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Thermodynamics

1

1. Air Standard Power Cycles

Introduction

Two important applications of thermodynamics are

power generation and refrigeration.

Both are usually accomplished by systems that operate

on thermodynamic cycles.

Hence the thermodynamic cycles are usually divided into

two general categories, viz., “power cycles” and “

refrigeration cycles”;

Power or refrigeration cycles are further classified as “

gas cycles” and “ vapour cycles” ;

2

In case of gas cycles, the working substance will be in

gaseous phase throughout the cycle, where as in

vapour cycles, the working substance will be in liquid

phase in one part of the cyclic process and will be in

vapour phase in some other part of the cycle;

Thermodynamic cycles are also classified as “

closed cycles” and “ open cycles”.

In closed cycles, the working fluid is returned to its

original state at the end of each cycle of operation

and is recirculated.

3

In an open cycle, the working substance is renewed at

the end of each cycle instead of being re-circulated.

In automobile engines, the combustion gases are

exhausted and replaced by fresh air-fuel mixture at the

end of each cycle.

Though the engine operates in a mechanical cycle, the

working substance does not go through a complete

thermodynamic cycle.

4

Basic Considerations in the Analysis of Power Cycles

The cycles encountered in actual devices are difficult to

analyze because of the presence of friction, and the

absence of sufficient time for establishment of

equilibrium conditions during the cycle.

In order to make an analytical study of a cycle feasible, we

have to make some idealizations by neglecting internal

Irreversibilities and complexities.

Such cycles resemble the actual cycles closely but are

made up of internal reversible processes.

These cycles are called ideal cycles.

5

Air Standard Cycles

In gas power cycles, the working fluid will be in gaseous

phase throughout the cycle.

Petrol engines (gasoline engines), diesel engines and gas

turbines are familiar examples of devices that operate on

gas cycles.

All these devices are called “ Internal combustion

engines” as the fuel is burnt within the boundaries of the

system.

Because of the combustion of the fuel, the composition of

the working fluid changes from a mixture of air and fuel

to products of combustion during the course of the cycle.

6

However, considering that air is predominantly

nitrogen which hardly undergoes any chemical

reaction during combustion, the working fluid closely

resembles air at all times.

The actual gas power cycles are complex.

In order that the analysis is made as simple as

possible, certain assumptions have to be made.

These assumptions result in an analysis that is far from

correct for most actual combustion engine processes,

but the analysis is of considerable value for indicating

the upper limit of performance.

7

Air standard assumptions

1. The working medium is a perfect gas with constant specific

heats and molecular weight corresponding to values at room

temperature.

2. No chemical reactions occur during the cycle. The

heat addition and heat rejection processes are merely heat

transfer processes.

3. The processes are reversible.

4. Losses by heat transfer from the apparatus to the atmosphere

are assumed to be zero in this analysis.

5. The working medium at the end of the process (cycle) is

unchanged and is at the same condition as at the beginning of

the process (cycle).

i.e Changes in kinetic and potential energies of the working

substance are very small and hence negligible.

8

Air standard Carnot Cycle

The Carnot cycle is represented on P-v

and T-s diagrams as in Fig.

The Carnot cycle is composed of four

totally reversible processes: isothermal

heat addition, isentropic expansion,

isothermal heat rejection, and isentropic

compression.

The Carnot cycle is the most efficient

cycle that can be executed between a

heat source at temperature and a sink

at temperature , and its thermal

efficiency is expressed as

9

Process 1 – 2: Reversible Adiabatic Compression

Process 1-2: In this, air is compressed isentropically from volume

During this process heat rejected is zero. i.e.,

P: Increases from p1 to p2

V: Decreases from V1 to V2

T: Increases from T1 to T2

S: Remains same.

1W2 = P V P V=

1 1 2 2

mR(T1 T2 )

1 1

1Q2 = 0 or

10

Process 2 -3: Isothermal Heat Addition

In this air is heated isothermally

so that volume increases and

Temperature remains constant.

Amount of heat supplied is equal

to the work done by the gas.

P: Decreases from p2 to p3

V: Increases from V2 to V3

T: Remains same.

S: Increases from S2 to S3

2Q3 = p2V2 ln

11

Process 3 – 4:

Reversible Adiabatic Expansion

This is isentropic(Adiabatic) expansion

process.

Heat supplied during the process is zero. i.e.,

P: Decreases from p3 to p4

V: Increases from V3 to V4

T: Decreases from T3 to T4

S: Remains same.

