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What are Transport Phenomena ?
Ans. A combination of three closely related topics
Fluid Dynamics Momentum Transfer/Transport
Heat Transfer Energy Transfer/Transport
Mass Transfer Chemical Species Mass Transfer/Transport

Q. Why these transfer processes be studied together ?

1. They very frequently occur simultaneously in nature
2. The basic equations describing these transfer processes are very
closely related
3. The close similarity of these equations lead to “analogies”
4. Mathematics required for the three transfer processes equations
is very similar
5. The basic molecular mechanism of the three transfer processes is
very similar. The same molecules transfer momentum, energy
and mass, through viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity
INTRODUCTION, contd. - 2
1. Macroscopic Level
2. Microscopic Level
3. Molecular Level

Integral Analysis Macroscopic Level

No attempt to understand the

A Macroscopic Balance of details of what is going on
1. Mass within the control volume
2. Momentum
3. Energy
Due to various inputs & outputs Mainly used for the global
from our control volume assessment of the problem
Differential Analysis Microscopic Level

A Microscopic Balance of
1. Mass An attempt to understand the
2. Momentum details of what is going on
3. Energy within the control volume
Due to various inputs & outputs
from our control volume
Mainly used to get information of
1. Velocity profiles
2. Temperature profiles
3. Concentration profiles

To understand the process and optimize it

INTRODUCTION, contd. - 4
Molecular Level

To seek the fundamental understanding of the process of

1. Mass transfer
2. Momentum transfer
3. Energy transfer
In terms of molecular structure & intermolecular forces

A job primarily for

1. Theoretical Physicists
2. Physical Chemist
Some times Engineers/applied scientists do get involved in cases of
1. Complex molecules
2. Extreme temperatures/pressures
3. Chemical Reacting Flows
INTRODUCTION, contd. - 5

Each of these levels involve typical length scales

Macroscopic Level Order of cm or m

Microscopic Level Micron to cm range
Molecular Level 1 to 1000 nanometers

Requirements For Good Understanding Of This Subject

MATHEMATICS, Differential Equations, Vectors, Calculus

Physical Interpretation of key mathematical results

Get into the habit of relating physical ideas to equations
Comparison of intuition and results obtained

Understanding of dimensional analysis


 Friction is felt only when you move either slower or faster

than the
other passengers.
 The extent of friction depends on the type of clothes they
are wearing.
 It is this type of clothes that gives rise to the concept of
Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity
Example of two parallel plates

• Top layer stationary,

• Bottom layer moves with constant velocity V
• A fluid is filled between the plates
• No slip condition between fluid and plates at both the plate surfaces

Shear force acting on the second

molecular layer of fluid is due to
the difference in the velocities of
the two adjacent layers
Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity, contd. -2

Fluid initially
Y t<
at rest Common sense suggests the following.
0 1. A constant force F is required to
Lower plate set maintain the motion of lower plate
y in motion 2. This force is directly proportional to
x V 1. Area of plates
Velocity buildup
vx(y, t) small t
in unsteady flow
2. Velocity of lower plate
x V 3. This force is inversely proportional
Final velocity
vx(y) to
y large t distribution in
steady flow 1. Distance between the plates
x V
Mathematical Interpretation
  

V/Y is the gradient or slope

The force applied, F is the shear force V dv
 x
Y dy
Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity,
The shear stress exerted in the x-direction on a
fluid surface of constant y by the fluid in the
region of lesser y is designated as

Shear Stress τ yx
fluid surface of constant y, Shear x-direction
force on unit area perpendicular to
the y-direction
Shear stress is induced by the
The shear stress is moving in the motion of the plate. Shear stress
direction of y because the bottom can be induced by a pressure
layer of fluid exerts a shear stress gradient or a gravity force.
on the next layer which then exerts
a shear stress on subsequent layer
Pressure force is a force acting on
a surface while the gravity force is
the force acting on a fluid volume
 In the neighborhood of moving solid surface at y = 0 the fluid
acquires a certain amount of x-momentum. This fluid, in turn,
imparts momentum to the adjacent layer of liquid, causing it to
remain in motion in the x direction. Hence x-momentum is
being transmitted through the fluid in the positive y direction.
Therefore τ yx may also be interpreted as the flux of x-
momentum in the positive y direction, where the term "flux"
means "flow per unit area." This interpretation is consistent
with the molecular picture of momentum transport and the
kinetic theories of gases and liquids. It also is in harmony with
the analogous treatment given later for heat and mass transport.
 The idea in the preceding paragraph may be paraphrased by
saying that momentum goes "downhill" from a region of high
velocity to a region of low velocity-just as a sled goes
downhill from a region of high elevation to a region of low
elevation, or the way heat flows from a region of high
temperature to a region of low temperature. The velocity
gradient can therefore be thought of as a "driving force" for
momentum transport.
Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity,
The shear stress is a function of
1. Velocity gradient
2. Properties of the fluid

If this functional dependence is linear: dvx

 yx  
fluids are called Newtonian Fluids dy

Where, vx = fluid velocity in the x-direction

μ = fluid viscosity, a property of the fluid, not the physical system

Behaviour Of Gases At Moderate Pressures

Increases With Temperature

Viscosity Is Independent Of Pressure

The temperature dependence is between T0.6 and T. Some theories are available.
 Symbol v to represent the viscosity divided by the
density (mass per unit volume) of the fluid, this
quantity is called kinematic viscosity.

