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Machining Chapter 3

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During the cutting of metal, high temperatures are

generated in the region of the tool cutting edge.

100

These temperatures have a controlling influence on the 70

rate of wear of the cutting tool and on the friction 50

30

between the chip and tool. 20

10

Figure 3.1 shows the relationship between tool life, the 7

5

determination of which is discussed in Chapter 4. 3

2

1

3.1 HEAT GENERATION IN METAL 0.7

0.5

CUTTING 0.3

0.2

It has been stated earlier that the rate of energy 0.1

consumption during machining 𝑃𝑚 is given by 1000 1600

Tool temperature (deg K)

𝑃𝑚 = 𝐹𝑐 𝑣 (3.1)

FIGURE 3.1 Experimental tool life and tool temperature results

where 𝐹𝑐 = cutting component of the resultant force for machining heat-resistant steel with a P10 carbide tool.

v = cutting speed

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

generation Chip

stored in the material as strain energy, no heat generated.

Plastic deformation: most energy used is converted into

heat. A C

Tool

In metal cutting, the material is subjected to extremely

B

high strains: Workpiece D

Elastic deformation forms a very small proportion of Primary deformation Secondary

the total deformation. zone deformation zone

It is assumed that all the energy is converted into heat. FIGURE 3.2 Generation of heat in orthogonal cutting.

Conversion of energy into heat occurs in 2 principal Where

regions of plastic deformation (Figure 3.2): 𝑃𝑠 = Rate of heat generation in the primary

1) Primary deformation zone (Shear zone), AB deformation zone (shear-zone heat rate)

2) Secondary deformation zone, BC 𝑃𝑓 = Rate of heat generation in the secondly

If the cutting tool is not perfectly sharp, deformation zone (frictional heat rate) = 𝐹𝑓 𝑣0

3) 3rd heat source BD presents due to friction between the 𝐹𝑓 = Frictional force on the tool face

tool and the new workpiece surface (usually small 𝑣0 = Velocity of chip flow = 𝑣𝑟𝑐

unless the tool is severely worn).

Thus If 𝑃𝑓 and 𝑃𝑚 are known, 𝑃𝑠 may be obtained from Eq. (3.2).

𝑃𝑚 = 𝑃𝑠 + 𝑃𝑓 (3.2) 3-2

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝜃

MATERIAL 𝜃+ y 𝜃+ y + x

y 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥

Consider the element ABCD (Figure 3.3), which has unit

thickness and through which the material flows in the x 𝜃 = temperature

direction.

Heat is transferred across the boundaries AB and CD by y Velocity of

conduction because the temperature gradients in the x material v

direction, and x D(𝑥 + x, y)

transportation because of the flow of heated material A(x, y) 𝜕𝜃

𝜃+ 𝛿𝑥

across these boundaries. 𝜃 𝜕𝑥

x

Across AB and CD, heat can only be transferred by

FIGURE 3.3 Element through which heated material flows.

conduction because of there is no flow of material across

these boundaries. 𝑘 = thermal conductivity

If the net heat flow into the element is zero (no heating 𝑐 = specific heat capacity

within the element), then ρ = density

𝑣 = velocity of the material relative to the heat source

𝜕 2 𝜃 𝜕 2 𝜃 𝑅 𝜕𝜃

+ − =0 (3.3) In metal cutting, R = ρcv𝑎𝑐 /k, and

𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝑎 𝜕𝑥

𝑣 = cutting velocity

where R = thermal number = ρcva/k, and 𝜃 = temperature 𝑎𝑐 = undeformed chip thickness 3-3

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

By definition, the heat flow through a plate is

Thermal Potential Difference x 𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 = 𝑞𝐴𝑑𝑥