3Q4 = 0 1 1

12

Process 4 – 1:

Isothermal Heat Rejection

P: Increases from p4 to p1

V: Decreases from V4 to V1

T: Remains same.

S: Decreases from S4 to S1

4Q1 = p4V4 ln

13

14

15

R ln r Tmax Tmin

And also, th

R ln r Tmax

Tmax Tmin

Tmax 16

17

Mean Effective Pressure

Mean effective pressure may

be defined as the theoretical

pressure which, if it is maintained

constant throughout the volume

change of the cycle, would give the

same work output as that obtained from the cycle.

Or it is the constant pressure which produces the same work output

while causing the piston to move through the same swept volume

as in the actual cycle.

18

Mean effective Pressure:

When the piston moves from TDC to BDC, the air inside expands

resulting in work output. If Pm1 is the average pressure on the piston during

this stroke, the average force on the piston is

Work output = average force on piston X stroke length

During the return stroke, as the piston moves from BDC to TDC, air is

compressed requiring work input of the average pressure on the piston

during this stroke is Pm2, the work input is given by;

Usually the net work output is in kJ, volume in m3 and mean effective

pressure in bar.

19

Stirling cycle

When a confined body of gas (air, helium, whatever) is

heated, its pressure rises.

This increased pressure can push on a piston and do work.

The body of gas is then cooled, pressure drops, and the

piston can return.

The same cycle repeats over and over, using the same

body of gas.

That is all there is to it. No ignition, no carburetion, no valve

train, no explosions.

Many people have a hard time understanding the Stirling

because it is so much simpler than conventional internal

combustion engines.

20

Stirling Cycle:

The Stirling cycle is represented

on P-v and T-s diagrams as in Fig.

It consists of two isothermal

processes and two isochors.

Process 1-2: In this air is heated

isothermally so that volume

increases from Temperature

remains constant.

Amount of heat supplied is equal

to the work done by the gas.

21

Stirling Cycle:

Process 2-3: This is constant volume

heat rejection process. Temperature

decreases from pressure decreases

from the heat rejected during the

process is given by,

isothermally from volume

During this process heat rejected is

equal to the work done by the gas.

22

Stirling Cycle:

Process 4-1:

This is constant volume heat

addition process.

Temperature increase from

The heat added during the process

is given by,

23

24

The Efficiency of the cycle:

Due to heat transfers at constant volume processes, the

efficiency of the Stirling cycle is less than that of the

Carnot cycle.

However if a regenerative arrangement is used such that,

i.e., the area under 2-3 is equal to the area

under 4 -1 on T-s diagram, then the efficiency,

25

Otto cycle OR Constant

volume cycle:

The Otto cycle is the ideal

cycle for spark-ignition reciprocating

engines.

It is named after Nikolaus A. Otto, who

built a successful four-stroke engine in

1876.

This cycle is also known as constant

volume cycle as the heat is received and

rejected at constant volume.

The cycle consists of two adiabatic

processes and two constant volume

processes as shown in P-v and T-s

diagrams.

26

Otto cycle OR Constant

volume cycle:

Process 1-2:

In this air is compressed

isentropically from V1 to V2 Temperature

increases from T1 to T2.

Since this is an adiabatic process heat

rejected is zero. i.e.

Process 2-3:

In this air is heated at constant volume

and temperature increases from T2 to T3.

Heat supplied during this process is given

by,

27

Otto cycle OR Constant

volume cycle:

Process 3-4:

In this air is expanded isentropically from

V3 to V4 and temperature decreases from

T3 to T4. Since this is an adiabatic

process, the heat supplied is zero. i.e.,

Process 4-1:

In this air is cooled at constant volume

and temperature decreases from T4 to

T1. Heat rejected during this process is

equal to change in internal energy and is

given by,

28

The Efficiency of the cycle:

.

Efficiency of the cycle is given by,

Or

Or

Or

1

Where, r = compression OR expansion ratio and 29

Mean effective pressure:

We know that for Otto cycle,

30

31

Diesel cycle OR Constant pressure cycle:

The Diesel cycle is the ideal cycle for

Compression Ignition reciprocating

engines.

The CI engine was first proposed by

Rudolph Diesel.

The Diesel cycle consists of one constant

pressure heating process, one constant

volume cooling process and two

adiabatic processes as shown in P-v and

T-s diagrams.

This cycle is also known as constant

pressure cycle because heat is added at

constant pressure.

