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Archt. Maundelito S.

Florendo, UAP
the Brown Bauhaus
DEFINITIONS

Estimates is a logical and sensible


assumptions of the quantities, qualities, values,
or degrees of a set of subjects.

Cost Estimation Models are mathematical


algorithms used to estimate the costs of a
product or a project.
TYPES OF ESTIMATION

Cost Estimates – is concerned with knowing


the probable total cost of a project.
Quantity Survey – is a preliminary estimation
technique that aims to establish the quantity of
each material for a project, not yet considering
their cost.
Productivity Estimates – is concerned with the
determination of probable cost of labor by
logical assumptions of the productivity of the
workers.
TYPES OF ESTIMATION
Bill of Materials – is a list of materials needed
for a project. It usually presents the probable
cost for each item.
Value Engineering – is a review of the plan
and design of a project so as to coordinate with
the sizes and specifications of construction
materials. It’s aim is to avoid wastage and
maximize the use of each material. Value
Engineering is also concerned with other items
that may reduce the cost of a construction
project or speed-up the project construction.
TYPES OF ESTIMATION
Detailed Estimate – is an estimate that breaks
the subject down into as many items or
components possible. Each component are
often described with specifications.
Rough Estimate – is an estimate that is
computed in general and vague. It is often an
assumption by area, volume, or bulk.
Lump Sum – is an assumption of the totality of
an item without consideration of its specific
components .
BASIC STEPS IN DETAILED ESTIMATION
1. Classify the general parts of the project into categories.
2. Break down each category into as many parts, works, or
materials possible.
3. Write down the specifications for each material or
component.
4. Use the round-up method for inexact figures.
5. Provide allowances for breakage, wastage, or slack.
6. Compute the materials, labor, and equipment separately.
Avoid computing by percentage of each other. Remember
that cost of labor vary significantly from the type of work to be
done.
7. Consider the rental of equipment.
8. Consider all other non-salient components and do not simply
rely on the item - “over-head cost”.
9. Unless otherwise instructed, not forget to include contingency
costs, profit, VAT, and professional and other fees.
CONCRETE
CONCRETE a stone-like material formed by mixing cement and aggregate with
water. Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing and placement due to a chemical
process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which hardens,
bonding the other components together and eventually creating a stone-like material.

CEMENT is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can
bind other materials together.

ROMAN CEMENT was coined by JAMES PARKER in 1796 England

BRITISH CEMENT was patented by JAMES FROST in 1822 England

PORTLAND CEMENT patented by JOSEPH ASPDIN in 1824 England


patented by son WILLIAM ASPDIN in 1843 England

MODERN PORTLAND CEMENT first recognized in 1867 Germany


MAIN COMPOSITION OF CEMENT
Lime is a general term for various naturally occurring minerals and
materials derived from them, in which carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of
calcium predominate.

Silica is the chemical compound silicon dioxide. It is found in nature


in several forms, including quartz and opal.

Alumina or Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and


oxygen. It is an excellent thermal and electrical insulator.

Iron oxide is a mixture of small iron pieces with ammonium chloride, used
to join iron or steel surfaces.

Magnesia or Magnesium oxide is a white solid mineral that is formed by


an ionic bond between one magnesium and one oxygen atom.

Sulfur Trioxide a chemical compound that is prepared on massive


TYPES OF CEMENT

- Ordinary Portland Cement

- Rapid-hardening Portland Cement (for high early strength)

- Portland Blast Furnace or Sulphate (resist chemical attack)

- Low-heat Portland Cement (reduce hydration heat for massive section)

- Portland Pozzolan Cement (for slow-hardening)

- High Alumina Cement (for fast-hardening)


ADMIXTURES
Admixtures are materials in the form of powder or fluids that are added to the
concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes.
Admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement, and are added to the concrete
at the time of batching / mixing.

Types of admixtures:
Accelerators speed up the hydration (hardening) of the concrete.
Retarders slow the hydration of concrete.
Air-entrainers add and distribute tiny air bubbles in the concrete, which will reduce
damage during freeze-thaw cycles (Weathering).
Plasticizers or Water Reducers increase the workability of plastic or "fresh"
concrete, allowing it be placed more easily, with less consolidating effort. It reduces the
water content of a concrete while maintaining workability. This improves its strength and
durability characteristics.
Pigments can be used to change the color of concrete, for aesthetics.
Corrosion inhibitors are used to minimize the corrosion of steel in concrete.
Bonding agents are used to create a bond between old and new concrete.
Pumping aids improve pumpability, thicken the paste, and reduce dewatering of the
paste.
TERMINOLOGY
Aggregates are materials used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed
stone, slag, or recycled crushed concrete.

Brick is an artificial stone made by forming clay into rectangular blocks which are
hardened, either by burning in a kiln or sometimes, in warm countries, by sun-drying.

Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU), concrete block, breeze block, or


cinder block is a large rectangular brick used in construction. Concrete blocks are
made from cast concrete formed into blocks.

Cement Plaster a mixture of suitable plaster sand, portland cement & water which
is normally applied to masonry interiors and exteriors to achieve a smooth surface.

Mortar is a material used in masonry to fill the gaps between bricks and bind them
together.