ሶ

Heat Flow = A

Thermal Resistance T1 𝑞𝑥

T2

That is q

𝑞𝑥+𝑑𝑥

𝑘𝐴 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 𝑇2 − 𝑇1

𝑞=− =−

∆𝑥 ∆𝑥

𝑘𝐴 x 𝑞𝑖𝑛

𝜕𝑇 dx

𝜕𝑇

or 𝑞 = −𝑘𝐴 (𝑎) 𝑞𝑥 = −𝑘𝐴

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

where A = area 𝑞𝑔𝑒𝑛 = 𝑞𝐴𝑑𝑥

ሶ

k = conductivity = 𝑘0 1 + 𝛽 𝑇

𝜕𝑇

Assume that the heat flow through the material (see the 𝑞𝑖𝑛 = 𝜌𝑐𝐴 𝑑𝑥

𝜕𝜏

figure) is equilibrium:

𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇

𝑞𝑥+𝑑𝑥 = −𝑘𝐴 ቤ = −𝐴 𝑘 + 𝑘 𝑑𝑥

Energy conducted Heat generated 𝜕𝑥 𝑥 + 𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

+

in the left face within the element

Where 𝜌 = density

change in Energy conducted c = specific heat of the material

= +

internal energy out the right face 𝑞=

ሶ energy generated per volume 3-4

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

Since the heat flow is balanced (+ = +), thus For the same conductivity, we have:

𝜕𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑞ሶ 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇

−𝑘𝐴 + 𝑞𝐴𝑑𝑥

ሶ 2𝐷: + + = (𝑓)

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝑘 𝑘 𝜕𝜏

𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇

= 𝜌𝑐𝐴 𝑑𝑥 − 𝐴 𝑘 + 𝑘 𝑑𝑥

𝜕𝜏 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝑞ሶ 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇

3𝐷: + + + = (𝑔)

𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑧 2 𝑘 𝑘 𝜕𝜏

The above 1D equation can be simplified to

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 In the metal cutting operation, there is no heat generated

𝑘 + 𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑏)

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝜏 within the element (𝑞=0).

ሶ Thus these equations become:

or

𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇

𝜕2𝑇 𝜕𝑇 2𝐷: + − =0 (ℎ)

𝑘 + 𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑐) 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝑘 𝜕𝜏

𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝜏

for the same thermal conductivity k. 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜕 2 𝑇 𝜌𝑐 𝜕𝑇

3𝐷: + + − =0 (𝑖)

𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑧 2 𝑘 𝜕𝜏

Similarly, 2D and 3D cases can also be obtained:

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 In the textbook, the 2D case is considered:

2𝐷: 𝑘 + 𝑘 + 𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑑)

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝜏

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 2 𝜃 𝜕 2 𝜃 𝑅 𝜕𝜃

3𝐷: 𝑘 + 𝑘 + 𝑘 + − =0 (3.3)

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝑎𝑐 𝜕𝑥

𝜕𝑇

+𝑞ሶ = 𝜌𝑐 (𝑒) 3-5

𝜕𝜏

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

Compare Eq. (3.3.) and Eq. (h), and substitute R = It is useful to consider the solution of this equation for a

ρcv𝑎𝑐 /k, we get: 1-D case, and this 1-D case is depicted in Figure 3.4.

𝑅 𝜌𝑐 ρcv𝑎𝑐 ρcv Velocity of Heat source P

= = = (𝑗) material v Unit

𝑎𝑐 𝑘 𝑎𝑐 𝑘 𝑘 thickness

where a

𝑘 = thermal conductivity

𝑐 = specific heat capacity 𝜃 = 𝜃𝑠

ρ = density

𝑣 = cutting velocity 𝜃 = 𝜃𝑠 𝑒 𝑅𝑥/𝑎 Temperature

𝑎𝑐 = undeformed chip thickness distribution

FIGURE 3.4 Temperature distribution in a fast-moving

𝜕 2 𝜃 𝜕 2 𝜃 ρcv 𝜕𝜃 material for a one-dimensional case, where 𝛩𝑠 = P/cv𝑎.

+ − =0 (3.3𝑎)

𝜕𝑦 2 𝜕𝑥 2 𝑘 𝜕𝑥

There is no general closed-form solution for Eq. (3.3) or It can be seen that the temperature at the heat source rises

Eq. (3.3a), but one may use numerical algorithms to solve up very rapidly, reaches its maximum value then becomes

the equation, such as steady.

finite element method

finite difference method 3-6

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

𝛷𝑐

3.3 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN 680

METAL CUTTING

Figure 3.5 shows an experimentally determined 𝑎0 = 0.036 in.

