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Dr. K. Ram chandra murthy

Assistant Professor, BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

rcmurthy@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in

BITS Pilani

Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad

Scope of this lecture

Matrices

• Determinants, Inverse of a matrix, Cramer’s rule

• Eigen value problem

Vector Calculus

• Vector function

• Motion on a curve, curvature and components of

acceleration

• Partial derivatives, directional derivatives

• Tangent planes, normal lines

• Curl and divergence

BITS Pilani

Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad

Matrices

Determinants

• Determinant of a 2 2 matrix

A det A a11a22 a12 a21

21 22

a a a21 a22

• Determinant of a 3 3 matrix

a11 a12 a13 a11 a12 a13

det A a21 a22

A a21 a22 a23 a23

a a33

31 a32 a31 a32 a33

a11a22 a33 a12 a23a31 a13a21a32

a13a22 a31 a11a23 a32 a12 a21a33

4 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Determinants

(hence square!) matrix and is denoted by

For n=1,

For n>1,

where,

Determinants

1)

Soln:

2)

Soln:

Properties of Determinants

• If any two rows (columns) of A are the same, det A = 0

• If all entries in a row (column) of A are zero, then det A = 0

• If B is obtained by interchanging any two rows (columns) of A,

then det B = –det A

Properties of Determinants

nonzero real number k, then det B = k det A

• If A and B are both n n matrices,

det 𝑨𝑩 = det 𝑨 . det(𝑩)

• If A is an n n triangular matrix,

det 𝑨 = 𝑎11 𝑎22 … 𝑎𝑛𝑛

Properties of Determinants

Soln:

Properties of Determinants

Soln:

Inverse of a Matrix

that AB BA I , then A is said to be nonsingular or

invertible and B is the inverse of A

Inverse of a Matrix

Verify that the below matrix is orthogonal

Soln:

Inverse of a Matrix

Soln:

Inverse of a Matrix

Soln:

Cramer’s Rule

𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎1𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏1

𝑎21 𝑥1 + 𝑎22 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎2𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏2

⋮

𝑎𝑛1 𝑥1 + 𝑎𝑛2 𝑥2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏𝑛

𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎1𝑘−1 𝑏1 𝑎1𝑘+1 …𝑎1𝑛

𝑎21 𝑎22 ⋯ 𝑎

2𝑘−1 𝑏2 𝑎2𝑘+1 … 𝑎2𝑛

𝑨𝑘 = ⋮ ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮

𝑎𝑛1 𝑎𝑛2 ⋯ 𝑎𝑛𝑘−1 𝑏𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑘+1 … 𝑎𝑛𝑛

Cramer’s Rule

x1 , x2 , xn

det A det A det A

where 𝐴𝑘 , 𝑘 = 1,2, … , 𝑛 is given by the special matrix

previously defined

The Eigenvalue Problem

matrices K such that the product vector AK is a constant

multiple of K

• The problem of solving AK K for nonzero vectors K is the

eigenvalue problem for A

• The solution vector K is said to be an eigenvector

corresponding to the eigenvalue

The Eigenvalue Problem

an infinitesimal volume located at (x,y) as shown.

• The same stress tensor transforms to 𝜎′ in a rotated

frame depending on 𝜃.

𝜎𝑥𝑥 𝜎𝑥𝑦 𝜎𝑥𝑥 ′ 𝜎𝑥𝑦 ′

• 𝜎= 𝜎 𝜎 and 𝜎′ =

𝑦𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝑦𝑥 ′ 𝜎𝑦𝑦 ′

• If the coordinate system is rotated (along the

principal directions), only normal stresses exist and

shear stresses are zero.

• These principal stresses and principal directions (x’

and y’) can be respectively found by finding

eigenvalues and eigenvectors of 𝜎.

