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Intermediate

Accounting

Prepared by
Coby Harmon
19-1
University of California, Santa Barbara
19 Accounting for Income Taxes

Intermediate Accounting
14th Edition

Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield


19-2
Learning Objectives
1. Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.

2. Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.

3. Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.

4. Explain the purpose of a deferred tax asset valuation allowance.

5. Describe the presentation of income tax expense in the income statement.

6. Describe various temporary and permanent differences.

7. Explain the effect of various tax rates and tax rate changes on deferred
income taxes.

8. Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.

9. Describe the presentation of deferred income taxes in financial statements.

10. Indicate the basic principles of the asset-liability method.


19-3
Accounting for Income Taxes

Fundamentals of Accounting for Financial


Review of Asset-
Accounting for Net Operating Statement
Liability Method
Income Taxes Losses Presentation

Future taxable Loss carryback Balance sheet


amounts and Loss Income
deferred taxes carryforward statement
Future deductible Loss carryback Uncertain tax
amounts and example positions
deferred taxes Loss
Income carryforward
statement example
presentation
Specific
differences
Rate
considerations
19-4
Fundamentals of Accounting for Income Taxes

Corporations must file income tax returns following the


guidelines developed by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS),
thus they:

 calculate taxes payable based upon IRS code,


 calculate income tax expense based upon GAAP.

Amount reported as tax expense will often differ from the


amount of taxes payable to the IRS.

19-5 LO 1 Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.
Fundamentals of Accounting for Income Taxes
Illustration 19-1
Financial Statements Tax Return

vs.

Exchanges

Investors and Creditors

Pretax Financial Income  Taxable Income


GAAP Tax Code
Income Tax Expense  Income Tax Payable

19-6 LO 1 Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.
Fundamentals of Accounting for Income Taxes

Illustration: Chelsea, Inc. reported revenues of $130,000


and expenses of $60,000 in each of its first three years of
operations. For tax purposes, Chelsea reported the same
expenses to the IRS in each of the years. Chelsea reported
taxable revenues of $100,000 in 2012, $150,000 in 2013,
and $140,000 in 2014. What is the effect on the accounts of
reporting different amounts of revenue for GAAP versus tax?

19-7 LO 1 Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.
Book vs. Tax Difference
Illustration 19-2
GAAP Reporting 2012 2013 2014 Total

Revenues $130,000 $130,000 $130,000 $390,000


Expenses 60,000 60,000 60,000 180,000
Pretax financial income $70,000 $70,000 $70,000 $210,000

Income tax expense (40%) $28,000 $28,000 $28,000 $84,000

Illustration 19-3
Tax Reporting 2012 2013 2014 Total

Revenues $100,000 $150,000 $140,000 $390,000


Expenses 60,000 60,000 60,000 180,000
Pretax financial income $40,000 $90,000 $80,000 $210,000

Income tax payable (40%) $16,000 $36,000 $32,000 $84,000

19-8 LO 1 Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.
Book vs. Tax Difference
Illustration 19-2
Comparison 2012 2013 2014 Total

Income tax expense (GAAP) $28,000 $28,000 $28,000 $84,000


Income tax payable (IRS) 16,000 36,000 32,000 84,000
Difference $12,000 $(8,000) $(4,000) $0

Income tax expense (40%) $28,000 $28,000 $28,000 $84,000

Are the differences accounted for in the financial statements? Yes

Year Reporting Requirement


2012 Deferred tax liability account increased to $12,000

2013 Deferred tax liability account reduced by $8,000

2014 Deferred tax liability account reduced by $4,000


19-9 LO 1 Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.
Financial Reporting for 2010
Balance Sheet Income Statement
2012 2012
Assets:
Revenues:

Expenses:
Liabilities:
Deferred taxes 12,000
Income tax payable 16,000
Equity: Income tax expense 28,000

Net income (loss)

Where does the “deferred tax liability” get reported in the financial
statements?