(0.91 mm)

temperature distribution during orthogonal metal cutting.

670 730

This is a typical temperature distribution for orthogonal

chip formulation.

750

Point x is moving toward the cutting tool, approaches and Temperatures

o

passes through the primary deformation zone, it is heated in C

until leaves the zone and is carried away within the chip. 𝑥

𝛷𝑡

Point y passes both deformation zones, and it is heated

until it has left the region of secondary deformation zone. 𝑦

𝑧

It is then cooled as the heat is conducted into the chip

𝑎𝑐 = 0.024 in. 𝛷𝑤

which achieves a uniform temperature throughout. (0.61 mm)

Thus the maximum temperature occurs along the tool

FIGURE 3.5 Temperature distribution in workpiece and chip

face some distance from the cutting edge.

during orthogonal cutting (obtained from an infrared

Point z remaining in the workpiece is heated by the photograph) for free-cutting mild steel where the cutting speed

conduction of heat from the primary deformation zone. is 75 ft/min (0.38 m/s) , the width of cut is 0.25 in. (6.35 mm),

Some heat is conducted from the secondary deformation the working nmal rake is 30 degrees, and the workpiece

temperature is 611 OC.

zone into the body of the tool. 3-7

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

𝑃𝑚 = 𝚽𝑐 + 𝚽𝑤 + 𝚽𝑡 (3.4) cutting conditions, θ𝑠 may be determined.

where 𝑃𝑚 = total rate of heat generation Several theoretical analyses of the temperature in the

𝚽𝑐 = rate of heat transportation by the chip workpiece and shear zone can be found in the literature.

𝚽𝑤 = rate of heat conduction into the workpiece Figure 3.6 shows the idealized model of cutting process.

𝚽𝑡 = rate of heat conduction into the tool

The chip near the tool is flowing rapidly, it has a much

= Insulated surface

greater heat removal rate than the tool. So 𝚽𝑡 is small.

Plane

Denote heat

sources

𝑃𝑠 = the rate of heat generation in the primary zone 𝐶

𝛾𝑛𝑒

𝛤 = the fraction of 𝑃𝑠 conducted into the workpiece A

The remainder [1 – 𝛤] 𝑃𝑠 is transported with the chip. a𝑐 l𝑓

𝜙

𝐵

The average temperature rise θ𝑠 of the material passing

through the primary deformation zone is give by FIGURE 3.6 Idealized model of cutting process

employed in theoretical work on cutting temperatures.

[1 – 𝛤] 𝑃𝑠

θ𝑠 = (3.5)

𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤

where a𝑤 = the width of cut 3-8

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

The idealized model is assumed that the primary This theoretical relationship between 𝛤 and R tan 𝜙 is

deformation zone could be regarded as compared with experimental data un Figure 3.7, where it

a plane heat source of uniform strength is seen that the theory has slightly underestimated results

no heat was lost from the free surfaces of the at high values of R tan 𝜙 (i.e., at high speeds and feeds).

workpiece and ship

the thermal properties of the work material were 0.7

constant and independent of temperature Weiner2 (theoretical)

Nakayama4 (experimental)

0.6 Brass (𝜙=10o)

Steel (𝜙=20o)

It is assumed that no heat was conducted in the material 0.5 Steel (𝜙=30o)

in the direction of it its motion (x), the Eq. (3.3) can be 0.4

rewritten as

𝛤

0.3

𝜕 2 𝜃 𝑅 𝜕𝜃

− =0 (3.6) 0.2

𝜕𝑦 2 𝑎 𝜕𝑥

0.1

Eq. (3.6) can be solved within the stipulated boundary 0

0.3 1.0 10 30

conditions for the workpiece. R tan 𝜙

An equation expressing 𝛤 (the proportion of 𝑃𝑠 FIGURE 3.7 Effect of Rtan 𝜙 on division of shear-zone heat

conducted into the workpiece) is a unique function of between chip and workpiece, where 𝛤 = the proportion of

Rtan 𝜙 (where 𝜙 is the shear angle). shear-zone heat conducted into the workpiece, R = thermal

number, and 𝜙 = the shear angle.