The Eigenvalue Problem

• det A I 0 is the characteristic equation of A

• To find an eigenvector corresponding to an eigenvalue, we

solve the system of equations A I K 0 by applying

Gauss–Jordan elimination to A I 0

The Eigenvalue Problem

• If is an eigenvalue of nonsingular matrix A with eigenvector

K, the 1/ is an eigenvalue of A–1 with the same K

• The eigenvalues of an upper triangular, lower triangular, and

diagonal matrix are the main diagonal entries

The Eigenvalue Problem

Find the eigen value and eigen vector of the given matrix

Soln:

The Eigenvalue Problem

Find the eigen value and eigen vector of the given matrix

Soln:

The Eigenvalue Problem

BITS Pilani

Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad

Vector Calculus

Vector Functions

parameter t

r t f t , g t , h t f t i g t j h t k

curve C

Vector Functions

t a t a t a t a

1

r t lim r t t r t

t 0 t

r t f t , g t , h t

If the components are integrable,

r t f t dt i g t dt j h t dt k

26 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Vector Functions

function,

dr dr ds

r s u t

dt ds dt

Vector Functions

Given that 𝑟 𝑡 = 𝑖Ƹ + (𝑡 − 2)5 𝑗Ƹ + 𝑡ln𝑡𝑘,

𝑡 + 𝑡→0

Soln:

Vector Functions

Soln:

Soln:

Vector Functions

are differentiable.

Soln:

Motion on a Curve

position r t f t i g t j h t k

velocity v t r t f t i g t j h t k

acceleration a t r t f t i g t j h t k

position r t r0 cos ti r0 sin tj

centripetal acceleration a t r t 2r

For projectiles,

1 2

x t v0 cos t y t gt v0 sin t s0

2

31 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Motion on a Curve

vector of a moving particle. At what points does the particle pass

through the XY-plane? What are its velocity and acceleration at

these points?

Soln:

Motion on a Curve

A shell is fired from ground level with an initial speed of 480 ft/s

at an angle of elevation of 30o. Find:

(a) a vector function and parametric equations of the shell’s

trajectory,

(b) the maximum altitude attained,

(c) the range of the shell, and

(d) the speed at impact

Soln:

Motion on a Curve

Partial Derivatives

dz f x x, y f x, y

lim

dx x0 x

and with respect to y is

dz f x, y y f x, y

lim

dy x0 y

Partial Derivatives

Soln:

Soln:

Partial Derivatives

Soln:

Scalar field

point P in the domain of

definition, then it defines a

scalar field.

Source: https://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/ceres-average-temperature-0-degrees.png

Directional Derivative

f f

Gradient of a function is f x, y i j

x y

Consider h x y 0

2 2

Directional Derivative

Directional Derivative

Soln:

Soln:

Directional Derivative

point in the indicated direction.

Soln:

Tangent Plane and Normal Lines

x x0 y y0 z z0

Fx x0 , y0 , z0 Fy x0 , y0 , z0 Fz x0 , y0 , z0

Tangent Plane and Normal Lines

parallel to the indicated vector.

Soln:

Tangent Plane and Normal Lines

equation at the indicated point.

Soln:

Vector field

[𝑣1 𝑃 , 𝑣2 𝑃 , 𝑣3 𝑃 ], at every point P in the domain of definition,

then this vector function defines a vector field.

Divergence of a Vector field

cartesian coordinates, then divergence of the vector function v, is

defined by,

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

div 𝐯 = 𝛁. 𝒗 = 𝒊+ 𝒋 + 𝒌 . (𝑣1 𝐢 + 𝑣2 𝒋 + 𝑣3 𝒌)

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝜕𝑣1 𝜕𝑣2 𝜕𝑣3

= + +

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

Ex: If

velocity field, then 𝛻. 𝑣 = 0 means the flow is incompressible.

Curl of a Vector field

of cartesian coordinates, then curl of the vector function v, is

defined by,

𝒊 𝒋 𝒌

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝒗 = 𝛁 × 𝒗 =

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

𝑣1 𝑣2 𝑣3

𝜕𝑣3 𝜕𝑣2 𝜕𝑣1 𝜕𝑣3 𝜕𝑣2 𝜕𝑣1

= − 𝒊+ − 𝒋+ − 𝒌

𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦

Curl & Divergence of a Vector field

Find the curl and the divergence of the given vector field

Soln:

Soln:

Curl & Divergence of a Vector field

Soln:

Curl of a Vector field

Ex: If

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