Stucco or Render is a material made of aggregates, binder, and water which is


applied wet, and hardens when it dries. It is used as a coating for walls and ceilings and
for decoration.
CONCRETE PROPORTIONING

CLASS AA 1 : 2 : 3 (Cement : Sand : Gravel)


CLASS A 1:2:4 for beams, slabs, columns, and members subject
to bending
CLASS B 1 : 2.5 : 5 for members not reinforced for bending stress
CLASS C 1:3:6 for footing not underwater
CLASS D 1 : 3.5 : 7 for other applications

MIXTURE CEMENT (in bags) SAND (in cu.m.) GRAVEL (in cu.m.)
CLASS AA 10.50 0.42 0.84
CLASS A 7.84 0.44 0.88
CLASS B 6.48 0.44 0.88
CLASS C 5.48 0.44 0.88
CLASS D 5.00 0.45 0.90
WATER IN CONCRETE MIX

AMOUNT OF WATER PER BAG OF CEMENT:

Type Wet mix Moist mix Dry mix

Footings / Reinf. Walls 7.5 gals. 6.0 gals. 5.0 gals. (gallons of
Sidewalks / Steps 5.5 gals. 4.5 gals. 3.75 gals. water per
Fence Post 4.5 gals. 3.75 gals. 3.5 gals. bag mix)

Approximate Quantity of Surface Water Carried by Average


Aggregates:

Aggregate Classification Gal. / Cu.m.

Very Wet Sand 8.1 – 10.8


Moderately Wet Sand 5.4
Moist Sand 2.7
Moist Gravel / Crushed Rock 2.7
SAMPLE COMPUTATION FOR CONCRETE
PROBLEM:
Determine the number of bags of cement, amount of aggregates, and
gallons of water needed for a wet concrete mix to be poured for a 30-meter long,
1.2 m wide, and .12 m thick sidewalk. Aggregates are moist.

SOLUTION:
Volume of concrete needed = 30 X 1.2 X .12 X 1.05 (wastage
allowance) = 4.536 cu.m.

Type of Concrete Mix = Class AA

Cement = 4.536cu.m. X 10.50 bags/cu.m. = 47.628 or 48 bags

Sand = 4.536cu.m. X 0.42 = 1.90512 or 2 cu.m.

Gravel = 4.536cu.m. X 0.84 = 3.81024 or 4 cu.m.

Water = 48 bags X 5.5 gallons/bag = 264 gals.


less 2.7gal. X 6 cu.m. = 16.2gals.
264 gals. – 16.2 gals. = 247.8 or 248 gals.
COMPUTATION FACTORS FOR CHB, MORTAR, &
PLASTER

CONCRETE HOLLOW BLOCKS = 12.5 pcs. per squaremeter area of wall

VOLUME FOR MORTAR FILL = 0.0015 cu.m. per piece of 4” CHB


0.003 cu.m. per piece of 6” CHB
0.0045 cu.m. per piece of 8” CHB

VOLUME FOR MORTAR LAY = 0.001016 cu.m. per piece of 4” CHB


0.001524 cu.m. per piece of 6” CHB
0.002032 cu.m. per piece of 8” CHB

VOLUME FOR PLASTER = 0.00229 cu.m. per piece of CHB (1 side)


0.00458 cu.m. per piece of CHB (2 sides)
SAMPLE COMPUTATION FOR CHB, MORTAR, &
PLASTER
PROBLEM:
Determine the number 4”-CHB, and amount of cement and aggregate needed for
laid and plastered (2 sides) CHB wall 10 meters in length and 3.2 m. in height (from
the finished floor level), with a 0.90m X 2.10m door and 1.20m X 2.40m window
opening. Top of wall footing is 0.60 m. below the finished floor level.

SOLUTION:
Area of Wall = (10m X [3.2m+0.60m]) – (0.9m X 2.1m) – (1.2m X 2.4m) = 33.23 m2

Number of 4”-CHB needed = 33.23 m2 X 12.5 pcs./m2 = 415.375


415.375 X 1.05 (breakage) = 436.14 or 437 pcs.

Volume of Mortar Fill needed = 437pcs. X 0.0015cu.m./pc. = 0.66 cu.m.

Volume of Mortar Lay needed = 437pcs. X 0.001016cu.m./pc. = 0.444 cu.m.

Volume of Plaster needed = 437pcs. X 0.00458cu.m./pc. = 2.002 cu.m.

Note: Allowance for wastage can be applied after all materials are determined.
TECHNIQUES IN DETAILED ESTIMATION
1. Avoid constant rounding-up. A part of one bulk of materials
can complete the lacking part of another. Allowances can be
considered after all similar items are computed.

2–½

3–¼

Computation:

2½ + 3¼ + 1¼ = 7 + allowance

1 – 1/4 instead of

2½ [3] + 3¼ [4] + 1¼ [2] = 9 + allowance


TECHNIQUES IN DETAILED ESTIMATION
2. In computing the components of frames like wood nailers or
studs, round-up then add one (1).

Length to be framed = 3.00 meters


Space between nailers = 0.40 meter

Computation:

3.00m [divided by] 0.40m = 7.50 [round-up to] 8 [plus] 1 = 9 pcs.

3. In determining the space between frame components


(nailers), consider the dimension of the covering material
(ceiling) to avoid too much wastage. Ex. If the dimension of
the covering material is 1.20m, spacing can be 0.60m,
0.40m, or 0.30m.
TECHNIQUES IN DETAILED ESTIMATION
4. In estimating the reinforcing bars, consider the anchorage
and bends.
TECHNIQUES IN DETAILED ESTIMATION
5. Put in to mind the gradual changes in the spacing of ties and
stirrups.