3-9

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

The maximum temperature in the chip occurs where the 𝜃𝑚 = maximum temperature rise in the chip owing to

material leaves the secondary deformation zone (point C, the frictional heat source in the secondary

Figure 3.1) and is given by deformation zone

thickness (𝑙𝑓 /𝑎0 )

where 𝑅 = thermal number

𝜃𝑚 = temperature rise of the material passing through The average temperature rise of the chip resulting from

the secondary deformation zone the secondary deformation zone 𝜃𝑓 (frictional heat

source) is given by

𝜃𝑠 = temperature rise of the material passing through

the primary deformation zone, given by Eq. (3.5) 𝑃𝑓

𝜃𝑓 = (3.9)

𝜃0 = initial working temperature 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤

where

The solution to Eq. (3.6) obtained by Rapier is 𝜌 = density

𝑐 = specific heat capacity

𝜃𝑚 𝑅 𝑣 = cutting velocity

= 1.13 (3.8)

𝜃𝑓 𝑙0 𝑎𝑐 = undeformed chip thickness

𝑎𝑤 = width of cut

3-10

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

14

The boundary condition shown in Figure 3.8 are thought

to approximate more closely the real conditions.

12

Shear 𝜕𝜃

plane =0

𝜕𝑦 10

𝑦 𝑅

=∞

Chip 𝑙0

8

𝑎0 𝜃𝑠

𝜃𝑚

𝜃𝑓

𝑥 6

𝑤0 𝑎0

4

𝑙0 𝑎0 𝜕𝜃

=0

𝜕𝑦

Uniformly 2

distributed (𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 )

heat source

0

FIGURE 3.8 Revised boundary condition for chip. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

𝑤0

FIGURE 3.9 Effect of width of secondary deformation zone on

An analysis based on the revised model yielded results

chip temperature, where R = thermal number, 𝑙0 𝑎0 = chip-tool

that agreed with experimental data. These results, shown contact length, 𝑤0 𝑎0 = width of secondary deformation zone,

in Figure 3.9, indicate the effect of variations on the 𝜃𝑚 = maximum temperature rise in the chip, and 𝜃𝑓 = mean

width of uniformly distributed heat source. temperature rise in the chip. 3-11

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

𝑙0 can be estimated from the wear on the tool face, To illustrate the application of the theories and equations derived

the width of the heat source can be estimated from a in this chapter, a worked example is now presented. In this

photomicrograph of the chip cross section. example the maximum temperature along the tool face is

estimated for the following conditions during the orthogonal

A typical chip cross section is shown in Figure 3.10; cutting of mild steel:

where the lines of maximum grain elongation are curved, Working normal angle 𝛾𝑛𝑒 = 0

it may be assumed that the material has passed through Cutting force 𝐹𝑐 = 890 N (200 lbf)

the secondary deformation zone. Thrust force 𝐹𝑡 = 667 N (150 lbf)

Cutting speed 𝑣 = 2 m/s (394 ft/min)

Undeformed chip thickness 𝑎𝑐 = 0.25 mm (0.0098 in.)

Width of cut 𝑎𝑤 = 2.5 mm (0.098 in.)

Cutting ratio 𝑟𝑐 = 0.3

Length of contact between chip and tool 𝑙𝑓 = 0.75 mm (0.03 in.)

𝑎0

Solution

𝑤0 𝑎0 The total heat generation rate is given by Eq. (3.1)

𝑃𝑚 = 𝐹𝑐 𝑣 = 890(2) = 1780 J/s (100 Btu/min)

Surface that passed

over the tool face The rate of heat generated by friction between the chip and tool

is given by

FIGURE 3.10 Grain deformation in chip cross section.