32

Diesel cycle OR Constant pressure cycle:

Process 1-2:

During this process air is compressed

adiabatically and volume decreases

from V1 to V2 Heat rejected during

this process is zero. i.e.,

Process 2-3:

During this process air is heated at

constant pressure and temperature

rises from T2 to T3 Heat supplied

during this process is given by,

33

Diesel cycle OR Constant pressure cycle:

Process 3-4:

During this process air is expanded

adiabatically and volume increases from

V3 to V4.

Heat supplied during the process is zero.

i.e.,

Process 4-1:

In this air is cooled at constant volume

and temperature decreases from T4 to

T1 .

Heat rejected during this process is given

by,

34

The Efficiency of the cycle:

The efficiency of the cycle is given by,

Considering process 1-2,

Expansion ratio,

35

Considering process 2-3,

36

Mean effective pressure:

we know that work done per kg in Diesel cycle is given by,

37

Expression for cut-off ratio:

Let ‘k’ be the cut-off in percentage of stroke (from

We know that,

38

Dual combustion or Limited pressure or Mixed cycle:

3 4

This cycle is a combination of Otto

and Diesel cycles.

It is also called semi-diesel cycle

because semi-diesel engines work

5

on this cycle.

In this cycle heat is absorbed partly

at constant volume and partly at

constant pressure.

It consists of two reversible

adiabatic or isentropic, two

constant volume and a constant

pressure processes as shown in P-v

and T-s diagrams.

39

Dual combustion or Limited pressure or Mixed

cycle: 4

3

Process 1-2:

The air is compressed

reversibly and adiabatically from 5

temperature T1 to T2 .

No heat is rejected or absorbed

by the air.

Process 2-3:

The air is heated at constant

volume from T2 to T3.

Heat absorbed by the air is given

by,

40

Dual combustion or Limited pressure or Mixed cycle:

Process 3-4:

3 4

The air heated at constant pressure from

temperature T3 to T4.

The heat supplied by the fuel or heat

absorbed by the air is given by,

5

Process 4-5:

The air is expanded reversibly and

adiabatically from temperature T4 to T5 .

No heat is absorbed or rejected during

the process.

Process 5-1: The air is now cooled at

constant volume from temperature T5 to

T1 . Heat rejected by the air is given by,

41

The Efficiency of the cycle:

The efficiency of the cycle is given by,

Cut-off ratio,

Pressure ratio,

Expansion ratio,

42

Considering process 1-2,

43

Mean effective pressure:

We know that work done per kg in dual cycle is given by,

Note:

1) For Otto cycle

44

Comparison between Otto, Diesel and Dual

combustion cycles

The important variables which are used as the basis

for comparison of the cycles are compression ratio,

peak pressure, heat supplied, heat rejected and the

net work output.

In order to compare the performance of the Otto,

Diesel and Dual combustion cycles some of these

variables have to be fixed.

45

Comparison with same compression ratio and

heat supply:

46

The comparison of these cycles

for the same compression ratio

and same heat supply are

shown in on both p – V and T –

S diagrams.

In these diagrams, cycle 1-2-3-

4-1 represents Otto Cycle,

cycle 1-2-3’-4’-1 represents

diesel cycle and cycle 1-2”-3”-

4”-1 represents the dual

combustion cycle for the same

compression ratio and heat

supply.

47

From the T-S diagram, it

can be seen that area

5236 = area 522”3”6” =

area 523’6’ as this area

represents the heat

supply which is same for

all the cycles.

All the cycles start from

the same initial point 1

and the air is compressed

from state 1 to state 2 as

the compression ratio is

same.

48

It is seen from the T-s

diagram, that for the same

heat supply, the heat

rejection in Otto cycle (area

5146) is minimum and heat

rejection in Diesel cycle

(area 514’6’) is maximum.

Consequently Otto cycle has

the highest work output and

efficiency. Diesel cycle has

the least efficiency and dual

cycle has the efficiency

between the two.

49

Therefore for the same compression ratio and same heat

rejection, Otto cycle is the most efficient while the Diesel cycle is

the least efficient.

We know that thermal efficiency is given by

1 – heat rejected/heat supplied

Thermal efficiency of these engines under given circumstances is

of the following order

Diesel>Dual>Otto

Hence in this case it is the diesel cycle which shows greater

thermal efficiency.

50

Problem 1

In an Otto cycle, the upper and lower limits for

the absolute temperature respectively are T1

and T2.

