Optical Fiber Communication

Light Basics

Dr. Abid Karim

Course Contents
Week Topic to be Covered 1. Historical Background, The Nature of Light, Basic Laws of Light, Interaction of Light with Materials. Historical Development, Electromagnetic Spectrum 2 Advantages of Optical Communication Systems, Light Propagation in Optical Fiber, Optical Fiber Losses 3 Dispersion and Fiber Bandwidth, Types of Optical Fibbers 4 Optical Fiber Components, Fiber Couplers, Optical Switching 5 Introduction to Lasers, Amplification in Two-Energy Level System and Einstein Relations, Population Inversion, Optical Feedback, Lasing Threshold, Lasers Modes and Gain Condition 6 Optical Absorption and Gain in Semiconductor Materials, Types of Semiconductor Lasers and their Structure, Practical Laser Characteristics 7 Single Mode Semiconductor Lasers and its requirement in Optical Communication 8 Light sensitive Material, Principle of Photodetection, Semiconductor photodetectors Mid Term Examinations

Course Contents
Week 9 10 Topic to be Covered Types of Photodiodes, Responsitivity and Quantum Efficiency of a Photodiode pn-Photodiode, pin-Photodiodes, Avalanche Photodiodes Photodiode, Biasing Techniques, Noise Consideration of Photodetector, Phototransistor and Optocoupler Light Amplifiers, Types of Amplifiers Erbium Doped Optical Amplifiers Modulation and Multiplexing, Systems Design Considerations Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Optical Networks Revision and group discussion Final Examinations Quizzes Due on± 3, 7, 11, 15th Week Assignment Due on ± 5, 10, 16th Week

11 12 13 14 15 16

Recommended Books
‡ Fibre Optic: Communication and other Applications, By Henry Zanger & Cynthia Zanger ‡ Optical Fibre Communication: Practice and Principles, By John. M. Senior ‡ Optical Technology, Compiled by Abid Karim ‡ Fiber-Optic Communications Technology, By D. K. Mynbaev & Lowell L. Scheiner

Marks Distribution ‡ Assignments + Class Quizzes + Project(s) + Presentation(s) ‡ Midterm Examination ‡ Final Examination 25% 25% 50% .

Assignments ‡ Assignments would be assigned at least one week before the due date ‡ Must be submitted on or before due date ‡ No late assignment will be accepted ‡ Total of 3 assignments would be assigned during the semester. ‡ Handwritten ‡ Avoid plagerism ‡ Do not try copy .

sudden death test or class quizzes ‡ At least 4 quizzes ‡ Quizzes have to be solved in the class ‡ There would be no LATE submission or MAKEUP for quizzes.Quizzes ‡ To check the class performance. .

Why Light? Increase in Bit Rate-Distance product .

Why Light? Progress In Lightwave Communication Technology .

The Nature of Light ‡ Wave Theory ± Light travels as a transverse electromagnetic wave ‡ Quantum or Particle Theory ± Light consists of small particles (photons) ‡ Ray Theory ± Light travels along a straight line and obeys laws of geometrical optics. Ray theory is valid when the objects are much larger than the wavelength .

The Nature of Light Light ray model ‡ Particle-like view ‡ Photons travel in straight lines ‡ Applications ± Mirrors ± Prisms ± Lenses Wave model ‡ Traces motions of wave fronts ‡ Best explains ± Interference ± Diffraction ± Polarization .

Light ± Wave Nature ‡ Light is the part of Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum.000km/s or 186.000 miles/s. . Speed of Light can be calculated by 1 c! I o Qo ‡ Electromagnetic energy is radiant energy that travels at 300.

Light ± Wave Nature ‡ Hence Light is an electromagnetic wave. ‡ Other electromagnetic waves: ± Radio Waves ± Radar ± X-Rays ± Gama Rays ± Cosmic Rays .

Light ± Particle Nature ‡ Einstein lead to concept of packet of energy (Photons) ± Based on Plank¶s work on emission of light from hot bodies ‡ Plank¶s observation ± Light emits in multiple of certain minimum energy unit. ‡ The size of the unit (quantum) depends on the wavelength ( ) and given by. E ! hv .

diffraction ± polarization ± Doppler effect ‡ Wave theory does not explain: ± frequency dependence of thermal radiation ± photoelectric effect .Nature of Light: Waves and Particles ‡ Wave theory of light explains most phenomena involving light: ± propagation in straight line ± reflection ± refraction ± superposition. interference.

Nature of Light: Waves and Particles ‡ Light exhibits properties of waves and particles ± Wave-Particle Duality (by Louis de Broglie 1924) h P! p where h is the Plank¶s constant and p is the momentum. ‡ Complimenting each other rather than opposing each others .

± Wave Nature ± When photons are moving ± Particle Nature ± When light is detected or generated .Nature of Light: Waves and Particles ‡ The duality of light will be used in understanding the propagation of light in particular medium.

.Electromagnetic Wave ‡ Consists of a oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other ‡ Direction of propagation perpendicular to both field ‡ Frequency (R): Number of cycles/second ‡ Wavelength (P): Distance between the same 2 points.

Electromagnetic Wave .

Frequency and Wavelength ‡ Relationship of frequency and wavelength: wavelength = velocity/frequency c P! R ‡ In free space or air velocity is the speed of light. . ‡ The higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength.

