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PROJECT

PLANNING
AND
INITIATION
(who will do what by when)
WHAT IS A PROJECT?

PROJECT may best be defined


as a venture taken to ensure that a
deliverable is completed within a
specific timeframe and that certain
criteria or objectives are met.

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WHAT IS PLANNING?

 PLANNING is a bridge between the experience of the past


and the proposed action that produces a favorable result in
the future.
 PLANNING is a precaution by which we can reduce
undesirable effects or unexpected happenings and thereby
eliminate confusion, waste, and loss of efficiency.

 PLANNING is the prior determining and specifying of the


factors, forces, effects, and relationships necessary to reach
the desired goals.

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 PROJECT PLANNING
involves the processes used to ensure that tasks
are completed in an efficient manner.

 PROJECT PLANNING is at the heart of the


project life cycle, and tells everyone involved
where you’re going and how you’re going to get
there.

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TIME AND PROJECTS

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OVERLAP OF PROCESS GROUPS IN A PHASE

(PMBOK® Guide, 2000, p. 31)


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ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2005 Topic 2- 6
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PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT PLANNING
PHASE

 Establish business requirements


 Establish cost, schedule, list of
deliverables, and delivery dates
 Establish resources plans

 Obtain management approval and proceed


to the next phase

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STAKEHOLDERS

STAKEHOLDER: A person or an organization that is


actively involved in the project or is positively or
negatively impacted by it.

List stakeholders
Consider external groups, internal groups, other projects,
people groups, partners

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ICT 327 Management of IT Projects Semester 1, 2005 Topic 2- 9
THREE TYPES OF PLANNING

 STRATEGIC PLANNING deals


with the high-level selection of
overall project objectives, including
the scope, procurement routes,
timescales, and financing options.

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 OPERATIONAL PLANNING, which
involves the detailed planning
required to meet the strategic
objectives .
Examples of operational plans
include a Tender plan, Feasibility
plan, and Construction plan.

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OPERATIONAL PLANNING QUESTIONS
Operational planning usually raises some
interesting questions for resolution in the
construction master planning phase:
 Will the operational plan meet the strategic
planning target date?
 Are sufficient construction resources and services
available within the company to meet the project
objectives?
 What is the impact of the new project on the
existing workload?
 Where will we get the resources to handle any
overload?
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 What company policies may prevent the plan
from meeting the tar- get date?
 Are unusually long-delivery equipment or
materials involved?
 Are the project concepts and design firmly
established and ready to start the construction?
 Is the original contracting plan still valid?

 Will it be more economical to use a fast-track


scheduling approach?

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 SCHEDULING, which puts the
detailed operational plan on a time
scale set by the strategic objectives

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PLANNING TOOLS
 A Gantt chart is a popular project management
bar chart that tracks tasks across time. When
first developed in 1917, the Gantt chart did not
show the relationships between the tasks. Since
then, it has become common to track both time
and interdependencies between tasks, which is
now its everyday use.

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 Logic Network indicates the sequence of
activities in a project over time. It shows which
activity logically precedes or follows another
activity. It can be used to identify the milestones
and critical path of a project. It will help you
understand the dependencies in your project,
timescale, and its workflow. Valuable
information that you may otherwise overlook can
be revealed using this technique.

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 PERT is a method for analysing the tasks
involved in completing a given project, especially
the time needed to complete each task and
identifying the minimum time required to
complete the total project.

 Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) is an


exhaustive, hierarchical tree structure of
components that make up a project deliverable,
arranged in whole-part relationship. PBS can
help clarify what is to be delivered by the project
and can contribute to building a work breakdown
structure.
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 Work Breakdown Structure is a hierarchical
decomposition of the deliverables needed to
complete a project. It breaks the deliverables
down into manageable work packages that can be
scheduled, costed and have people assigned to
them. A Work Breakdown Structure is a
standard project management tool and the basis
for much project planning.

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 The Planning phase of any venture involves a
listing of tasks or jobs that must be performed to
bring about the venture’s completion. Gross
requirement for material, equipment and
manpower are also determined in this phase, and
estimate of costs and duration for the various jobs
are made.

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WHO PLANS?
 The Client
 The client’s organisation is interested in the plan of
the overall project from the acquisition of the land to
the productive use of the facility. Primarily, the
client’s organisation is interested in determining the
times of outflows of cash for which it has to make
provision and in the overall strategic decisions of the
project’s management. The client will operate with
activities whose durations are likely to be weeks or
months rather than days
 The client organisation will rely heavily on the
project’s plan or programme as a decision aid when
considering these and other strategic issues. Later the
client organisation will use the project’s plan to
monitor progress.
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The Designers
The design team has its own resources to manage.
It is around a project plan that the design team
will determine the order in which various
sections of work will be designed, the numbers of
designers allocated to each work section, and the
cost, in terms of designer-hours, of the design
tasks. To bring a set of contract documents to a
conclusion in order to issue them for tendering
purposes is like any process of multiple activities;
it is necessary to plan, monitor and control.

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 The activities to be planned, resourced and
controlled include: investigations; design
calculations; drawings; statutory planning
approvals; preparation of specification;
preparation of contract documents, tender
programme, and preparation of quality systems.
The control of the design process has benefited
from the use of planning techniques. The
duration of the activities used by designers tends
to be in weeks rather than the larger units of
time used by the client.

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 The Contractor
 The contractor’s organisation is the one of the
three parties in the construction process that has
historically put greatest effort into the planning
process because the results of a well planned,
carefully monitored and controlled contract
reflect directly in the profitability of the contract
and the company. The contractor’s planning
efforts are divided between planning at the
estimating stage and production planning. shows
the interrelationships between the contractor’s
management functions.
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THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
THE CONTRACTOR’S MANAGEMENT
FUNCTIONS

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WORK VERSUS DURATION

Work is the time needed to accomplish


a task.
Duration is the time needed to get the
work done, accounting for everything
else that needs to get done as well—
real life.

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 Work drives our project
budget, while duration drives
our project schedule.

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 So it is important to find the “sweet spot” when
estimating the duration of a task. Learn how to
be accurate with duration. There is no magic
bullet for this, but here are a few suggestions:

 1.Draw on your own experience.


 2.Ask a reference

 3.Get advice from an outside expert.

 4.Use the PERT formula to figure out how


long each task will take.
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Expected Time = (Optimistic + 4 x
Most Likely + Pessimistic) / 6

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•Optimistic time: the shortest time in which the
activity can be completed.
•Most likely time: the completion time having
the highest probability.
•Pessimistic time: the longest time that an
activity may take.

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END
By:Glaydelle B. Manosa

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