Show that for the maximum work, the ratio of

compression should have the value

T1.25

rc

3

T

1

51

Solution:

Process 1-2 is reversible adiabatic

T2 V

1

rc

T1 V

2

T2 T r 1 c

.......... ....(1)

T4 V

rc

1

T3 V

2

rc 52

Work done = Heat added - Heat rejected

C T3 - T1rc - C T3rc1 - T1

In the above equation T3, T1 and Cv are constants.

Therefore for maximum work

dW 0

dr

53

d C T - T r - C T r1 - T 0

3 1 c 3 c 1

dr

- C T1rc 2 - C 1 T3rc 0

T1rc 2 T3rc

T r 2

2

c

r c

r

c

T r

1 c

rc 1

1 1

T 1 T .41

rc 3

3

T T

1 1

1.25

T

rc

3

T

1

54

Problem 2

An engine working on Otto cycle in which

salient points are 1,2,3 and 4 has upper and

lower temperature limits T3 and T1.

If the maximum work per kg of air is to be

done, show that the intermediate

temperatures are given by

T2 T4 T1T3

55

Solution: For maximum work/kg in an Otto cycle

•

1

1

T3

rc

(as proved in problem 1)

T1

1

1

T

T2 T r 1 c

T

1

3

T 1

12

T

T

1

3

T1T3

T

1

56

T4 T

3 T3

rc 1

1

T

3

T

1

Again

1

T T1

T1T3

3

T 3

T2 T4 T1T3

57

Problem 3

An engine working on the otto cycle has a suction

pressure of 1 bar and a pressure of 14 bar at the end

of compression.

Find Compression ratio, Clearance volume as a

percentage of cylinder volume

The ideal efficiency and MEP if the pressure at the end

of combustion is 21 bar.

Solution:

Given: P1 = 1 bar, P2 = 14 bar, P3 = 21 bars

58

v

P2 1

P1 v2

1

v1 r P

2 14

1

v2 c

P

1

v v

rc v v1

1

2 c

v2 x 100 1 x100

v1 6.58

15.18%

Ideal efficiency 1 1

rc

1 1

6.58.4

53%

59

p

Explosion pressure ratio p3

2

21 1.5

14

p1 rc 1

M .E.P r 1

c

1x6.58(1.5 -1)(6.58

1.4 - 1

1)

(1.4 1)(6.58 1)

1.65 bar

60

Problem 4

In a constant volume cycle the pressure at the end of compression is 15

times that at the start, the temperature of air at the beginning of

compression is 37° C and the maximum temperature attained in the

cycle is 1950°C. Find,

(i) the compression ratio

(ii) thermal efficiency of the cycle

(iii) heat supplied per kg of air

(iv) the work done per kg of air

Solution:

Given:

P2/P1 = 15 , T1 = 37ºC = 310 K

T3 = 1950ºC = 2223 K

61

P2

v1 r

P1

v2 c

1

P

1

rc

2

15

P

1

rc 6.91

1 1

rc

1 1 0.54

6.91 .4

54%

62

Heat supplied = Cv(T3-T2) = 0.72(2223 - 671.66)

=1116.96 KJ/kg of air

Work done

Heat supplied

= 603.16 KJ/kg of air

63

Problem 5

An air standard Diesel cycle has a compression ratio

of 18 and the heat transferred to the working fluid

per cycle is 2000 kJ/kg.

At the beginning of the compression stroke, the

pressure is 1 bar and the temperature is 300 K.

Calculate the thermal efficiency.

Given:

rc = 18

P1 = 1 bar

T1 = 300 K

T2 T1rc 300(18) 1.4-1

953.3 K 64

Heat transferred = Cp(T3 – T2)

2000 = 1.005(T3 -953.3)]

T3 = 2943.34 K

T

cut off ratio

3 2943.34 3.08

T2 953.3

rc 1

1

1

08

0.586 58.6%

65

Problem 6

An engine with 200 mm cylinder diameter and 300

mm stroke length, works on the theoretical Diesel

cycle. The initial pressure and temperature of air are

1 bar and 27° C. The cut off is at 8% of the stroke and

compression ratio is 15. Determine

(i) Pressure and temperatures at all salient points of the

cycle.

(ii) theoretical air standard efficiency.

(iii) mean effective pressure.

(iv) power developed if there are 400 working strokes

per minute.