19-10 LO 1 Identify differences between pretax financial income and taxable income.
Temporary Differences

A Temporary Difference is the difference between the tax basis of


an asset or liability and its reported (carrying or book) amount in the
financial statements that will result in taxable amounts or deductible
amounts in future years.

Future Taxable Amounts Future Deductible Amounts


Deferred Tax Liability represents Deferred Tax Asset represents the
the increase in taxes payable in increase in taxes refundable (or
future years as a result of taxable saved) in future years as a result of
temporary differences existing at deductible temporary differences
the end of the current year. existing at the end of the current
year.

Illustration 19-22 Examples of Temporary Differences

19-11 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Illustration: In Chelsea’s situation, the only difference


between the book basis and tax basis of the assets and
liabilities relates to accounts receivable that arose from revenue
recognized for book purposes. Chelsea reports accounts
receivable at $30,000 in the December 31, 2012, GAAP-basis
balance sheet. However, the receivables have a zero tax
basis.
Illustration 19-5

19-12 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Illustration: Reversal of Temporary Difference, Chelsea Inc.


Illustration 19-6

Chelsea assumes that it will collect the accounts receivable and report
the $30,000 collection as taxable revenues in future tax returns.
Chelsea does this by recording a deferred tax liability.

19-13 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Liability


A deferred tax liability represents the increase in taxes payable
in future years as a result of taxable temporary differences
existing at the end of the current year.

Illustration 19-4

2012 2013 2014 Total

Income tax expense (GAAP) $28,000 $28,000 $28,000 $84,000


Income tax payable (IRS) 16,000 36,000 32,000 84,000
Difference $12,000 $(8,000) $(4,000) $0

19-14 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Liability


Illustration: Because it is the first year of operations for
Chelsea, there is no deferred tax liability at the beginning of the
year. Chelsea computes the income tax expense for 2012 as
follows:
Illustration 19-9

19-15 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Liability


Illustration: Chelsea makes the following entry at the end of
2012 to record income taxes.

Income Tax Expense 28,000


Income Tax Payable 16,000
Deferred Tax Liability 12,000

19-16 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Liability


Illustration: Computation of Income Tax Expense for 2013.

Illustration 19-10

19-17 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Liability


Illustration: Chelsea makes the following entry at the end of
2013 to record income taxes.

Income Tax Expense 28,000


Deferred Tax Liability 8,000
Income Tax Payable 36,000

19-18 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Liability


Illustration: The entry to record income taxes at the end of
2014 reduces the Deferred Tax Liability by $4,000. The Deferred
Tax Liability account appears as follows at the end of 2014.

Illustration 19-11

19-19 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

E19-1: Starfleet Corporation has one temporary difference at


the end of 2012 that will reverse and cause taxable amounts of
$55,000 in 2013, $60,000 in 2014, and $75,000 in 2015.
Starfleet’s pretax financial income for 2012 is $400,000, and the
tax rate is 30% for all years. There are no deferred taxes at the
beginning of 2012.

Instructions
a) Compute taxable income and income taxes payable for
2012.
b) Prepare the journal entry to record income tax expense,
deferred income taxes, and income taxes payable for 2012.

19-20 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Taxable Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Ex. 19-1: Current Yr.


INCOME: 2012 2013 2014 2015
Financial income (GAAP) 400,000
Temporary Diff. (190,000) 55,000 60,000 75,000
Taxable income (IRS) a. 210,000 55,000 60,000 75,000
Tax rate 30% 30% 30% 30%
Income tax a. 63,000 16,500 18,000 22,500

b. Income tax expense (plug) 120,000


Income tax payable 63,000
Deferred tax liability 57,000

19-21 LO 2 Describe a temporary difference that results in future taxable amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Illustration: During 2012, Cunningham Inc. estimated its


warranty costs related to the sale of microwave ovens to be
$500,000, paid evenly over the next two years. For book
purposes, in 2012 Cunningham reported warranty expense and
a related estimated liability for warranties of $500,000 in its
financial statements. For tax purposes, the warranty tax
deduction is not allowed until paid.
Illustration 19-12

19-22 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Illustration: Reversal of Temporary Difference.


