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{ TRASNFER

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

What are Transport Phenomena ?

Ans. A combination of three closely related topics

Fluid Dynamics Momentum Transfer/Transport

Heat Transfer Energy Transfer/Transport

Mass Transfer Chemical Species Mass Transfer/Transport

1. They very frequently occur simultaneously in nature

2. The basic equations describing these transfer processes are very

closely related

3. The close similarity of these equations lead to “analogies”

4. Mathematics required for the three transfer processes equations

is very similar

5. The basic molecular mechanism of the three transfer processes is

very similar. The same molecules transfer momentum, energy

and mass, through viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity

INTRODUCTION, contd. - 2

THREE LEVELS OF STUDY OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

1. Macroscopic Level

2. Microscopic Level

3. Molecular Level

A Macroscopic Balance of details of what is going on

1. Mass within the control volume

2. Momentum

3. Energy

Due to various inputs & outputs Mainly used for the global

from our control volume assessment of the problem

Differential Analysis Microscopic Level

A Microscopic Balance of

1. Mass An attempt to understand the

2. Momentum details of what is going on

3. Energy within the control volume

Due to various inputs & outputs

from our control volume

Mainly used to get information of

1. Velocity profiles

2. Temperature profiles

3. Concentration profiles

INTRODUCTION, contd. - 4

Molecular Level

1. Mass transfer

2. Momentum transfer

3. Energy transfer

In terms of molecular structure & intermolecular forces

1. Theoretical Physicists

2. Physical Chemist

Some times Engineers/applied scientists do get involved in cases of

1. Complex molecules

2. Extreme temperatures/pressures

3. Chemical Reacting Flows

INTRODUCTION, contd. - 5

Microscopic Level Micron to cm range

Molecular Level 1 to 1000 nanometers

Get into the habit of relating physical ideas to equations

Comparison of intuition and results obtained

VISCOSITY, MOMENTUM TRANSFER MECHANISM

CONCEPT OF VISCOSITY

than the

other passengers.

The extent of friction depends on the type of clothes they

are wearing.

It is this type of clothes that gives rise to the concept of

viscosity.

Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity

Example of two parallel plates

• Bottom layer moves with constant velocity V

• A fluid is filled between the plates

• No slip condition between fluid and plates at both the plate surfaces

molecular layer of fluid is due to

the difference in the velocities of

the two adjacent layers

Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity, contd. -2

Fluid initially

y

Y t<

at rest Common sense suggests the following.

x

0 1. A constant force F is required to

t=0

Lower plate set maintain the motion of lower plate

y in motion 2. This force is directly proportional to

x V 1. Area of plates

Velocity buildup

y

vx(y, t) small t

in unsteady flow

2. Velocity of lower plate

x V 3. This force is inversely proportional

Final velocity

vx(y) to

y large t distribution in

steady flow 1. Distance between the plates

x V

Mathematical Interpretation

F V F V

A Y A Y

The force applied, F is the shear force V dv

x

Y dy

Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity,

The shear stress exerted in the x-direction on a

fluid surface of constant y by the fluid in the

region of lesser y is designated as

Shear Stress τ yx

fluid surface of constant y, Shear x-direction

force on unit area perpendicular to

the y-direction

Shear stress is induced by the

The shear stress is moving in the motion of the plate. Shear stress

direction of y because the bottom can be induced by a pressure

layer of fluid exerts a shear stress gradient or a gravity force.

on the next layer which then exerts

a shear stress on subsequent layer

Pressure force is a force acting on

a surface while the gravity force is

the force acting on a fluid volume

In the neighborhood of moving solid surface at y = 0 the fluid

acquires a certain amount of x-momentum. This fluid, in turn,

imparts momentum to the adjacent layer of liquid, causing it to

remain in motion in the x direction. Hence x-momentum is

being transmitted through the fluid in the positive y direction.

Therefore τ yx may also be interpreted as the flux of x-

momentum in the positive y direction, where the term "flux"

means "flow per unit area." This interpretation is consistent

with the molecular picture of momentum transport and the

kinetic theories of gases and liquids. It also is in harmony with

the analogous treatment given later for heat and mass transport.

