Learning Outcomes: Group Behavior



Describe the types of groups. Outline the reasons people join groups. Describe the five states of group development. Explain the punctuated equilibrium model. Discuss the three types of teams. Review the issues critical to team organization and success. Explain groupthink, groupshift, and escalation of commitment.
Copyright 2006 Vandeveer, Menefee, Sinclair 1

Chapter 8

Menefee. Sinclair 2 . Chapter 8 Copyright 2006 Vandeveer.Group Defined  A group is a collection of two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationships who share common goals and who perceive themselves as being a group.

Types of Groups Formal Groups Command Groups Task Groups Chapter 8 Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Menefee. Sinclair 3 .

.e. i. the engineering group.. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Task groups Focus is on completing a task. Menefee.Types of Groups  Formal groups are defined by the organizational structure:  Command groups Groups defined by the organizational chart.e. i. quality circles. Sinclair 4  Chapter 8 .

Sinclair 5 . Menefee.Types of Groups Informal Groups Interest Groups Friendship Groups Chapter 8 Copyright 2006 Vandeveer.

Friendship groups The focus is on people bonding together and sharing common characteristics. Sinclair 6  Chapter 8 . Menefee.Types of Groups  Informal groups are groups that form to respond to common interests or social interaction:  Interest groups People working together for a common interest. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer.

Menefee.Why do People Join Groups? Security  Status  Self-esteem  Power  Goal achievement  Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Sinclair Chapter 8 7 .

Status Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. Sinclair     Chapter 8 8 . and are more resistant in threats when they are part of a group. have fewer self-doubts. People feel stronger. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership.Why Do People Join Groups?  Security By joining a group. Self-esteem Groups can fulfill social needs. the on-the-job interactions are their primary source of fulfilling their needs for affiliation. For many. individuals can reduce the insecurity of standing along. Power There is strength in numbers. Goal achievement There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task there is a need to pool talents. knowledge. or power in order to complete a job. Menefee. What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer.

confusion. hostility.Group Development   Forming Storming Norming caution. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. tension. Adjourning getting closure. and intragroup conflict.focusing on the accomplishment of the task. group norms and developing of close relationships. Menefee. uncertainty. Sinclair 9  Chapter 8 .   Performing .

Sinclair Neutral Synergy Positive 10 .The Five Stage Model: Team Cooperation and Synergy High Performing Norming Team Cooperation Storming Adjourning Forming Low Negative Chapter 8 Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Menefee.

Menefee.Types of Teams  Problem-solving teams Quality Circles (10-12 members) Cross-functional work teams Self-managed or self-directed work teams (10-15 members) Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Sinclair   Chapter 8 11 .

Sinclair Chapter 8 12 . Menefee.Three Types of Teams ProblemSolving SelfManaged CrossFunctional Copyright 2006 Vandeveer.

The difference between a work group and a work team is the ability to create positive synergy. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Sinclair 13  Chapter 8 . Menefee.Team Cooperation and Synergy  A team is a group whose members have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or set of performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

The Punctuated Equilibrium Model High Completion First Meeting Phase 1 Time = A/2 Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Sinclair Phase 2 Transition A Low Time = 0 Chapter 8 14 . Menefee.

Other Team Issues . . .      Size Team skills Authority Geography Goals      Timing Leadership Reward systems Group decisions Trust Chapter 8 Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Menefee. Sinclair 15 .

Sinclair 16   Chapter 8 . Escalation of commitment . Menefee.Other Team Issues . Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. .  Groupshift groups shifts to become more conservative or more risky due to lack of individual responsibility. .occurs when group conformity overrides reality. Groupthink .is staying with a course of action beyond where it is reasonable.

Summary    Groups will vary in size depending on their function. Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. problemsolving and decision-making skills and strong interpersonal skills. Menefee. People know and are matched to their jobs and skills. Sinclair 17 Chapter 8 . Successful groups must contain members with technical skills.

Members are accountable to each other. Members know what has to be done (goals) and achieve this focus. Members have high mutual trust.Summary     Teams members must be committed to the team. Menefee. Sinclair 18 Chapter 8 . Copyright 2006 Vandeveer.

Sinclair 19 .Looking Ahead  Read Chapter 9 Leadership  Work the self-assessments  Have a great day!!! Chapter 8 Copyright 2006 Vandeveer. Menefee.

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