Illustration 19-13

When Cunningham pays the warranty liability, it reports an expense


(deductible amount) for tax purposes. Cunningham reports this future
tax benefit in the December 31, 2012, balance sheet as a deferred tax
asset.
19-23 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.
Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset


A deferred tax asset represents the increase in taxes
refundable (or saved) in future years as a result of deductible
temporary differences existing at the end of the current year.

19-24 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset


Illustration: Hunt Co. accrues a loss and a related liability of
$50,000 in 2012 for financial reporting purposes because of
pending litigation. Hunt cannot deduct this amount for tax
purposes until the period it pays the liability, expected in 2013.
Illustration 19-14

19-25 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset


Illustration: Assuming that 2012 is Hunt’s first year of
operations, and income tax payable is $100,000, Hunt computes
its income tax expense as follows.
Illustration 19-16

19-26 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset


Illustration: Hunt makes the following entry at the end of 2012
to record income taxes.

Income Tax Expense 80,000


Deferred Tax Asset 20,000
Income Tax Payable 100,000

19-27 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset


Illustration: Computation of Income Tax Expense for 2013.

Illustration 19-17

19-28 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset


Illustration: Hunt makes the following entry at the end of 2013
to record income taxes.

Income Tax Expense 160,000


Deferred Tax Asset 20,000
Income Tax Payable 140,000

19-29 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset


Illustration: The entry to record income taxes at the end of
2013 reduces the Deferred Tax Asset by $20,000.

Illustration 19-18

19-30 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Illustration: Columbia Corporation has one temporary difference


at the end of 2012 that will reverse and cause deductible amounts
of $50,000 in 2013, $65,000 in 2014, and $40,000 in 2015.
Columbia’s pretax financial income for 2012 is $200,000 and the
tax rate is 34% for all years. There are no deferred taxes at the
beginning of 2012. Columbia expects to be profitable in the future.

Instructions

a) Compute taxable income and income taxes payable for 2012.

b) Prepare the journal entry to record income tax expense,


deferred income taxes, and income taxes payable for 2012.

19-31 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Illustration Current Yr.


INCOME: 2012 2013 2014 2015
Financial income (GAAP) 200,000
Temporary Diff. 155,000 (50,000) (65,000) (40,000)
Taxable income (IRS) a. 355,000 (50,000) (65,000) (40,000)
Tax rate 34% 34% 34% 34%
Income tax a. 120,700 (17,000) (22,100) (13,600)

b. Income tax expense 68,000


Deferred tax asset 52,700
Income tax payable 120,700
19-32 LO 3 Describe a temporary difference that results in future deductible amounts.
Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset—Valuation Allowance


A company should reduce a deferred tax asset by a valuation
allowance if it is more likely than not that it will not realize
some portion or all of the deferred tax asset.
“More likely than not” means a level of likelihood of at least
slightly more than 50 percent.

19-33 LO 4 Explain the purpose of a deferred tax asset valuation allowance.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

E19-14: Callaway Corp. has a deferred tax asset balance of


$150,000 at the end of 2012 due to a single cumulative
temporary difference of $375,000. At the end of 2013 this same
temporary difference has increased to a cumulative amount of
$500,000. Taxable income for 2013 is $850,000. The tax rate is
40% for all years. No valuation account is in existence at the end
of 2012.
Instructions
Assuming that it is more likely than not that $30,000 of the
deferred tax asset will not be realized, prepare the journal entries
required for 2013.

19-34 LO 4 Explain the purpose of a deferred tax asset valuation allowance.


Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

E19-14: Current Yr.