The idea in the preceding paragraph may be paraphrased by

saying that momentum goes "downhill" from a region of high

velocity to a region of low velocity-just as a sled goes

downhill from a region of high elevation to a region of low

elevation, or the way heat flows from a region of high

temperature to a region of low temperature. The velocity

gradient can therefore be thought of as a "driving force" for

momentum transport.

Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity,

The shear stress is a function of

1. Velocity gradient

2. Properties of the fluid

yx

fluids are called Newtonian Fluids dy

μ = fluid viscosity, a property of the fluid, not the physical system

Viscosity Is Independent Of Pressure

The temperature dependence is between T0.6 and T. Some theories are available.

Symbol v to represent the viscosity divided by the

density (mass per unit volume) of the fluid, this

quantity is called kinematic viscosity.

Example 1.1-1

Pressure and Temperature Dependence of viscosity

The temperature dependence is between T0.6 and T. Some theories are available.

Behaviour Of Liquids

Magnitudes:

Liquid water @ 20 C 0.001 Pa-s, 0.01 g/cm/s

The reduced viscosity is plotted versus the reduced

temperature for various values of the reduced pressure. A

"reduced quantity is one that has been made dimensionless by

dividing by the corresponding quantity at the critical point. The

chart shows that the viscosity of a gas approaches a limit (the

low-density limit) as the pressure becomes smaller; for most

gases, this limit is nearly attained at 1 atm pressure. The

viscosity of a gas at low density increases with increasing

temperature, whereas the viscosity of a liquid decreases with

increasing temperature.

Experimental values of the critical viscosity are seldom

available. However it may be estimated in one of the following

ways:

(i) if a value of viscosity is known at a given reduced pressure

and temperature, preferably at conditions near to those of

interest, then critical viscosity can be calculated from

ii) if critical P-V-T data are available, then viscosity, may be

estimated from these empirical relations

Example 1.3-1

Generalization of Newton’s Law of

Viscosity

coordinates and possibly on time. The velocity

components are given by

(where i and j may take on the designations x,y,z).

There will be two contributions to the force

2. That associated with the viscous forces.

The pressure force will always be perpendicular to the

exposed surface. Hence in (a) the force per unit area on the

shaded surface will be a vector pδx,-that is, the pressure (a

scalar) multiplied by the unit vector δx, in the x direction.

Similarly, the force on the shaded surface in (b) will be pδy,

and in (c) the force will be pδz. The pressure forces will be

exerted when the fluid is stationary as well as when it is in

motion.

The viscous forces come into play only when there are velocity

perpendicular to the surface element nor parallel to it, but

rather at some angle to the surface. Force per unit area exerted

on shaded area in (a), (b) and (c) are τx, τy, τz. Each of these

forces (which are vectors) has components (scalars); for

example τx has components τxx, τxy , τxz

The tabulation is a summary of the forces per unit area

(stresses) exerted within a fluid, both by the thermodynamic

pressure and the viscous stresses. Sometimes we will find it

convenient to have a symbol that includes both types of

stresses, and so we define the molecular stresses as follows:

τij (and also the Πij )may be interpreted in two ways:

1. Πij = pδij+τij = force in the j direction on a unit area

perpendicular to the i direction, where it is understood that the

fluid in the region of lesser xi is exerting the force on the fluid of

greater xi

2. Πij = pδij+τij = flux of j-momentum in the positive i direction-

that is, from the region of lesser xi to that of greater xi

The first one is particularly useful in describing the forces

Πyy = p+τyy , Πzz = p+τzz are called normal stresses. Whereas the

remaining quantities Πxy= τxy, Πyz= τyz,… are called shear

stresses.

These quantities, which have two subscripts associated with the

quantities (such as velocity) that have one subscript associated

with the coordinate directions are called vectors.

Therefore we will refer to τ as the viscous stress tensor (with

components τij ) and Π as the molecular stress tensor (with

components Πij).When there is no chance for confusion, the

modifiers "viscous" and "molecular" may be omitted.

