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Section I
À  ectrica hazards
À  ectrica accidents ± Statistics
À Humans &  ectricity
À  ectrica Safety Programme e ements

Section II
À G oba Deve opments in  ectrica Safety
Electrical Accidents-Statistics

© © 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA)


© 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents
per year (NIOSH)
© Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death
(1982 - 1990) NIOSH
©About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB,
(India)
©42 % of total fires occur due to electrical
sources (Source -OISD)
© 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due
to electricity
ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS- 10 year Period,
O  — 
   
    
O 
À èorking on live equipment w/o
authorization or PPE

À èiring mistakes coupled with failure of


safe-energy conditions

À Leaving unsafe conditions


   


À A person usually offers a lesser resistance


for the electricity
À The person forms a completed circuit when
touching the ground
À Electricity always tries to travel to ground
ELECTRICAL FIRES «.

À ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.)

± STATIC DISCHARGES

± LIGHTNING

± USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN


HAZARDOUS AREAS
  

À Most electrical equipment is designed with a


earthing system
À Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?)
À Double & Single earthing- differentiation?
À Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70
À Take action on high ER values
À Identify all earth pits, maintain a Earth Pit lay out
   O  

À ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks


À Detect small amount of leakage current and
automatically switch off the power
À Can be used with extension cords and portable
tools
À Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment,
not people
À Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30, 100, 300
mA)
    

À Created when materials rub together


À Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns
À Can damage sensitive electronic equipment
À Reduced or prevented by:
± Proper grounding
± Anti-Static rubber matting
± Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines
  
 

À Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable


cellars along with smoke detectors
À Consider all major electrical fires in EMP
À Install master control switches outside all
stores
À Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms
À Consider local flooding systems for critical
panels/ switchgear panels
O  

À An electrician received a shock while trying to


replace a tube light ballast in live power
condition.
À He touched a live conductor. He was not wearing
rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand
through his little finger and exited through his
left hand.
À 
  O
 

± èorking on live circuits not permitted
± LOTO to be strictly enforced
    


À Never tamper with electrical interlocks


À Do not repair electrical components of
your machine
À Properly shut off machinery before
operation
À Obey warning signs and follow safe
procedures
À Follow PTè procedures strictly


À Identification of critica  ectrica uipment

À mergency ighting

À Fire A arm System

À Protection Supp y DC System

À UPS System, Battery Banks

À  ectrica Maintenance Procedures to be a igned with NFPA 70 B


  


À Personal Safety

À Equipment Failure

À Production Economics
  ! !
   
À Implement EPM without slippage
À Carry out all tests (ER, IR, transformer oil,
DGA, LP system, transformer protective
devices- simulation, FA system for electrical
rooms, etc.)
À Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance
À Adopt Risk Based maintenance
À Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot
detector, Ultrasonic detectors, Thermography)
]     
 "   

 #
  !" "# $"%!

À A systematic approach to critica y


ana yze the existing  ectrica
Procedures and Practices from  

 
!$
  
 

Present Status - ES-India
©ES Awareness is slowly growing
©Use of RCCBs in the rise, finer details are yet to
be understood by many
©More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in
India
©Statutory regulations are enforced strictly
(Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in
residential buildings)
©Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical
practices based on international standards
(NFPA, IEEE, etc.)
Evolvement of ES Standards / organizations-
United States

©NFPA - NEC (1897)


©NESC (1913), from IEEE
©NIOSH (Research example: development of
voltage detector that will signal the person if he
gets close to live power)-1970
© OSHA (1970)
©NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA
©Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago (1990)
©NESF(1994), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC
ES Products...
ES Auditing Techniques

©  



 
 
   
©  




©   



©½FPA 780 Lightning Protection
©½FPA 70 M Electrical Preventive
Maintenance
©½FPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical
Safety
Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR
Technique)

Risk Ranking based on severity, probability

High Risk Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards,


Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate
threat to life & property. Immediate correction
Medium Risk  !"
#$%



correction at the next available opportunity&
Low Risk -  %  

#% 
  %
@OO% 

How do we so ve this prob em in


India ?



'''
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À Indian Electricity Rule, 1956 (2000 rev.):


(MoP, CEA web site,&&
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À Lightning Protection Risk Assessment:
& 
À National Electrical Safety Foundationå
 '
À Free safety Power Point presentationså((
&%(
À  
(("""&
!&
À ) )  *+,,&-../
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À NFPA 70 E & B- E-Safety & Maintenance
À NFPA 780- Lightning Protection
À API RP 2003- Static Electricity
À API RP 500- HAC
À OSHA 29 CFR- part 1910- Arc Flash
À NFPA 70- NEC
À IEEE 1584- Arc Flash Protection
À NFPA 77- Static Electricity
À OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety
 

À Electricity will try to reach ground even if it


means going through a person
À Earthing has an important role in ES
À Always inspect power tools and cords and do
not use them if damaged
À Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment
unless trained and qualified
À Understand effects of Lightning- it could save
your life!
À Major fires, explosions occurred due to ESD ,
lightning in flammable atmospheres