INCOME: 2011 2012 2013
Financial income (GAAP) 725,000
Temporary difference 375,000 125,000 (500,000)
Taxable income (IRS) 375,000 850,000 (500,000) -
Tax rate 40% 40% 40% 40%
Income tax 150,000 340,000 (200,000) -

Income tax expense 290,000


Deferred tax asset 50,000
Income tax payable 340,000

Income tax expense 30,000


Allowance for deferred tax asset 30,000
19-35 LO 4 Explain the purpose of a deferred tax asset valuation allowance.
Future Deductible Amounts and Deferred Taxes

Deferred Tax Asset—Valuation Allowance


E19-14 Balance Sheet Presentation

Assets: 2012
Deferred tax asset $ 200,000
Allowance for deferred tax (30,000)
Deferred tax asset, net 170,000

19-36 LO 4 Explain the purpose of a deferred tax asset valuation allowance.


Income Statement Presentation

Formula to Compute Income Tax Expense Illustration 19-20

Income tax Change in Income tax


payable or + deferred income = expense or
-
refundable tax benefit

In the income statement or in the notes to the financial


statements, a company should disclose the significant
components of income tax expense (current and deferred).

19-37 LO 5 Describe the presentation of income tax expense in the income statement.
Income Statement Presentation

Given the previous information related to Chelsea Inc.,


Chelsea reports its income statement as follows.
Illustration 19-21

19-38 LO 5 Describe the presentation of income tax expense in the income statement.
Specific Differences

Temporary Differences
 Taxable temporary differences - Deferred tax
liability
 Deductible temporary differences - Deferred tax
Asset

Text Illustration 19-22 Examples of Temporary Differences

19-39 LO 6 Describe various temporary and permanent differences.


Specific Differences

Permanent differences are caused by items that (1) enter into


pretax financial income but never into taxable income or (2)
enter into taxable income but never into pretax financial
income.

Permanent differences affect only the period in which they


occur. They do not give rise to future taxable or deductible
amounts. There are no deferred tax consequences to be
recognized.

Text Illustration 19-24 Examples of Permanent Differences

19-40 LO 6 Describe various temporary and permanent differences.


Specific Differences
Do the following generate:
 Future Deductible Amount = Deferred Tax Asset
 Future Taxable Amount = Deferred Tax Liability
E19-6
 Permanent Difference

1. The MACRS depreciation system is used for tax purposes, Future


and the straight-line depreciation method is used for financial Taxable
Amount
reporting purposes.
2. A landlord collects some rents in advance. Rents received Future
are taxable in the period when they are received. Deductible
Amount

3. Expenses are incurred in obtaining tax-exempt income. Permanent


Difference

4. Costs of guarantees and warranties are estimated and Future


accrued for financial reporting purposes. Deductible
Amount

19-41 LO 6 Describe various temporary and permanent differences.


Specific Differences
Do the following generate:
 Future Deductible Amount = Deferred Tax Asset
 Future Taxable Amount = Deferred Tax Liability
E19-6
 Permanent Difference

5. Installment sales of investments are accounted for by the Future


accrual method for financial reporting purposes and the Taxable
Amount
installment-sales method for tax purposes.

6. Proceeds are received from a life insurance company


Permanent
because of the death of a key officer (the company carries a Difference
policy on key officers).

7. Estimated losses on pending lawsuits and claims are Future


accrued for books. These losses are tax deductible in the Deductible
Amount
period(s) when the related liabilities are settled.

19-42 LO 6 Describe various temporary and permanent differences.


Permanent Differences
E19-4: Havaci Company reports pretax financial income of $80,000
for 2012. The following items cause taxable income to be different
than pretax financial income.
1. Depreciation on the tax return is greater than depreciation on
the income statement by $16,000.
2. Rent collected on the tax return is greater than rent earned on
the income statement by $27,000.
3. Fines for pollution appear as an expense of $11,000 on the
income statement.
Havaci’s tax rate is 30% for all years, and the company expects to
report taxable income in all future years. There are no deferred taxes
at the beginning of 2012.

19-43 LO 6 Describe various temporary and permanent differences.


