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Agenda

 Introduction to Reliability
 Asset Management
 System Reliability
 Equate Terms
 Failure
 Pareto Principle
Introduction to Reliability

Reliability:
The probability that an item can
perform its intended function for a
specific interval under stated
conditions.
Introduction to Reliability
History:
 1930’s electrical circuits
 1940’s electronic vacuum tubes
 1950’s computers, Nuclear Reactors,
Aircrafts.
 1960’s guided missiles
 1970’s consumer goods
 1980’s oil patch
 1990’s petrochemical, continues process and
leading edge companies.
Asset Management

 The process of minimizing downtime,


maintenance requirements, operating
cost, material cost, and maximizing
plant efficiency, product throughput,
while maintaining system effectiveness
and plant integrity.
Asset Management Model

Availability Deliverability Economics


Reliability
Decision

Maintainability Operability Cost


Reliability

 Reliability is the probability that an item will


perform its intended function for a specified
interval under stated conditions.

 R(t) = e-λt

 Where t = time, λ = failure rate (1/MTBF)


Maintainability

 The measure of the ability of an item


to be retained in or restored to
specified conditions when
maintenance is performed
Availability

 The total time a system is in an operative


state. The total time in the operative state
(Uptime) is the sum of the time spent in
active use.

 Uptime / (Uptime + Downtime)

Downtime consists of active repair time,


preventive maintenance time, administrative
time and logistics time.
Operability

 Operating business rules, inventory


management, raw material
constraints, product sales constraints,
etc.
Deliverability

 The efficiency of a system to deliver


product.

 Achieved Throughput / Required


Throughput
Cost

 The financial resources required to


produce a product.
Economics

 Key performance indicators set by


company or business. (e.g. NPV, ROI,
etc.)
Asset Management Model

Availability Deliverability Economics


Reliability
Decision

Maintainability Operability Cost


System Reliability
 Series System – multiple components, failure of 1
component results in system failure

System A
System Reliability
 Series System – reliability is the product of the
component reliabilities

System A

0.95 0.90 0.80

Rs = R1 * R2 * R3 = (.95)(.90)(.80) = 68.4%
System Reliability
 Parallel System offers a higher level of system
reliability but at a penalty of cost (capital and
maintenance)

System B
System Reliability
 Parallel System – reliability is the sum of the
component reliabilities minus the product of the
reliabilities. Rs = R1 + R2 – (R1)(R2)

 Or 2R – R2 when redundant items have the same


reliability. In this case Rs = .8 + .8 - .64 = .96

System B
0.80

0.80
System Reliability

 Parallel System – General Solution


n

 Rsn(t) = (e-λt)Σ(λt)i/i!
i=0

System B
1

n
Equate Terms

 MAC: Maximum Asset Capability


 AMR: Asset Mechanical Reliability
 AC: Asset Capability
 AU: Asset Utilization
 Insert amr diagram
Failure

 MTTF: Mean Time To Failure


 MTBF: Mean Time Before (or Between)
Failure
 MTTR: Mean Time To Repair
MTTF
MTBF MTTR
1

0
Failure Distributions

 Constant
 Never
 Normal Distribution (Bell curve)
 Log-Normal Distribution
 Weibull Distribution
Normal Distribution
f(t)

t
Log-Normal Distribution
f(t)

t
Weibull Distribution
Failure Rate

Time
Pareto Principle

 80% of the effects come from 20% of


the causes
 Problems are tackled by using Pareto
Principle
 Top 10 problems are solved in each
unit