𝑃𝑓 = 𝐹𝑓 𝑣0 = 𝐹𝑓 (𝑣𝑟𝑐 )

3-12

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

Since 𝛾𝑛𝑒 = 0 and from Eq. (2.35) & Eq. (2.36), we get 𝑎𝑐

or 𝑟𝑐 = = tan 𝜙 = 0.3

𝑎0

𝐹𝑡 = 𝐹𝑟 sin 𝛽 − 𝛾𝑛𝑒 = 𝐹𝑟 sin 𝛽

𝐹𝑓 = 𝐹𝑟 sin 𝛽 Thus, 𝑅 tan 𝜙 = 41.45 0.3 = 12.43

This results in 𝐹𝑓 = 𝐹𝑡 .

Use Figure 3.7 to find 𝛤 (with 𝑅 tan 𝜙 = 12.43).

Thus

𝑃𝑓 = 𝐹𝑓 𝑣𝑟𝑐 = 667 2 0.3 = 400 J/s (22.8 Btu/min)

0.7

Weiner2 (theoretical)

The heat generation from shearing is given by Eq. (3.2): Nakayama4 (experimental)

0.6 Brass (𝜙=10o)

𝑃𝑠 = 𝑃𝑚 − 𝑃𝑓 = 1380 J/s (78.5 Btu/min) Steel (𝜙=20o)

0.5 Steel (𝜙=30o)

For metal cutting, these parameters are known 0.4

ρ = 7200 kg/m3 -- density of steel

𝛤

0.3

c = 502 J/kgK -- specific heat capacity

k = 43.6 J/smk -- thermal conductivity 0.2

0.25 0

𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 (7200)(502)(2)( ) 0.3 1.0 10 30

𝑅= = 1000 = 41.45

𝑘 43.6 R tan 𝜙

𝑎𝑐 cos 𝜙 − 𝛾𝑛𝑒 𝛤 = 0.1

𝑎0 = = 𝑎𝑐 co𝑡 𝜙

sin 𝜙

3-13

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

The average temperature rise θ𝑠 of the material passing through From Figure 3.9,

the primary deformation zone is given by Eq. (3.5)

14

[1 – 𝛤] 𝑃𝑠 [1 – 0.1] (1380)

θ𝑠 = = = 275 o𝐶

𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤 (7200)(502)(2)( 0.25 )( 2.5 )

1000 1000 12

secondary deformation (frictional) zone 𝜃𝑓 is given by Eq. (3.9) 𝑅

=∞

𝑃𝑓 400 𝑙0

𝜃𝑓 = = = 88.5 o𝐶 8

𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤 (7200)(502)(2)( 0.25 2.5

)( )

𝜃𝑚

𝜃𝑓

1000 1000

To obtain the ratio 𝜃𝑚 /𝜃𝑓 from Figure 3.9, it is necessary to 6

estimate the values of w0 and R/l0.

4

From Figure 3.8 and given value, the length of contact between

chip and tool 𝑙𝑓 = 𝑙0 𝑎0 = 0.75 mm, thus

2

𝑙𝑓 𝑙𝑓 𝑟𝑐 (0.75)(0.3)

𝑙0 = = = = 0.9

𝑎0 𝑎𝑐 0.25

0

𝑅 41.45 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Therefore the ratio = = 46.06 𝑤0

𝑙0 0.9

We get

For mild steel under unlubricated cutting, it is assumed the

𝜃𝑚

width of the secondary deformation divided by the chip = 4.2

thickness 𝑤0 = 0.2. 𝜃𝑓 3-14

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

Thus temperature rise of the material passing through the 3.3.4 Effect of Cutting Speed on Temperature

secondary deformation zone (θ𝑚 ) is

If the tool forces and the cutting ratio are constants, for the

θ𝑚 = 4.2 θ𝑓 = 4.2 88.5 = 372 o𝐶 conditions used in the preceding example, the relationships

between temperatures and v shown in Figure 3.11 are obtained.

Assume the material is at the room temperature, i.e.,

θ0 = 22 oC 700

600

The maximum temperature along the tool rake face is given by 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠

𝜃𝑠

Temperature, oC

Eq. (3.7), i.e., 500

𝜃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 + 𝜃0 = 372 + 275 + 22 = 669 o𝐶 400

300

Note: 200

In the calculations, the thermal properties of the material are 100

assumed to be constant and independent of temperature.

