllers • MMU – Memory overcommit – Or hardware-assisted (i. EPT or NPT) • Inter VMs communication .e.
Usage trends • Business continuity – High availability support through the synchronization of VMs – Reduction of unplanned downtime • Seamless management of resources – Livemigration – Service Oriented Architectures leveraged by Virtualization • Beginning of growth curve-expansion for desktop and application virtualization – Increased focus on security – Licensing issues/changing • Virtual Machines mobility – Open Virtualization Format Specification – Virtual Machines Interface – Live migration • Graphics virtualization – From a paravirtualization to a direct access approach .
The future of Virtualization .
and never — or at least rarely — fail (reliability) • Infrastructures should have these characteristics: – – – – – – Self-healing: hot backup application SLA-driven Multi-tenancy: built in a way that allows shared infrastructure Service-oriented Virtualized Linearly Scalable: The system shall be predictable and efficient in growing the application – Data management . deploy and run applications that can easily grow capacity (scalability). – develop.Cloud computing • Cloud computing relates to the underlying architecture in which the services are designed • Applications run somewhere on the “cloud” we don’t care where • Big news is for application developers and IT operations. work fast (performance).
667 units. representing an increase of 37.3% over the previous year.Desktop/App virtualization Market expansion According to a recent tracker study on the Asia/Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ) thin client market.2% over the same period Across the various verticals. the predominant role of thin clients across the region has shifted away from government/education segment to financial services as the leading vertical of thin client adoption from 1H 2006 onwards . Revenue likewise increased 29. total sales of thin clients in 1H 2007 reached 282.
Open Virtualization Format Specification OVF Specification from DMTF describes an open. efficient and extensible format for the packaging and distribution of software in (collections of) virtual machines • • • • • • • • Optimized for distribution Optimized for a simple. portable. automated user experience Supports both single VM and multiple-VM configurations Portable VM packaging Vendor and platform independent Extensible Localizable Open standard . secure.
vmdk -> no specific disk format to be used is required • vmdisk2.mf -> manifest (optional) containing the SHA-1 digests of individual files in the package • package.cert -> signature of the digest (optional) along with the base64-encoded X.OVF Packages • package.xml -> OVF Envelope describes VMS metadata • vmdisk1.iso -> (optional) • Distribution – OVF package can be made available as a set of files – OVF package can be stored as a single file using the TAR format.vmdk • resource.509 certificate • de-DE-resources. The extension should be .ova (open virtual appliance or application) .ovf -> metadata descriptor (required) • package.
6.Virtual Machine Interface In 2005. VMware proposed a paravirtualization interface. the Virtual Machine Interface (VMI). as a communication mechanism between the guest operating system and the hypervisor An implementation of this standard was merged in the main Linux kernel version 2. although a pending need to be satisfied (considering HVM additions as new x86 support) What about proposing an interface from the platform? .21 Motivations • Portability: it should be easy to port a guest OS to use the API • High performance: the API must not obstruct a high performance hypervisor implementation • Maintainability: it should be easy to maintain and upgrade the guest OS • Extensibility: it should be possible for future expansion of the API No considerable adoption of the proposed VMI architecture.
VMware.Wrap up • Virtualization Technology Introduction – Beginnings of Virtualization Technology in x86 – Approaches to server and client virtualization • Virtualization Usages in Servers – IT business needs behind Virtualization Technology • VMMs / Hypervisors – Deep dive in the open source Xen hypervisor – Overview of KVM. OpenVZ • Hardware assisted Virtualization – Software solution for x86 virtualization – Enhancements through hardware assisted virtualization – Intel VT features • Virtualization Technology trends – VMMs standardization and VMs mobility – Virtualization in every platform .
How to start… • Do I need virtualization? – Consider the server side • Lab in the University • Data Center consolidation • Environments for server applications development – Consider the clients side • VMs for each student • VMs for users with low processing power needs • Which do I choose? – Open source for teaching/learning purposes • Choose the right one for your needs – Commercial solutions for highly dynamic data centers • Can I do some research in the area? – Several open source projects in the software side with pending topics – Standards to integrate virtualization through manageability .
