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CRACK BAND MODEL

 Proposed by Bazant & Oh (1983)

 Fracture process zone is modeled by a band of uniformly and


continuously distributed microcracks with a fixed width, hc.

 Stable crack propagation is then simulated by progressively


microcracking within this band, which is described by a simple
stress-strain relationship.

 Crack opening displacement is equal to product of fracture strain


and width of the crack band.
σ

y
hc
Et
E
aa00 da

Stress-strain curve for microcrack band


σ

(e). Quasi-Brittle Material


with Damage Zone
c

CRACK BAND MODEL G f     dw


0

1 ft  1 ft 
• Energy consumed due to crack  G f  hc  f t    hc  f t  
2 E 2 Et 
advance per unit area of crack
 1 ft 2 1 ft 2 
band, Gf is the product of area  hc   
under stress-strain curve and the  2 E 2 E t 

width of crack band, hc.  ft 2  E 


 hc  1   
 2 E  Et  
E = Modulus of Elasticity , positive
 E  ft 2
Et = Strain – Softening modulus, positive Gf   hc 1              (1)
ft = Tensile strength of material  Et  2 E

•In CBM, three material parameters, hc, ft and Et are required in


addition to E.
•Thickness of the band, hc = nada
na = 3 for concrete
= 5 for rock
da = Maximum size of aggregate
Crack Band Model
Application of CBM to concrete
• A plate of width 2b with a central crack of
σ
length 2a is considered, under uniaxial
tension. The ends of the plate are fixed.
• The strain energy density in the plate 6

before loading is 4 1
hc
3 2

 NC
2
;  NC  Fracture stress of the plate 5
2E 2b

• Formation of crack band causes relief of


strain energy and stress in some areas σ
surrounding the crack band. (e). Crack Band Model for tensile plate with center crack

• Energy relief area is 125346 and the slopes


of lines 16, 64, 35 and 52 are assumed to
equal unity.
CRACK BAND MODEL
• Total energy release due to formation of crack band is
 2
na d a a NC
2
U a 2

NC
         (2)
E E

• Work done by applied load at the boundaries is zero.

• Energy release rate in the plate due to formation of a unit length of crack
band, Gf, is equal to U
a

U 2a  NC
2
na d a  NC
2
Gf           (3)
a E E
CRACK BAND MODEL
• From eqn (1) and (3)

 E  ft 2  NC
2
na d a  NC
2
hc 1    2a 
 Et  2 E E E
 E  ft 2
hc 1    2 a  na d a   NC
2

 Et  2
B 2 ft 2 B 2 ft 2 B 2 ft 2
 
2
 
 2 a  na d a   2a   
NC

 n d   
na d a   
1
   b
a a 1  
  a a 
n d b
  
 2 a 
n d b
 b0  a a
2 a
B ft
 NC           ( 4)
b
1
b0
CRACK BAND MODEL
• When da is constant, b0 = constant for a series of geometrically
similar structures that have a constant (b/a) value.

• Expression for failure stress Nc is function of size of structures,


which indicates that the failure stress decreases with increase in
the size of structure.

• Crack length “a” should be proportional to the plate width, b.

1 E
B 1  
2 Et 