0

0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

With many engineering materials, however, the specific heat Cutting speed v, m/s

capacity (c) and the thermal conductivity (k) vary

considerably with changes in temperatures. FIGURE 3.11 Effect of cutting speed on cutting

temperature (theoretical).

To obtain more accurate predictions, the relationships

between the thermal properties of the material and It can be seen from the figure:

temperature must be known and used in calculations. 𝜃𝑠 increases slightly with increasing cutting speed v.

𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 increases rapidly with increasing cutting speed v.

3-15

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

Machining

Slip line field and finite element modeling of machining Finite element simulation using Johnson-Cook model

Finite element simulation using Zerili-Armstrong model

enable temperature distributions to be determined.

850 Finite element simulation using power law model

Finite difference calculation

These are similar in form to the experimentally observed 800 Experimental value

distributions such as that shown in Figure 3.5. 750

700

Quantitative prediction of peak temperatures depends on 650

appropriate assumptions of material property models 600

and boundary conditions 550

500

Figure 3.12 shows 450

400

a comparison between predicted peak temperatures 20 30 40 50

and those obtained experimentally for some different Uncut chip thickness (μm)

material property models assumed, FIGURE 3.12 Comparison of experimental peak cutting

also included is the prediction obtained using an temperature with those predicted by finite element modeling

analytical method. using different material property models.

3-16

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

slip ring

Temperatures Electrically Steel

connected workpiece

A number of methods have been developed for the

measurements of temperatures in metal cutting:

Some of these methods can only measure the average

cutting temperatures

Some can determine the temperature distributions in

the workpiece, chip, and tool near the cutting edge

Millivoltmeter

3.4.1 Work-tool Thermocouple

Insulated

A technique widely used to study cutting temperature is cutting tool with

the wotk-tool thermocouple technique. carbide insert

FIGURE 3.13 Work-tool thermocouple circuit.

The electromotive force (emf) generated at the junction

between the workpiece and tool is taken as a measure. The reading given by this method is the mean

temperature along he chip-tool interface. It can be used

A typical work-tool thermocouple arrangement on a lathe

is shown in Figure 3.13. It is important To investigate the effects of changes in cutting

conditions on cutting temperatures

To insulate the thermocouple circuit from the machine

To obtain relationships between temperature and

To use the same circuit to calibrate the thermocouple

cutting-tool wear rate 3-17

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

tool thermocouple: slip ring

Electrically

The tool and work materials are not idea elements for a connected Steel workpiece

thermocouple. Constantan

wires

The emf tends to be low and the emf/temperature

calibration to be nonlinear.

The work-tool thermocouple must be calibrated against

a standard thermocouple.

Each tool and workpiece material combination must be Millivoltmeter

calibrated separately. Cutting tool

The emf determined with a stationary tool (for mounted in

dynamometer

calibration) could be different from that obtained for an

equivalent temperature during cutting when the work FIGURE 3.14 Arrangement for measurement of

material is being severely strained. workpiece temperature using the thermocouple technique.

3.4.2 Direct Thermocouple Measurements In these experiments the rig was first run without

Direct thermocouple measurements can be made during cutting, and the reading of the millivoltmeter resulting

cutting. The results in Figure 3.7 were obtained using a from the rubbing action of the constantan wire on the

thermocouple technique illustrated in Figure 3.14. workpiece was noted.

3-18

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

This reading was subsequently subtracted from the 3.4.3 Radiation Methods

readings taken while cutting was in progress.

When the tool-workpiece can be observed directly,

With this method, the temperature at selected points camera and film sensitive to infrared radiation can be

around the end of the tubular workpiece were measured used to determine temperature distributions.

and then used to calculate the proportion of the shear-

Some of the experimental results are shown in Figure 3.7

zone heat conducted into workpiece.

and experimental confirmations of the curves in Figure

Direct measurements of temperatures can be made by 3.9 were obtained by this method.

making a hole in the tool close to the cutting edge and

Miniature electronic photo detectors arranged in a focal

inserting a thermocouple to measure the temperature at a

plane array system enable temperature distributions to be

particular position.

determined with resolutions as low as 5 μm.

