You are on page 1of 16

CIE5005

Ground & Water Studies-2


CIE4009 Review
BASIC RULES OF STATIC FLUID

 At any one level below the surface of a liquid,


the pressure is the same at any point on one
level.
 No variation in pressure with
direction

Total or Absolute Pressure at X  gh  Patm


Gauge Pressure at X  gh
CONTINUITY EQUATION
 For continuity, the flow rate entering section 1 must
equal the flow rate leaving section 2.
 Q : The rate of flow (m3/s)
 Q=AV, for a pipe having cross sectional area A and
average velocity of fluid V
Q1  Q2  Q
Q1  A1V1 & Q2  A2V2
Bernoulli equation
The Energy (Bernoulli) Equation

 In a steady , ideal flow of an incompressible fluid,


the total energy at any point of the fluid is a
constant.
p v2
  z  cons tan t
g 2 g
 Considering flow between 2 points labelled 1 and 2,

H1  H 2  (H f  H L )
 Units of Q, Density, specific wt, Dynamic viscosity
 Area of a pipe of dia 250 mm
Water Distribution Systems
PIPE FLOW THEORY
Laminar & Turbulent flow in pipes
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
 Reynolds
apparatus
Turbulent Flow – faster flow, involving mixing of fluid
particles
Laminar Flow – slow
which have fluctuations
flow, – fluid
in velocity and
parallel streamlines
direction.toHowever,
considered be moving thein ‘average’
layers or motion
laminaeremains
– also
parallel
called to the
viscous axis of pipe and appears steady to
flow.
the naked eye.

Transition at Re of 2000
VD
Re 

Inertia Force
Re 
Viscous Force
 ρ = density of fluid
 v = velocity of fluid
 μ= dynamic viscosity of fluid

 At low v and low R: viscous forces predominate –


laminar flow
 At high v and high R: inertia forces predominate –
turbulent flow
 laminar flow, when Re <2000
 Transitional flow, when 2000 <Re < 4000
 Turbulent flow, when Re > 4000
 Oil flows through a 75mm diameter
horizontal pipeline, which is 150 m long, at
an average flowrate Q of 75 litres/min. The
coefficient of dynamic viscosity for the oil
is 0.015 kg/ms and the density of the oil r
is 850 kg/m3. Taking into account only
frictional losses determine:
 The flow type.