Permanent Differences
E19-4: Current Yr. Deferred Deferred
INCOME: 2012 Asset Liability
Financial income (GAAP) $ 80,000
Excess tax depreciation (16,000) $ 16,000
Excess rent collected 27,000 $ (27,000)
Fines (permanent) 11,000
Taxable income (IRS) 102,000 (27,000) 16,000 -
Tax rate 30% 30% 30%
Income tax $ 30,600 $ (8,100) $ 4,800 -

Income tax expense 27,300


Deferred tax asset 8,100
Deferred tax liability 4,800
Income tax payable 30,600
19-44 LO 6 Describe various temporary and permanent differences.
Tax Rate Considerations

Future Tax Rates


A company must consider presently enacted changes in the
tax rate that become effective for a particular future year(s)
when determining the tax rate to apply to existing temporary
differences.

Revision of Future Tax Rates


When a change in the tax rate is enacted, companies should
record its effect on the existing deferred income tax accounts
immediately.
LO 7 Explain the effect of various tax rates and tax
19-45 rate changes on deferred income taxes.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

Net operating loss (NOL) = tax-deductible expenses


exceed taxable revenues.

The federal tax laws permit taxpayers to use the losses of


one year to offset the profits of other years (carryback and
carryforward).

19-46 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

Loss Carryback
 Back 2 years and forward 20 years
 Losses must be applied to earliest year first
Illustration 19-29

19-47 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

Loss Carryforward
 May elect to forgo loss carryback and
 Carryforward losses 20 years
Illustration 19-30

19-48 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

BE19-12: (Carryback) Conlin Corporation had the following tax


information.
Taxable Tax Taxes
Year Income Rate Paid
2010 $ 300,000 35% $ 105,000
2011 325,000 30% 97,500
2012 400,000 30% 120,000

In 2013 Conlin suffered a net operating loss of $480,000, which it


elected to carry back. The 2013 enacted tax rate is 29%.
Prepare Valis’s entry to record the effect of the loss carryback.

19-49 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses
BE19-12 2010 2011 2012 2013
Financial income $ 300,000 $ 325,000 $ 400,000
Difference
Taxable income (loss) 300,000 325,000 400,000 (480,000)
Rate 35% 30% 30% 29%
Income tax $ 105,000 $ 97,500 $ 120,000

NOL Schedule
Taxable income $ 300,000 $ 325,000 $ 400,000 (480,000)
Carryback (325,000) (155,000) 480,000
Taxable income 300,000 - 245,000 -
Rate 35% 30% 30% 29%
Income tax (revised) $ 105,000 $ - $ 73,500 -

Refund $ 97,500 $ 46,500 $144,000

19-50 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

E19-12: Journal Entry for 2013

Income tax refund receivable 144,000


Benefit due to loss carryback 144,000

19-51 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

BE19-13: Rode Inc. incurred a net operating loss of


$500,000 in 2012. Combined income for 2010 and 2011
was $350,000. The tax rate for all years is 40%. Rode
elects the carryback option. Prepare the journal entries to
record the benefits of the loss carryback and the loss
carryforward.

19-52 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

BE19-13 2010-2011 2012 2013


Financial income $ 350,000
Difference
Taxable income (loss) 350,000 (500,000)
Rate 40% 40%
Income tax $ 140,000

NOL Schedule
Taxable income $ 350,000 (500,000)
Carryback (350,000) 350,000
Taxable income - (150,000)
Rate 40% 40%
Income tax (revised) $ - (60,000)

19-53 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

E19-13: Journal Entries for 2012

Income tax refund receivable 140,000


Benefit due to loss carryback 140,000

Deferred tax asset 60,000


Benefit due to loss carryforward 60,000

19-54 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

BE19-14 (Carryback and Carryforward with Valuation


Allowance): Use the information for Rode Inc. given in BE19-
13. Assume that it is more likely than not that the entire net
operating loss carryforward will not be realized in future years.
Prepare all the journal entries necessary at the end of 2012.

19-55 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Accounting for Net Operating Losses

E19-14: Journal Entries for 2012

Income tax refund receivable 140,000


Benefit due to loss carryback 140,000

Deferred tax asset 60,000


Benefit due to loss carryforward 60,000

Benefit due to loss carryforward 60,000


Allowance for deferred tax asset 60,000

19-56 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Valuation Allowance Revisited

Whether the company will realize a deferred tax asset


depends on whether sufficient taxable income exists or will
exist within the carryforward period.