 Units of viscosity in SI system

Example 1.1-1
Pressure and Temperature Dependence of viscosity

The viscosity of Newtonian fluids is constant

Behavior Of Gases At Moderate Pressures

Viscosity Is Independent Of Pressure Increases With Temperature

The temperature dependence is between T0.6 and T. Some theories are available.
Behaviour Of Liquids

Viscosity Is Independent Of Pressure Decreases With Temperature

Units of viscosity is g/cm/sec (poise) or Pa-s.


Air @ 20C 0.00018 g/cm/sec

Liquid water @ 20 C 0.001 Pa-s, 0.01 g/cm/s
 The reduced viscosity is plotted versus the reduced
temperature for various values of the reduced pressure. A
"reduced quantity is one that has been made dimensionless by
dividing by the corresponding quantity at the critical point. The
chart shows that the viscosity of a gas approaches a limit (the
low-density limit) as the pressure becomes smaller; for most
gases, this limit is nearly attained at 1 atm pressure. The
viscosity of a gas at low density increases with increasing
temperature, whereas the viscosity of a liquid decreases with
increasing temperature.
 Experimental values of the critical viscosity are seldom
available. However it may be estimated in one of the following
(i) if a value of viscosity is known at a given reduced pressure
and temperature, preferably at conditions near to those of
interest, then critical viscosity can be calculated from
ii) if critical P-V-T data are available, then viscosity, may be
estimated from these empirical relations
Example 1.3-1
Generalization of Newton’s Law of

 Three velocity components may depend on all three

coordinates and possibly on time. The velocity
components are given by

 In this case there will be nine stress components τij.

(where i and j may take on the designations x,y,z).
 There will be two contributions to the force

1. That associated with the pressure

2. That associated with the viscous forces.
 The pressure force will always be perpendicular to the
exposed surface. Hence in (a) the force per unit area on the
shaded surface will be a vector pδx,-that is, the pressure (a
scalar) multiplied by the unit vector δx, in the x direction.
Similarly, the force on the shaded surface in (b) will be pδy,
and in (c) the force will be pδz. The pressure forces will be
exerted when the fluid is stationary as well as when it is in
 The viscous forces come into play only when there are velocity

gradients within the fluid. In general they are neither

perpendicular to the surface element nor parallel to it, but
rather at some angle to the surface. Force per unit area exerted
on shaded area in (a), (b) and (c) are τx, τy, τz. Each of these
forces (which are vectors) has components (scalars); for
example τx has components τxx, τxy , τxz
 The tabulation is a summary of the forces per unit area
(stresses) exerted within a fluid, both by the thermodynamic
pressure and the viscous stresses. Sometimes we will find it
convenient to have a symbol that includes both types of
stresses, and so we define the molecular stresses as follows:
 τij (and also the Πij )may be interpreted in two ways:
1. Πij = pδij+τij = force in the j direction on a unit area
perpendicular to the i direction, where it is understood that the
fluid in the region of lesser xi is exerting the force on the fluid of
greater xi
2. Πij = pδij+τij = flux of j-momentum in the positive i direction-
that is, from the region of lesser xi to that of greater xi
 The first one is particularly useful in describing the forces

exerted by the fluid on solid surfaces. The stresses Πxx = p+τxx,

Πyy = p+τyy , Πzz = p+τzz are called normal stresses. Whereas the
remaining quantities Πxy= τxy, Πyz= τyz,… are called shear
 These quantities, which have two subscripts associated with the

coordinate directions, are referred to as "tensors," just as

quantities (such as velocity) that have one subscript associated
with the coordinate directions are called vectors.
 Therefore we will refer to τ as the viscous stress tensor (with
components τij ) and Π as the molecular stress tensor (with
components Πij).When there is no chance for confusion, the
modifiers "viscous" and "molecular" may be omitted.
 How are these stresses τij related to the velocity gradients in the

fluid? We put several restrictions on the stresses, as follows:

