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Phonetics

What is Phonetics?
COMPONENTS OF PHONETICS
DEFINITION • Identifying the place of
articulation in the vocal
• The study of how tract, mouth and nose.
speech sounds • Identifying the manner of
are made, and articulation, including how
air is channeled and/or
which sounds are
stopped during speech
used in a given sounds.
language. • Identifying which speech
sounds are used in any given
language, and which are not.
Speech Sounds

How are they made?

How are they classified?


Types of Speech Sounds

Consonants Consonants are formed by the


slowing or stopping air somewhere
in the vocal tract

Vowels Vowels are formed by changes


in the shape of the vocal tract as
air passes unimpeded
The Phonetics of Consonants
Place of articulation
means where the vocal tract is
shut off or narrowed
Manner of Articulation
means how the vocal tract is shut off
or narrowed
Voicing
means whether air is forced through the
larynx or not
The Anatomy of the
Vocal Tract Your
homework
is to go
online and
find out
what the
following
articulatory
places are
and where
they are
located:
Glottis
Uvula
Consonant Place of
Articulation 1: Bilabials

Bilabials are accomplished by narrowing


the vocal tract using both lips

pin map boy


Consonant Place of
Articulation 2: Labiodentals

Labiodentals are accomplished by narrowing


the vocal tract using both the lips and the teeth

fan van
Consonant Place of
Articulation 3:
Apicodental (Interdentals)
Apicodentals, also called interdentals are
accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract
using the tip (apex) of the tongue between the
teeth to narrow the vocal tract

there thing
Consonant Place of
Articulation 4:
Apicoalveolar (Alveolar)
Apicoalveolar, also called alveolars are
accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract
using the tip (apex) of the tongue against the
alveolar ridge behind the teeth

dip tip
Consonant Place of
Articulation 5:
Alveolarpalatal
Alveolarpalatal are accomplished by
narrowing the vocal tract using the tip (apex)
of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge at the
front edge of the palate

shout judge child


Consonant Place of
Articulation 6: Velums

Velums are accomplished by completely


closing the vocal tract at the velum

get cat
Manner of Articulation

means how the shutting off or


narrowing of the vocal tract is
done
Consonant Manner of
Articulation 1: Stops

Stops are accomplished by completely


obstructing the airstream

pick get dig


Consonant Manner of
Articulation 2: Fricatives

Fricatives are accomplished by almost


completely obstructing the airstream
causing friction

fish kiss shell


Consonant Manner of
Articulation 3: Affricatives

Affricatives are accomplished by stopping


the air flow and then releasing air to cause
friction

child gym judge


Consonant Manner of
Articulation 4: Nasals

Nasals are accomplished by closing the vocal


tract at the velum and forcing air through
the nasal passages

nickel man ring


Consonant Manner of
Articulation 5: Liquids

Liquids are accomplished by restricting but


not closing off air flow

leave ring
Consonant Manner of
Articulation 6: Glides

Glides are accomplished by restricting but


not closing off air flow followed by a slight
opening of the vocal tract

yet wash whistle


Consonant Manner of
Articulation 7: Taps

Taps are accomplished by quickly tapping


the tongue against another part of the vocal
tract and is frequently found in the middle
of a word

letter ladder
Consonant Manner of
Articulation 8: Trills

Trills are accomplished by forcing the


tongue, uvula or lips to vibrate

In Spanish perro barrio


Two Types of Voicing
Voiced sounds are made by narrowing
the vocal cords and forcing air
between them
got bit
Unvoiced sounds are made by opening the
vocal cords and allowing air to
flow past them
caught pit
Classification of Vowels
Four Criteria for Classifying Vowels:
Tongue Height
Tongue Location (toward back or front)
Mouth & Lip Tension
Lip Rounding Vs stretching
Tongue Height
Three Positions:
High: bit straight pool cook
Mid Mouth: get wait spot rope
Low: bat got
Tongue Location
Three Positions:
Back: pool cook rope got
Center: but around
Front: hit heat pet wait bat
Mouth &Lip Tension
Two States:
Tense Relaxed
heat hit
soon soot
wait wet
Lip Rounding
Two States:
Rounded Not Rounded
pool hit
look heat
wrote pat
caught pet
wait