Text Illustration 19-37 Possible Sources of Taxable Income

If any one of these sources is sufficient to support a


conclusion that a valuation allowance is unnecessary, a
company need not consider other sources.

Text Illustration 19-38 Evidence to Consider in Evaluating the need


for a Valuation Account

19-57 LO 8 Apply accounting procedures for a loss carryback and a loss carryforward.
Financial Statement Presentation

Balance Sheet Presentation


An individual deferred tax liability or asset is classified as
current or noncurrent based on the classification of the
related asset or liability for financial reporting purposes.

Companies should classify deferred tax accounts on the


balance sheet in two categories:
 one for the net current amount, and
 one for the net noncurrent amount.

LO 9 Describe the presentation of deferred


19-58 income taxes in financial statements.
Financial Statement Presentation

Income Statement Presentation


Companies should allocate income tax expense (or benefit)
to continuing operations, discontinued operations,
extraordinary items, and prior period adjustments.

Companies should disclose the significant components of


income tax expense attributable to continuing operations
(current tax expense, deferred tax expense, etc.).

LO 9 Describe the presentation of deferred


19-59 income taxes in financial statements.
Review of the Asset-Liability Method
Companies apply the following basic principles:
a. A current tax liability or asset is recognized for the estimated taxes
payable or refundable on the tax return for the current year.
b. A deferred tax liability or asset is recognized for the estimated
future tax effects attributable to temporary differences and
carryforwards.
c. The measurement of current and deferred tax liabilities and assets
is based on provisions of the enacted tax law; the effects of future
changes in tax laws or rates are not anticipated.
d. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary,
by the amount of any tax benefits that, based on available
evidence, are not expected to be realized.

19-60 LO 10 Indicate the basic principles of the asset-liability method.


Review of the Asset-Liability Method

Illustration 19-43
Procedures for Computing
and Reporting Deferred
Income Taxes

19-61 LO 10 Indicate the basic principles of the asset-liability method.


COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Fiscal Year-2011
Allman Company, which began operations at the beginning of 2011,
produces various products on a contract basis. Each contract
generates a gross profit of $80,000. Some of Allman’s contracts provide
for the customer to pay on an installment basis. Under these contracts,
Allman collects one-fifth of the contract revenue in each of the following
four years. For financial reporting purposes, the company recognizes
gross profit in the year of completion (accrual basis); for tax purposes,
Allman recognizes gross profit in the year cash is collected (installment
basis).

LO 11 Understand and apply the concepts and


19-62
procedures of interperiod tax allocation.
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Fiscal Year-2011
Presented below is information related to Allman’s operations for 2011.
1. In 2011, the company completed seven contracts that allow for the
customer to pay on an installment basis. Allman recognized the related
gross profit of $560,000 for financial reporting purposes. It reported only
$112,000 of gross profit on installment sales on the 2011 tax return. The
company expects future collections on the related installment
receivables to result in taxable amounts of $112,000 in each of the next
four years.
2. At the beginning of 2011, Allman Company purchased depreciable
assets with a cost of $540,000. For financial reporting purposes, Allman
depreciates these assets using the straight-line method over a six-year
service life. For tax purposes, the assets fall in the five-year recovery
class, and Allman uses the MACRS system.
19-63 LO 11
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Fiscal Year-2011

3. The company warrants its product for two years from the date of
completion of a contract. During 2011, the product warranty liability
accrued for financial reporting purposes was $200,000, and the amount
paid for the satisfaction of warranty liability was $44,000. Allman expects
to settle the remaining $156,000 by expenditures of $56,000 in 2012 and
$100,000 in 2013.
19-64 LO 11
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Fiscal Year-2011
4. In 2011 nontaxable municipal bond interest revenue was $28,000.
5. During 2011 nondeductible fines and penalties of $26,000 were paid.
6. Pretax financial income for 2011 amounts to $412,000.
7. Tax rates enacted before the end of 2011 were:
 2011 50%
 2012 and later years 40%
8. The accounting period is the calendar year.
9. The company is expected to have taxable income in all future years.