How are these stresses τij related to the velocity gradients in the

1. The viscous stresses may be linear combinations of all the

velocity gradients

appear in the expression.

3. If the fluid is isotropic-that is, it has no preferred direction-

then the coefficients in front of the two expressions must be

scalars so that

4. We do not expect any viscous forces to be present, if the fluid

is in a state of pure rotation. This requirement leads to the

necessity that τij , be a symmetric combination of the velocity

gradients. By this we mean that if i and j are interchanged, the

combination of velocity gradients remains unchanged. It can be

shown that the only symmetric linear combinations of velocity

gradients are

in Eq. 1.1-2 is then the set of nine relations (six being

independent):

This set of relations can be written more concisely in

the vector-tensor notation of appendix A as

Convective Momentum Transport

{

Convective Momentum Transport

fluid, and this process is called convective transport

At the center of the cube (located at x, y, z) the fluid

velocity vector is v.

We consider three mutually perpendicular planes (the

shaded planes) through the point x, y, z, and we ask

how much momentum is flowing through each of

them. Each of the planes is taken to have unit area.

Volume rate of flow across shaded unit area is vx.

This fluid carries with it momentum ρv per unit

volume.

momentum flux across the shaded area in (a)is vx .ρv

to the respective axes. Each of these vectors has an x,y

and z-component. The quantity ρvxvy is convective flux

of y-momentum across a surface perpendicular to the

x-direction.

The collection of nine scalar components given in Table

1.7-1 can be represented as

We ask what the convective momentum flux would be

through a surface element whose orientation is given

by a unit normal vector n.

If a fluid is flowing through the surface ds with a velocity v,

then the volume rate of flow through the surface, from the

minus side to the plus side, is (n. v)ds. Hence the rate of flow

of momentum across the surface is (n.v)ρvds, and the

convective momentum flux is (n.v)ρv. According to the rules

for vector-tensor notation given in appendix A, this can also be

written as [n . ρvv]that is, the dot product of the unit normal

vector n with the convective momentum flux tensor pvv.

and z directions (i.e. δx ,δy ,δz), we obtain the entries in the

second column of table.

Similarly, the total molecular momentum flux through

a surface of orientation n is given by

side to the plus side of the surface. This quantity can

also be interpreted as the force per unit area exerted

by the minus material on the plus material across the

surface.

The combined momentum flux is the sum of the

molecular momentum flux and the convective

momentum flux:

Keep in mind that the contribution pδ contains no

velocity, only the pressure; the combination pvv

contains the density and products of the velocity

components; and the contribution τ contains the

viscosity and, for a Newtonian fluid, is linear in the

velocity gradients. All these quantities are second-

order tensors.

Most of the time we will be dealing with components

are

Appendix B.1

Non-Newtonian Fluids

For non-Newtonian fluids

• The functional dependence between the shear stress and the

velocity gradient is more complex.

• We can write in the most general format:

non-Newtonian

Newtonian

yx

dvx

f yx , , fluid properties 0

dy non-Newtonian

dvx dy

Non-Newtonian Fluids, contd. -2

Mathematically one can write for Non-Newtonian Fluids in the form

dvx

yx

dy

Where,

η = Apparent Fluid Viscosity, a function of either τyx / dvx/dy / both

Effects of η

1. Thus apparent fluid viscosity is dependent on the current state of

fluid

2. If apparent viscosity decreases with increasing rate of shear (-dvx/dy)

1. The behaviour is termed pseudoplastic

3. If apparent viscosity increases with increasing rate of shear (-dvx/dy)

1. The behaviour is termed dilatant

Non-Newtonian Fluids, contd. -3

Models of Non-Newtonian fluids

Non-Newtonian Fluids, contd. -4

Things To Remember

the parameters of the models are

obtained by curve fitting

and composition

be used outside their range of

validity.

Prediction of Viscosity of Gases and Liquids

Models of Non-Newtonian fluids - 1

Models of Non-Newtonian fluids - 2

Models of Non-Newtonian fluids - 3

Models of Non-Newtonian fluids – 4

Models of Non-Newtonian fluids – 5

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