Gracias! Thank You! .
intel.htm?iid=technology_virtualizationengage+body_ .Additional information sources: • For specifications and to learn more – – Intel® VT Web Site: http://www.com/technology/platform-technology/virtualization/ – – Intel Virtualization Software Community: http://www.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/index.intel.com/software/virtualization • Online collateral on Intel® VT-x/VT-i http://www.
pdf http://www.h http://download.0.com/archives/html/xen-merge/2005-08/msg00076.pdf http://www.dmtf.com/download/a/f/d/afdfd50d-6eb9-425e-84e1 http://wiki.com/xenwiki/Open_Topics_For_Discussion?action=A http://wiki.0.xensource.org/standards/published_documents/DSP0243_1.xensource.microsoft.References • • • • • • • http://www.vmware.com/interfaces/ http://lists.xensource.com/xenwiki/Open_Topics_For_Discussion?action=A .vmware.com/pdf/vmi_specs.
IT professional are bullish in future use: driving 45% server use in 12 months -IDC Directions 2007 Feb-07 41% of new server x86 purchased in 2007 will be virtualized .IDC End User Study.Server Virtualization is now considered a mainstream technology among IT buyers. Jun-06 >81% of business are using virtualization in production environments .451 Group Special Report – Dec-06 .
etc Micro-architecture focus: cache sizing. etc.• Traditional benchmarking covers Performance.. frequency. bandwidth. Power.g. Scalability – – Metrics: Throughput (MB/s). Areas of focus driven by use models. • E. VM migration time. Response time. #users. VM utilization • New technology requires new areas of analysis and metrics – – Need to measure how Intel® Virtualization technology benefits end-users and ISVs .
HDD) Virtual clock accuracy induces platform dependent error Availability of performance monitoring capabilities Measuring performance • • • Consolidation use case adds additional testing challenges – – – Synchronicity: Use automation scripts Utilization: Avoid harmonic bottlenecks Steady State: Easy. NIC.• Virtualization presents unique challenges – Which configurations to focus on • • • – Homogeneous or heterogeneous OS Number Virtual Machines Configuration of individual VMs (CPU. HBA. Memory. repeatable measurements • Only way to overcome the challenges is to develop the benchmarks – – Tier consolidation using SAP SD vConsolidate: a server application consolidation benchmark .
• Description – – Benchmark that represents predominant use case -> server application consolidation Application types selected for consolidation guided by market data A methodology for measuring performance in a consolidated environment A means for fellow travelers to publish virtualization performance proof points The ability to analyze performance across VMMs and hardware platforms • vConsolidate provides – – – • Knowledge obtained SPEC virtualization workload .
Mail. and Web .• • 5 Virtual Machines 3 Clients: Controller.
*Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others .
• • • Consolidation Stack Unit – (CSU) Smallest granule in vCon Consist of 5 Virtual Machines – – – – – Database Commercial Mail Web Server Java Application Server Idle • • Each CSU represents single score Final score is aggregate of the individual CSU scores .
Runs for 30 minutes Stops the test and reports score – Time measured in “Controller Client” external timer The “Controller” application calculates final score SpecJBB.• Running vConsolidate – Controller application • • Starts the tests via helper scripts.transactions/ second WebBench – throughput • CSU Final Score = GEOMEAN (VM Relative Perf[i]) • Scoring – – – . Sysbench and Loadsim .
Commercial Mail. . methodology & metrics VMware – VMmark* consolidation stack • • Establishing benchmarks with ISV/OSVs Contributing to standard benchmarks through SPEC (long term) *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Commercial Database.• Seeding Industry with Benchmark Workloads – vConsolidate– Consolidated stack of business workloads consisting of Server Side Java. Commercial Web Server on 4 VMs • Collaborating with Virtualization leaders – – Microsoft and OEMs .consolidation workloads.
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