66

Solution:

Given:

rc = 15,

P1 = 1 bar,

T1 = 27º C

d = 200 mm, L = 300 mm

Swept volume Vs dL

Vs 0.22 x .3

.009424 m3

67

V2 Vc clearance volume

V1 Vc Vs Vs

rc 1

V2 Vc Vc

Vs

(rc 1) (15 - 1) 14

Vc

Vs 0.009424

V2 Vc 0.0006731 m 2

14 14

Cut off takes place at 8% of stroke

8

(V3 V2 ) Vs

100

V3 V2 0.08Vs 0.0006731 0.08 x 0.009424

0.001427 m 3

68

V3 0.001427

cut off ratio 2.12

V2 0.0006731

1 1 .4

r 1 15 .12 1

1 c 1

.12

0.598 59.8%

pr

r 1

M .E .P 1c

r 1c

c

. 15 1

69

work done cycle

M .E.P

Swept volu me

Work done / cycle 7.41 x 10 2 x 0.00942 6.98 kJ/cycle

Power Work done / cycle x Number of cycles / sec

400

Power 6.98 x

60

Power 46.53 kW

T T r 300x151.4 -1 886.25K

2 1c

1.4

P P r 1x15 44.3bar

2 1c

P P 44.3 bar

2 3 70

886.25 x 2.12 1878.85 K

1 1 1

V V V V V

x x sin ce V4 V1

V V V V V

1

1

x

r

1.4 1

2.12

1878.85 858.99 K

15

P V V V V V

x x

P V V V V V rc

1 .4

2.12

P 44.3 2.86 bar

15

71

Problem 7

In a dual combustion cycle the compression ratio is

14, maximum pressure is limited to 55 bar.

The cut-off ratio is 1.07. Air is admitted at a pressure

of 1 bar. Find the thermal efficiency and M.E.P of

the cycle.

Solution: (Given):

rc = 14

P1 = 1 bar

P3 = 55 bar

Cut off ratio = =1.07

72

P2 P1rc 1(14) 1.4

40.23 bar

P3 55

Explosion pressure ratio 1.367

P 2 40.23

1 1

1 1

rc ( 1) ( 1)

1 1.367 x 1.07 1

1.4

1 1.41

14 (1.367 1) 1.367 x 1.4(1.07 1)

62.18%

73

Heat added C p (T4 T3 ) C (T3 T2 )

T4 T3

C pT3 1 C T2 1

T3 T2

T2 T1rc 1

Pr ocess 2 - 3 is contant vo lume process

P2V2 P3V3

T2 T3

P3 1

T3 T2 T2 T1rc

P2

74

Heat added C pT1rc 1 1 C T1rc 1 1

1.005 x 1.367 T1 14 1.07 1 0.72T1141.41 1.367 1

1.4 1

1.0356T1

Work done Heat added x 1.0356 T1 x0.6218

0.6439 T1

V2 RT1 1

Swept Volume V1 V2 V1 1

1

V1 P1 rc

0.287 T1 1

2

1

1 x 10 14

0.003091 T1m 2 / kg

75

Work done /kg

M .E.P

Swept volume/kg

0.6439T1

0.003091T1

208.3 kPa

M .E.P 2.083 bar

76

Problem 8

From the PV diagram of an engine working on the Otto

cycle, it is found that the pressure in the cylinder after

1/8th of the compression stroke is executed is 1.4 bar.

After 5/8th of the compression stroke, the pressure is

3.5bar. Compute the compression ratio and the air

standard efficiency. Also if the maximum cycle

temperature is limited to 1000.C, find the net work out

put

77

Given

Pa 1.4bar , Pb 3.5bar

T3 1000 273 1273K

T1 27(assumed ) 300 K

Solution

V1 Va V1 V2

1

8

Va V1 V1 V2

1

8

7 V2

Va V1

8 8

Va 7 1

rc - - - -(1) where rc compressio n ratio

V2 8 8 78

V1 Vb V1 V2

5

Again

8

Vb V1 V1 V2

5

8

Vb 3 5

rc - - - -(1)

V2 8 8

From equation 1 and 2 we have

Va

7

8

rc

1

8

Vb

3 r 5

8 c 8

79

But PaVa PbVb

1 1

Va Pa 3.5 1.4

1.4

Vb Pb

Va

1.924 - - - - - (4)

Vb

from 3 and 4

7 r

8 c 8

1

1.924

3 r 5

8 c 8

rc 7 80

1 1

1 1

1 1.4 1

54.08%

rc 7

1

V1

T2 T1

V

2

3007 1.41

653.4 K

Heat added C (T3 T2 )

0.718(1273 - 653.4)

445 kJ/kg

Network output x heat supplied

0.5408 x 445

240.6 kJ/kg 81

Problem 9

An air standard diesel cycle has a compression ratio of 16. The

temperature before compression is 27°C and the temperature

after expansion is 627°C. Determine:

i) The net work output per unit mass of air

ii) Thermal efficiency

iii) Specific air consumption in kg/kWh.