That is.Wavelength Examples ‡ 50 Hz power has a wavelength of 3100 miles.25 MHz signal (TV Channel 2) has a wavelength of 5. . ‡ Deep red has a frequency of 430THz and wavelength of 700nm (billionths of a meter). the wave will have traveled 6000 miles before the wave begins a new cycle. ‡ A 55.42 m.

. ‡ Visible light has wave lengths from 400nm (violet) to 700nm (red). ‡ Ultraviolet light has a shorter wavelength and infrared has a longer wavelength.Electromagnetic Spectrum ‡ The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuous spectrum of energy from subsonic to RF to microwaves to visible light and beyond. ‡ Fiber commonly uses infrared (890nm ± 1600nm) due to different reasons.

Optical Fiber Communications ~1.0.7µm-~0. radio frequencies. and cosmic rays. K rays. UV.Electromagnetic Spectrum power.4µm KRays XRays Cosmic Rays .8µm Microwave Short Wave Infrared Far Infrared Standard Broadcast UHF VHF long wave mm wave UV Visible Spectrum ~0. X-rays.7µm . visible. "microwaves". IR. millimeter waves.

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum .

Wavelength Ranges .

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Nuclear Decay Electrons in Atoms (High Energy) Electrons in Atoms (Low Energy) Thermal Vibrations of Molecules Microwave Oven FM Radio AM Radio Typical Source .

If it is not in motion. i.e.Photons ‡ A photon has zero rest mass (unlike an electron). hc 1.24 E ! hv ! ! (eV) P P ( Qm) where h is Plank's constant which is equal to 6.63x10-34 J-s . it does not exist! ‡ It has no charge ‡ Energy of a Photon would not change ± Colour would be the same ‡ Energy possessed by a photon is proportional to its frequency.

its direction changes ± Reflected or Refracted ‡ Different wavelengths of light travel at different speeds in the same material. ‡ As light passes from one material to another. ‡ Light travels slower in materials.Interaction of Light with Materials ‡ The 'Speed of Light' is simply the velocity of an electromagnetic wave in a vacuum. .

Interaction of Light with Materials ‡ Interaction begins at surface and depends on ± Smoothness of surface ± Nature of the material ± Angle of incidence ‡ Possible interactions ± Absorption and transmission ± Reflection ± Refraction .

the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.Law of Reflection ‡ With reflection. n1 > n2 .

but its velocity and wavelength are altered. its frequency remains same.Speed of Light in a Medium As a monochromatic wave propagates through media of different refractive indices. .

Index of Refraction ‡ The Index of Refraction is a unit representing the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to the velocity of light in a material c n ! ! QrI r v .

the slower the wave will travel and the greater it will 'bend' when entering from a material with a lower index.Index of Refraction ‡ As the index of refraction increases. .

‡ Angle of Refraction: Angle between the normal and the refracted ray. ‡ Angle of incident: Angle between the incident ray and the normal. n1 < n2 .Definitions for Refraction ‡ Normal: Imaginary line perpendicular to the interface between 2 materials.

the refractive angle increases. ‡ At the critical angle. the incident ray is totally reflected. n1 > n2 n1 > n2 .Refraction for n1>n2 ‡ With n1 > n2. ‡ Above the critical angle. as the incidence angle increases. the refractive angle is 90 degrees.

The critical angle U2 may be found by: Ucrt = arcsin(n2/n1) . angle of incidence must exceed the critical angle .Law of Refraction: Snell's Law ‡ The relationship between the incident ray and refracted ray is: n1sinU1 = n2 sinU2 ‡ For reflection to occur.Ucrt.

46/1.42 (n2) Ucrt = sin-1(1.48) = 80.48 (n1) and 1.A Practical Example ‡ Assuming there are 2 layers of glass with indices of 1.6r .

‡ The greater the index of refraction. a small amount is reflected back ± Fresnel Reflection (V). the greater the amount of losses. 2 .Fresnel Reflections ‡ Even when refraction occurs and light enters a material. ¨ n 1 ¸ V !© ¹ ª n 1º For boundry between air and material n is index of refraction for material.

) . ± Loss (dB) = 10 log(1. ± Losses are the same regardless of the order of materials (from air to glass or from glass to air).Fresnel Reflections ‡ Fresnel losses occur when: ± Light from source enters fiber ± Between connected fibers.

total reflection occurs.Total Reflection ‡ With the angle of incidence greater than the critical angle. .

the light will be continually reflected and follow the core. .Total Internal Reflection ‡ With material with indices on both sides (cladding).

Polarization (Transverse Direction) Electromagnetic Wave .

rather than in any direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation A phenomenon that occurs in transverse waves only .Polarization Light is polarized when its electric fields oscillate in a single plane.

Polarization ‡ These waves are plane or linearly polarized ‡ All the motion is confined to a plane .

Diffraction ‡ Light beam cannot bend itself ‡ Light beam can be bent by reflection. refraction and Diffraction ‡ The amount of bending that occurs depends on the relative sizes of the object and the wavelength of the wave ‡ Longer wavelengths bend easier than short ones .

Diffraction .

.Interference When the waves are hitting the edges of something. Screen Aperture Intensity of diffracted light from the bottom slit. the new bending waves tend to interfere with each other and we get some new patterns Intensity of diffracted light from the top slit.

Interference Interference is the superposition of two or more waves resulting in a new wave E1 E2 E1 E2 Etotal = E1 + E2 Constructive Interference Etotal = 0 Destructive Interference Etotal Etotal Constructive and destructive interference requires that the interfering waves have the same frequency (wavelength) and polarization .

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