19-65 LO 11
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Taxable Income and Income Tax Payable-2011


The first step is to determine Allman Company’s income tax
payable for 2011 by calculating its taxable income.

Illustration 19A-1

Illustration 19A-2

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COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Computing Deferred Income Taxes – End of 2011


Illustration 19A-3

Illustration 19A-4

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COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Deferred Tax Expense (Benefit) and the Journal


Entry to Record Income Taxes - 2011
Computation of Deferred Tax Expense (Benefit), 2011
Illustration 19A-5

Computation of Net Deferred Tax Expense, 2011 Illustration 19A-6

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COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Deferred Tax Expense (Benefit) and the Journal


Entry to Record Income Taxes - 2011
Computation of Total Income Tax Expense, 2011
Illustration 19A-7

Journal Entry for Income Tax Expense, 2011


Income Tax Expense 174,000
Deferred Tax Asset 62,400
Income Tax Payable 50,000
Deferred Tax Liability 186,400
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COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Financial Statement Presentation - 2011


Companies should classify deferred tax assets and liabilities as
current and noncurrent on the balance sheet based on the
classifications of related assets and liabilities.
Illustration 19A-8

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COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE OF INTERPERIOD
APPENDIX 19A TAX ALLOCATION

Financial Statement Presentation - 2011


Balance Sheet Presentation of Deferred Taxes, 2011
Illustration 19A-9

Illustration 19A-10

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RELEVANT FACTS
 The classification of deferred taxes under IFRS is always non-
current. As indicated in the chapter, GAAP classifies deferred taxes
based on the classification of the asset or liability to which it relates.
 Under IFRS, an affirmative judgment approach is used, by which a
deferred tax asset is recognized up to the amount that is probable to
be realized. GAAP uses an impairment approach. In this approach,
the deferred tax asset is recognized in full. It is then reduced by a
valuation account if it is more likely than not that all or a portion of
the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
 IFRS uses the enacted tax rate or substantially enacted tax rate.
(“Substantially enacted” means virtually certain.) For GAAP, the
enacted tax rate must be used.
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RELEVANT FACTS
 The tax effects related to certain items are reported in equity under
IFRS. That is not the case under GAAP, which charges or credits the
tax effects to income.
 GAAP requires companies to assess the likelihood of uncertain tax
positions being sustainable upon audit. Potential liabilities must be
accrued and disclosed if the position is “more likely than not” to be
disallowed. Under IFRS, all potential liabilities must be recognized.
With respect to measurement, IFRS uses an expected-value
approach to measure the tax liability, which differs from GAAP.

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IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION
Which of the following is false?
a. Under GAAP, deferred taxes are reported based on the
classification of the asset or liability to which it relates.
b. Under IFRS, some potential liabilities are not recognized.
c. Under GAAP, the enacted tax rate is used to measure deferred
tax assets and liabilities.
d. Under IFRS, all deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified
as non-current.

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IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION
Which of the following statements is correct with regard to IFRS and GAAP?

a. Under GAAP, all potential liabilities related to uncertain tax positions


must be recognized.

b. The tax effects related to certain items are reported in equity under
GAAP; under IFRS, the tax effects are charged or credited to income.

c. IFRS uses an affirmative judgment approach for deferred tax assets,


whereas GAAP uses an impairment approach for deferred tax assets.

d. IFRS classifies deferred taxes based on the classification of the asset


or liability to which it relates.

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IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION
Under IFRS:
a. “probable” is defined as a level of likelihood of at least slightly
more than 60%.
b. a company should reduce a deferred tax asset when it is likely
that some or all of it will not be realized by using a valuation
allowance.
c. a company considers only positive evidence when determining
whether to recognize a deferred tax asset.
d. deferred tax assets must be evaluated at the end of each
accounting period.
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Copyright

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