This can then be repeated with holes in various positions

to give an estimate of the temperature distributions. 3.4.4 Hardness and Microstructure Changes in

Steel Tools

However, significant errors may occur The hardness of hardened steel decreases after reheating,

Where the temperature gradients are steep, as the and the loss of the hardness is related to the temperature

holes for the thermocouples may cover a considerable and time of heating.

range of temperature

The hardness decrease is the result of changes in the

The presence of the holes may distort the heat flow microstructure of the steel. The structural changes can be

and temperature fields in the tool observed using optical and electron microscopes.

3-19

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

These changes provide an effective means of determining The main limitation of this method of temperature

temperature distributions in the steel during cutting. estimation is that it can be used only within the range of

cutting conditions suitable for high-speed steel and when

Microhardness measurements on tool after cutting can be

relatively high temperature are generated.

used to determine constant-temperature contours in the

tool, but the technique is time-consuming and requires

very accurate hardness measurements.

The structural changes in the material takes place

gradually, but it has been observed that for some high- Homework Chapter 3

speed steels distinct modifications occur at approximately

50oC intervals between 600 and 900oC.

Problem 2

of ± 25oC within the heat-affected region.

makes it possible for temperature distributions in the tool

to be determined, but requires experienced interpretation

of the observed structural changes.

This method has been used to study temperature

distributions in high-seed steel lathe tool and drills 3-20

Chapter 3: Temperatures in

Problem 3 ME4870: Machining – J Lieh

Metal Cutting

Thus 𝑃𝑠 = and 𝑃𝑓 =

that for the range of conditions studied, the following 1.2 1.2

assumptions could be made: 𝑃𝑚 𝐹𝑐 𝑣 𝐹𝑐

Eq. 2.2 : 𝑝𝑠 = = =

a. The heat conducted into the cutting tool was negligible. 𝑍𝑤 𝐴𝑐 𝑣 𝐴𝑐

b. The proportion of the heat generated in the shear zone

conducted into the workpiece was 0.2. (1 − 𝛤)𝑃𝑠 (1 − 0.2)𝑃𝑚

Eq. 3.5 : 𝜃𝑠 = =

c. The maximum temperature rise in the chip due to the 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐 1.2𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐

frictional heat source 𝜃𝑚 followed the relation: 0.8𝑝𝑠

𝜃𝑚 = 𝜃𝑓 𝑅 ∴ 𝜃𝑠 =

1.2𝜌𝑐

where 𝜃𝑓 is the mean temperature rise of the chip due to the 𝑃𝑓 𝑃𝑓

frictional heat source, and R is the thermal number. Eq. 3.9 : 𝜃𝑓 = =

𝜌𝑐𝑣𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑤 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐

d. The heat generated due to friction was equal to 20% of the

heat generated in the shear zone. 𝑃𝑓 𝑅 0.2 𝑃𝑚 𝑅 0.2 𝑝𝑠 𝑅

Given: 𝜃𝑚 = 𝜃𝑓 𝑅 = = =

Derive an expression for the maximum temperature in the chip 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐 1.2 𝜌𝑐𝑣𝐴𝑐 1.2 𝜌𝑐

above the initial workpiece temperature in terms of the specific Eq. 3.7 : 𝜃𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 + 𝜃0

cutting energy of the workpiece 𝑝𝑠 , the specific heat c, the

density of the workpiece 𝜌, and the thermal number R. Thus, the maximum temperature in the chip above 𝜃0 is

Solution 𝜃𝑚 + 𝜃𝑠 = + = + 𝑅

1.2 𝜌𝑐 1.2𝜌𝑐 𝜌𝑐 1.2 1.2

Given in (d): 𝑃𝑓 = 0.2𝑃𝑠

𝑝𝑠 2 𝑅

Eq. (3.2): 𝑃𝑚 = 𝑃𝑠 + 𝑃𝑓 = 𝑃𝑠 + 0.2𝑃𝑠 = +

𝜌𝑐 3 6 3-21

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