1. The viscous stresses may be linear combinations of all the
velocity gradients

2. We assert that time derivatives or time integrals should not

appear in the expression.
3. If the fluid is isotropic-that is, it has no preferred direction-
then the coefficients in front of the two expressions must be
scalars so that
4. We do not expect any viscous forces to be present, if the fluid
is in a state of pure rotation. This requirement leads to the
necessity that τij , be a symmetric combination of the velocity
gradients. By this we mean that if i and j are interchanged, the
combination of velocity gradients remains unchanged. It can be
shown that the only symmetric linear combinations of velocity
gradients are

 Thus the required generalization for Newton's law of viscosity

in Eq. 1.1-2 is then the set of nine relations (six being
 This set of relations can be written more concisely in
the vector-tensor notation of appendix A as
Convective Momentum Transport
Convective Momentum Transport

 Momentum can be transported by the bulk flow of the

fluid, and this process is called convective transport
 At the center of the cube (located at x, y, z) the fluid

velocity vector is v.
 We consider three mutually perpendicular planes (the
shaded planes) through the point x, y, z, and we ask
how much momentum is flowing through each of
them. Each of the planes is taken to have unit area.
 Volume rate of flow across shaded unit area is vx.
 This fluid carries with it momentum ρv per unit

 momentum flux across the shaded area in (a)is vx .ρv

 momentum flux across the shaded area in (b) is vy .ρv

 momentum flux across the shaded area in (c) is vz .ρv

 These three vectors vx .ρv , vy .ρv , vz .ρv describe the

momentum flux across the three areas perpendicular

to the respective axes. Each of these vectors has an x,y
and z-component. The quantity ρvxvy is convective flux
of y-momentum across a surface perpendicular to the
The collection of nine scalar components given in Table
1.7-1 can be represented as
 We ask what the convective momentum flux would be
through a surface element whose orientation is given
by a unit normal vector n.
 If a fluid is flowing through the surface ds with a velocity v,
then the volume rate of flow through the surface, from the
minus side to the plus side, is (n. v)ds. Hence the rate of flow
of momentum across the surface is (n.v)ρvds, and the
convective momentum flux is (n.v)ρv. According to the rules
for vector-tensor notation given in appendix A, this can also be
written as [n . ρvv]that is, the dot product of the unit normal
vector n with the convective momentum flux tensor pvv.

 If we let n be successively the unit vectors pointing in the x, y,

and z directions (i.e. δx ,δy ,δz), we obtain the entries in the
second column of table.
 Similarly, the total molecular momentum flux through
a surface of orientation n is given by

 It is understood that this is the flux from the minus

side to the plus side of the surface. This quantity can
also be interpreted as the force per unit area exerted
by the minus material on the plus material across the
 The combined momentum flux is the sum of the
molecular momentum flux and the convective
momentum flux:
 Keep in mind that the contribution pδ contains no
velocity, only the pressure; the combination pvv
contains the density and products of the velocity
components; and the contribution τ contains the
viscosity and, for a Newtonian fluid, is linear in the
velocity gradients. All these quantities are second-
order tensors.
 Most of the time we will be dealing with components

of these quantities. For example the components of Ø

Appendix B.1
Non-Newtonian Fluids
For non-Newtonian fluids
• The functional dependence between the shear stress and the
velocity gradient is more complex.
• We can write in the most general format:


 yx
 dvx 
f  yx , , fluid properties   0
 dy  non-Newtonian

 dvx dy
Non-Newtonian Fluids, contd. -2
Mathematically one can write for Non-Newtonian Fluids in the form

 yx  

η = Apparent Fluid Viscosity, a function of either τyx / dvx/dy / both

Effects of η
1. Thus apparent fluid viscosity is dependent on the current state of
2. If apparent viscosity decreases with increasing rate of shear (-dvx/dy)
1. The behaviour is termed pseudoplastic
3. If apparent viscosity increases with increasing rate of shear (-dvx/dy)
1. The behaviour is termed dilatant
Non-Newtonian Fluids, contd. -3
Models of Non-Newtonian fluids

Bingham model: applicable for fine suspensions and pastes Bingham

Ostwald-de Waele model: e.g. used for CMC in water Ostwald

Eyring model: derived from the Eyring kinetic theory Eyring

Ellis model: CMC in water Ellis

Reiner-Philippoff model Reiner

Non-Newtonian Fluids, contd. -4

Graphical representation of two-parameter model

Things To Remember

These models are empirical, that is

the parameters of the models are
obtained by curve fitting

The parameters are function of T, P

and composition

These model equations should not

be used outside their range of
Prediction of Viscosity of Gases and Liquids
Models of Non-Newtonian fluids - 1
Models of Non-Newtonian fluids - 2
Models of Non-Newtonian fluids - 3
Models of Non-Newtonian fluids – 4
Models of Non-Newtonian fluids – 5