82

Given

V1

rc 16

V2

T4 627 273 900 K

T1 27( assumed ) 300 K

Solution

For process 1 - 2 we have T1V1 1 T2V2 1

1

V1

Or T2 T1

V 300 x16 0.4

2

909.43 K

P2V2 P3V3

For process 2 - 3 we have and P2 P3

T2 T3

V3

T3 x T2 - - - (1)

V2

83

For process 3 - 4 we have T3V3 1 T4V4 1

1 1

V4 V1

Or T3 T4

V

T4

V

3 3

1

V2

V1

T3 T4

V

V

2 3

V2

Substituting for from Eqn (1) we have

V3

1 1

V1 T2

T3 T4

V

T

2 3

1

1 V1

T3 T4T2

V

2 84

1

1

1 V1

T3 T4T2

V2

900 x 909.43 0 .4

x 16 0 .4

1

1.4

1993.3k

Heat supplied per unit mass q 2-3 C p (T3 T2 )

1.005 x [1993.3 - 909.43]

1089.3kJ/k g

Work done W 1089.3 430.8

658.5kJ/kg

W 658.5

Thermal efficiency 0.6045 60.45%

q 2-3 1089.3

3600 3600

Specific air consumptio n 5.57 kg / kwh 85

W 658.5

Problem 10

The compression ratio of a compression ignition

engine working on the ideal Diesel cycle is 16. The

temperature of air at the beginning of compression is

300K and the temperature of air at the end of

expansion is 900K. Determine

i) cut off ratio

ii) expansion ratio and

iii) the cycle efficiency

86

Given

rc 16

T4 627 273 900 K

T1 27( assumed ) 300 K

Solution

T2 T1r 1 300 x161.4 1 909.42 K

1 1

T3 V4 V4 V2

V x V

T4 3

V 2 3

1

T3 V1 V2

x

T4 V2 V3

1

T3 V2

rc x

T4 V3

87

P2V2 P3V3

and P2 P3

T2 T3

V2 T2

V3 T3

1 1

T3 T2 1 T2

rc x rc 1

T4 T3 T3

1 1

T3 x T3 T4 rc 1T2

1

T3 T4 rc 1T2

1 1 1

T3 (T4 rc T2 )

(900 x 161.41 x 909.421.41 )1 1.4

1993.28K 88

T3 1993.28

cut off ratio

T2 909.42

2.19

rc1 1

1-

1

161-1.4 2.191.4 1

1-

1.4 2.19 1

60.46%

1

V4 T3 1

Expansion ratio rE

V3 T4

1

1993.28 1.41

7.29

900 89

Problem 11

An air standard limited pressure cycle has a compression

ratio of 15 and compression begins at 0.1 MPa, 40°C. The

maximum pressure is limited to 6 MPa and heat added is

1.675 MJ/kg. Compute

(i) the heat supplied at constant volume per kg of air

(ii) the heat supplied at constant pressure per kg of air

(iii) the work done per kg of air

(iv) the cycle efficiency

(v) cut off ratio and

(vi) the m.e.p of the cycle

90

Given

rc 15

P1 0.1MPa 100 KPa

T1 40C

P3 P4 6 MPa 6000 KPa

Heat added 1.675 MJ/kg 1675kJ/kg

Solution

1.4 1

P2 P1rc 100 x15 4431.26 KPa

P3 6000

1.354

P2 4431.2

91

T2 T1rC 1 313(15)1.41

924.65k

T3 T2 924.6 J x 1.354

1251/99 K

Heat added at constant v olume 0.72(T3 T2 )

0.72(1251.99 924.65)

235.71kJ/k g

Heat added at constant pressure Total heat added

- heat added at constant v olume

1675 - 235.71 1439.286kJ/kg

92

Heat added at constant pressure C p T4 T3

1439.286 1.005(T4 1251.99)

T4 2684.11K

1 1

Air standard effeciency 1 - -1

rc 1 1

1 1.354 x 2.14381.4 1

1 - 1.41

15 1.354 1 1. 354 x 1.42. 1438 1

60.56%

P1 r

M .E.P

1rc 1

1 1 rc1 1

100 x 151.4

1.4 115 1

1.354 1 1.4 x 1.3542.1438 1 1511.4 1.354 x 2.14381.4 1

2000.13 KPa

93

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