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Sewer Systems,

Appurtenances, Construction
and Maintenance
(Design Process)
Sewer System

 Comprises a network of pipelines and technical installations

 The system collects and transport waste and storm water from more
than one source to a wastewater treatment plant or the receiving plant
or the receiving waters
 The system can be either a combined or separate sewer system
Sewer Appurtenances

 Those structure of the sewerage system which are constructed at

suitable interval and other locations along a sewer line, to assist in
efficient operation and maintenance of the system.
Following are important sewer

 Inlets – an inlet is a device meant to admit the storm water/surface runoff and convey
it into storm sewer
 Catch basins – special type of inlet in which basin is provided which allows grit, sand
and debris flowing in with storm water, settle out
 Clean outs – meant for clearing out the lateral sewers
 Manholes – chamber constructed on the alignment of a sewer for providing access to
the sewer for the purposes of inspection, testing, cleaning and removal of obstruction
from the sewer line
 Flushing tanks – devices or arrangements which holds water and then throws it into
the sewer for the purpose of flushing it
 Grease and oil traps – chambers on the sewers to exclude grease and oil from sewage
before they enter the sewer line
Sewer System Design Process

 The design of a sewer system includes both hydraulic and structural

considerations as well as economic ones.
 The design process includes the initial survey and scoping, the
preliminary design, and the detailed design, all of which are tempered
by cost considerations
Survey and scoping

 An assessment of the area to be served must be made initially by

studying maps of the area, determining the population to be served,
and making some estimates of the flows that will drain into the
proposed system
Preliminary Design

 Typically a 1/2500 scale contour map is required to carry out the

preliminary design, which entails determining an initial proposed layout
of the sewer network
 In the past, the maximum distance between access chambers on
straight line sewers was take to be approximately 100 meters, but more
recently the allowable distance between chambers has been increased
and may be up to 300 meters, depending on the diameter of the sewer
The next step in the design is to draw a longitudinal section, or
profile of the ground surface along the proposed route of the sewer
Hydraulic Design

 Once the preliminary layout and longitudinal section of the sewer

network has been decided, the diameter of each pipe must be
calculated and the gradient checked
 The diameter and gradient of a sewer must be chosen to meet two
basic criteria. First, the pipe must be able to accommodate the
calculated peak flow rate, and second, the velocity of flow must be
sufficiently high to keep the sewer clean and free of grit and other
solids that could settle in the invert of the pipe
Structural Design

 A sewer, like any other pipeline, is a complex structure whose structural

integrity relies on the properties of the pipeline material, the diameter
and wall thickness of the pipe, and the vertical and horizontal support
provided by the surrounding soil and other supporting structures
The forces acting on a cross section
of pipeline arise from three main
 Weight of overlying fill, including any local surcharge
 Soil pressures transmitted to the pipe from surface loads, i.e. traffic and
other transient loads
 Supporting reaction below the pipe